Open Access Original Research Article

Age and Gender Trends in Prescribing and Utilization of Lipid-Lowering Drugs at a Public Hospital in Alkharj City

Nehad J. Ahmed, Menshawy A. Menshawy, Ziyad S. Almalki, Mohammed A. Alhajri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730848

Aim: Lipid-lowering drugs are used to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and as a result, they are used in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to observe the prescribing trend of lipid-lowering drugs and to describe the gender and age-related differences in the outpatient setting of a public hospital in Alkharj city.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional observational study that was conducted in outpatient setting of a public hospital in Alkharj city and included the review of electronic outpatient prescriptions. The data was collected and analyzed using Excel software; the descriptive data were represented by percentages and numbers. 

Results: The most prescribed lipid-lowering drug in the present study was atorvastatin (62.36%) followed by simvastatin (29.34%). The study found that there are several differences in lipid lowering medications use patterns among different gender and age groups. Therefore, frequent reviews of lipid-lowering drugs use and prescribing pattern are important to optimize patients’ treatment.

Conclusion: It is important in the future to make stratified guidelines based on patient characteristics such as age and gender.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Incidences with Causes, Mortality and Morbidity in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Kanwal Baloch, Delijan Mugheri, Abdul Majeed Soomro, Wasim Sarwar Bhatti, Muhammad Khan, Shafi Muhammad Wassan, Shumaila Usman, Uzair Nisar, Waseem Abbas Malhani, Nadeem Baloch, Altaf Ali Mangi, Saika Lashari, Rashid Ali Arbani, Sultan Othman Alolyan, Shumaila Parveen Arain, Sultan M Alshahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730849

Background: The objective of this study conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital Larkana was to check the prevalence of respiratory distress in neonates and their morbidity and mortality associated with respiratory distress.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of neonates with the respiratory distress syndrome during the period of one year was evaluated. The prevalence, risk factors related with respiratory distress syndrome were compared on the basis of neonatal and maternal factors.

Results: The Majority of respiratory distress in our study, were due to Transient Tachypnea of newborn (TTN) 29.8%, RDS 22.1%, birth asphyxia 17%, and Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) 15.7%.  Overall outcome of Neonatal Respiratory Distress was cure rate in 65.4%, Neonatal mortality rate 26.84% with highest mortality due to RDS and Sepsis and the morbidity rate is 7.7%. Conclusion: The TTN was the most common cause of respiratory distress in neonates. Mortality rate was 26.84% and was highest among the neonates with respiratory distress syndrome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on Use of Steroid Drugs among Football Players

A. S. Kirthick Kumaran, Dhanraj Ganapathy, L. Keerthi Sasanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730850

Steroids are man-made chemicals that resemble hormones that are naturally made in the human body. The main role of steroids in sports is to enhance performance and reduce inflammation.  The aim of the present study is to assess the awareness of the use of steroid drugs among football players and the ill effects of steroid drug intake. A Cross-sectional study was done on 100 football players and veterans registered with the State Football Association. A pretested structured questionnaire assessing the awareness on the use of steroid drugs was the survey instrument. Both male and female football players and veterans within the age group 18-50 years were selected after obtaining informed consent. The sampling method used was a simple random sampling method. The questionnaire comprised of 10 open-ended questions and were administered through Google forms. 76% of the participants responded that they use steroid drugs at least once and 24% responded that they never used steroid drugs. According to the above survey, we conclude that there is a high rate of usage of steroid drugs among football players.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sero-conversion after Second Measles' Containing Vaccine in a Selected Sample of Young Children

Yahya G. Karwi, Reem G. Hussein, Salwa Sh. Abdul- Wahid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730851

Background: This study aims to detect sero-prevalence of measles Immunoglobulin-G, antibodies, (IgG Abs) before versus after second measles containing vaccine (MCV2) among young children.

Methodology: This cross–sectional study was conducted in a selected primary health care centers (PHCcs), in Iraq. The study sample comprised 112 children, (66 males, & 46 females), aged   13 - < 24 months, selected at a random during their attendance for routine vaccination. The study sample subjected for estimation of measles IgG Abs titer before, and, (4-12) weeks after Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) vaccination.

Results: Seroprevalence for specific measles IgG- Abs before MMR vaccine (41.8%) was found among those infants, when sero-conversion rate estimated after MMR vaccination it was (92 .4%). The result reveals that seroconversion rate among children who had received MCV1 vaccine before was (96.8%), while it was 84.0% for those children did not have MCV1 vaccine before.

Conclusions: This study concluded that the two-dose schedule seems to increase the seropositivity rate, and recommended application of solid vaccination program with two doses of an effective & efficient measles vaccine, before the second year of age.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Surgical Site Infection Rate after Caesarean Delivery in a Military Hospital in Alkharj

Nehad Ahmed, Emad Elazab, Ziyad S. Almalki, Mohammed A. Alhajri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730852

Introduction: A cesarean section is a life-saving surgery when some complications arise during pregnancy or the process of childbirth. The development of post-caesarean delivery surgical site infections is one of the significant cause of prolonged hospitalization, greater mortality than before, increased morbidity, and increased hospital readmission

Aim: This study aims to explore the rate of caesarian section surgical site infection in the military hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This retrospective study includes collecting data from the infection control unit in a military hospital in Alkharj in 2019.

Results: The total number of caesarian surgeries in 2019 was 756 surgeries. The surgical site infections percentage in 2019 was 1.19%. The percentage of caesarian section surgical site infections was 0% in several moths such as in January, April, June, Sept, and December. The highest percentage was in May and July (2.5%).

Conclusion: The surgical site infections incidence in the present study was low (about 1.2 %) but because the percentage is usually underestimated and because the rate of delivery by caesarean section is increasing continuously, monitoring of women for several weeks after caesarian surgeries are necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Toxicity of Selenium Nanoparticle Varnish Using HepG2 Cell Lines: In vitro Study

M. Indumathy, S. S. Raj, I. Meignana Arumugham, R. Pradeep Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730853

Selenium, an essential trace element, plays an important role in mammalian biology. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have gained significant importance because of its bioavailability, least toxicity, its interaction with proteins and its biocompatibility. The objective of the present study is to assess the cytotoxicity of SeNPs by testing on HepG2 cell line. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on HepG2 cell line was studied by MTT assay. Cytotoxicity was determined using Graph pad prim5 software. The SeNPs showed cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell line with 77%, 63% and 33.7% of cell viability at 2μg/ ml, 4μg/ml and 30μg/ml concentration respectively. Biogenic SeNPs exhibited cytotoxic activity against the HepG2 cell line and hence warrants further research regarding its biosafety and potential oral antimicrobial agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Derivatization and Spectrophotometric Quantification of Pamidronate in Bulk and Dosage Forms

Sherif A. Abdel- Gawad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730854

Aims: To quantify pamidronate in a sensitive and accurate way either in bulk or dosage forms.

Methodology: The quantification of this group of drugs is a challenging task as they lack the presence of chromophore groups in their structure. The proposed method depends on the derivatization of the studied drug by its reaction with 4-Chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxazole and the product is measured spectrophotometrically at 470 nm. The conditions for the reaction are optimized regarding the volume of the reagent, the optimum pH for the reaction completion, the buffer volume, the optimum temperature for the reaction and the optimum heating time.

Results: The studied drug can be determined in the range of 9-30 µg/mL after optimizing the reaction conditions. Method validation is performed according to ICH guidelines and different validation parameters like, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness are calculated and found to be excellent.

Conclusion: The proposed method is accurate, sensitive and can be applied for the routine analysis of pamidronate in quality control laboratories.

Open Access Original Research Article

Research on the Multisectoral Impact of Infectious Diseases on the Economy

Rustam Anzorovich Shortanov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730855

The purpose of the work is to consider the features of the multidimensional impact of the consequences of the spread of infectious diseases on the economic development of countries. The author concludes that the process of public health exposure to regional or global new and endemic infectious diseases may have broader socio-economic consequences that are often not taken into account when assessing risk or impact. With the spread of international travel and trade, such events can cause economic shocks that go far beyond the traditional health sectors and the original geographical range of the pathogen.

Intensive economic specialization and a broader division of labor, accompanied by expanding markets and increasing economic globalization, increase the risk of people coming into contact with sources that contribute to highly contagious diseases such as influenza and COVID-19. The adverse economic consequences of new forms or types of these diseases can be serious, taking into account the high degree of interdependence of economic activities in the modern economy. For example, the absence of workers from work due to such infections or the risks of these infections can disrupt production at the workplace level. Also, supply chains can be disrupted or disrupted by these pandemics, and in addition, they usually have a negative impact on aggregate demand for goods. This is evidenced by the COVID-19 outbreak, which led to a serious global economic depression. The occurrence and consequences of epidemics and pandemics depend on the nature and stages of economic development. The economic and social structure of modern society contributes to the transmission of diseases that depend on human contact or presence, especially those that are caused by airborne microbes or persist on commonly used surfaces.

The study concluded that public and private stakeholders at the local, national and international levels should work together to address the economic consequences of infectious diseases, to provide informed systems and risk and impact analysis, and to promote cost-sharing strategies for prevention and preparedness where possible, and to evaluate optimal intervention strategies when necessary. Developments related to infectious diseases in today's globalized world require increased responsibility for preserving people's health and economic security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Antibacterial Property of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Glass Ionomer Cement Mixture

Ankita Komal Labh, Anjaneyulu K., Muralidharan N. P.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730856

Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is an experimental material used for the capping of pulps as well as a root end filling material. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is a widely used dental restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function. The aim of this study is to assess the antibacterial property of MTA when mixed with GIC. The study comprised four groups with 5 samples each: Group A (MTA), group B (GIC), groups C (MTA+GIC+MTA Liquid) and group D (MTA+GIC+GIC Liquid). All samples were tested against Enterococcus faecalis using Agar well diffusion method in Tryptone soya agar. The One-way ANOVA test was employed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for MacOS (Version 19, 2010) with the level of significance set at P<0.05. The average zone of inhibition of group A was 18.6 ± 1.714 mm, group B was 0.4 ± 0.548 mm, group C was 18.6 ± 2.608 mm and group D was 12.8 ± 2.168 mm. Data was statistically significant, F(3,16)=11.631, P<0.001. The antibacterial activity of MTA and MTA when mixed with GIC and MTA liquid is similar but better than other study groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

Abdullah Hassan Alhalafi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730857

Today, every continent in the world is affected by the novel coronavirus2019 (COVID-19). Saudi Arabia has also suffered from this highly contagious, socially disruptive, infectious disease. Our aim was to assess the anxiety and depression prevalence and identify the associated risk factors among the general population of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, during COVID-19 outbreak. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a web-based survey. A total of 651 participants were recruited who were ≥18 years old and lived in Riyadh city during the COVID-19 pandemic. We collected sociodemographic information of the participants and assessed their COVID-19-related knowledge assessment. We used the Arabic versions of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire and the Patient Health Questionnaire to assess the status of an individual’s anxiety and depression, respectively. We observed 28.7% and 25.5% prevalence of depression and anxiety among the general population, respectively. Females, younger people (age < 35 years), and unmarried persons showed a significantly higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. Binary logistic regression analysis also revealed that female gender, age younger than 35 years, having history of psychiatric diseases, and spending more than one hour per day on following COVID-19 news were associated with anxiety and depression. Retired participants were less likely to suffer from anxiety or depression during the pandemic. In this study, females, younger people (age < 35 years), and individuals with history of psychiatric patients were identified as vulnerable groups who need support during this crisis. We also recommend that the general public must limit their time of watching and following COVID-19-related news.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of Acyclovir Prescribing Patterns in a Public Hospital in AlKharj

Nehad Ahmed, Ziyad S. Almalki, Mohammed Alhajri, Abdulrahman Alharbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730858

Aim: This study aimed to analyze acyclovir prescription patterns in a public hospital in AlKharj.

Methodology: Cross-sectional study, via hospital pharmacy services that included collecting data on acyclovir utilization from de-identified pharmacy records in maternity and children hospital in Alkharj from 1 Jan 2018 until 31 Aug 2020.

Results: A total of 1059 prescriptions contained acyclovir were dispensed between 1 Jan 2018 till 31 Aug 2020. In the present study, acyclovir was prescribed mainly as an intravenous (45.89%) or oral (34.09%) treatment. It is prescribed mainly as a vial (45.89%) followed by suspension (31.63%). Inpatient Ward prescribed 52.60% of the prescriptions and emergency department prescribed 25.87% of the prescriptions.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that acyclovir was prescribed commonly in the hospital and that it’s using should be monitored to ensure that it is prescribed and dispensed appropriately.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude of Healthcare Students towards Japanese Encephalitis

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730859

Objective: To assess the attitude of healthcare students regarding Japanese Encephalitis (JE) in a medical university.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sampling method. A self-developed and pre-validated tool was used to collect data from students studying in three healthcare faculties of a university in Malaysia. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 24.0 was used to analyze the data. The level of significance was alpha of 5% (0.05).

Results: Of the total of 252 studied student, more female students 177 (70.2%) participated in the present study than the male students 75 (29.8%).. The majority of the final years’ students had a positive attitude than the pre-final year students, with female students of the university had a more positive attitude (77.4%) as compared to the male students (69.3%) when the question was asked about the personal role in the management of JE is essential

Conclusion: Overall positive attitude was observed among the studied healthcare students.  The present study concluded that pharmacy students had a more positive attitude than the two other faculties students i.e. dentistry and medicine regarding JE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Deciphering the Genetic Alterations in SPARC Gene Family and Its Association with HNSCC

S. Vidyashri, A. S. Smiline Girija, A. Paramasivam, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730861

The aim of this study is to identify the genetic alteration in SPARC gene family and its association with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Head and neck cancer is a set of cancerous lesions arising from the squamous cell of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, nose throat, larynx and pharynx. SPARC gene encodes for cysteine rich acid matrix metalloprotein, osteonectin whose expression in metastatic OSCC (Oral squamous cell carcinoma) was found to be higher. This expression pattern also correlated with the worst pattern of invasion and differentiation of OSCC tumors. In line with the above facts, the present study was carried out to ascertain the gene alterations and their consequences. Also the putative association of gene alterations with HNSCC was analyzed using computational tools. The Cancer Gene Atlas (TCGA, Firehose Legacy) dataset hosted by the cBioportal server was used in the present study. The non-synonymous variants identified were further assessed for protein stability and pathogenicity employing IMutant and PROVEAN tools. Gene amplification was observed in the FSTL1 gene, which was also shown to present with the highest frequency of gene alterations (5%) among eight genes. Furthermore, the expression of the FSTL1 gene was found to differ significantly among different grades of HNSCC. In conclusion, the study throws light on the possible association of the FSTL1 gene of the SPARC family with HNSCC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Good Oral Practices among Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730862

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the good oral practices (GOP) among university students.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sampling method. A self-developed and pre-validated tool was used to collect data from students studying at a university in Malaysia. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 24.0 was used to analyze the data.

Results: A total of 324 respondents had participated in the study. The respondents were from four different faculties; pharmacy 118 (36.4%), medicine 81 (25.0%), business 67 (20.6%), and biotechnology 58 (18.0%).

Conclusion: The final year students had more good practices towards good oral practices. The unmarried students also had more good practices towards oral health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Hygiene Practices among People in Salem District

S. Obuli Ganesh Kishore, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Keerthi Sasanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 106-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2730863

Oral hygiene is an important aspect of dental health and is considered to be an essential field as it involves both the oral and general health of the individual. Maintaining proper oral hygiene is essential and requires knowledge that should be imposed on people by a well-trained health educator. Oral health is not only implied by proper brushing, but also through frequent and regular visits to the dentist which helps in early detection and diagnosis of both oral and general diseases. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge about oral hygiene and to determine the need to spread awareness on the same. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 9 questions was circulated and the results were interpreted. The present study inferred that most of the people were aware of maintaining proper oral hygiene but however felt that there was a lack of established dental clinics around the urban areas. Further, there was a need to instill the importance of regular dental check-ups and spread awareness on the ill- effects of improper oral hygiene. The study concluded that there was a need to enhance the knowledge of the population on the importance of good oral hygiene and dental check-ups.