Open Access Original Research Article

Metabolic Changes in Newborns and Women Who Consumed Small Doses of Alcohol in the Prenatal Period

Anait Yuryevna Marianian, Natalya Vladimirovna Protopopova, Lyubov Ilinichna Kolesnikova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430803

Introduction: Ethyl alcohol and its metabolites even in low concentrations negatively affectsan embryo and a fetus.Interest to the role of the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense (LPO-AOD) system has significantly increased in recent years, because this system imbalanceleads to the development of oxidative stress (OS), which is accompanied by body's resistance decreaseto the adverse environmental and internal factors negative influence, which is one of the most important triggers of so-called free radical pathology.

Aim: The aim of research was to determine the concentration and activity of the metabolic system components “lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense” (LPO-AOD) and the glutathione system components in pregnant women who consumed no more than 2 doses of low-strength alcoholic beverages (beer, champagne, wine) during the first half of pregnancy and their newborns.

Methods: The design of the study was prospective and controlled randomized. The study involved 170 pregnant women who were observed in the regional perinatal center of Irkutsk. Two women refused to participate in the study. The main group consisted of 93 women who drank low alcohol beverages (beer, champagne and wine) in the first half of pregnancy (for a period of 7-20 weeks of pregnancy). The control group composed of 75 women who did not drink alcohol throughout their pregnancy. In both groups of women for a period of 30-32 weeks of pregnancy, the parameters of the LPO-AOD and glutathione systems had been determined. Similarly, cord blood had been sampled in 66 control group newborns and 53 newborns whose mothers drank alcohol in the first half of pregnancy (main group). Statistical processing of the research results was performed. Statistical processing of the results obtained had been carried out using the software package STATICTICA 10 Stat Soft Inc, USA (license holder - Scientific Centre for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems) using the T - student and Mann-Whitney test methods.

Results: The study revealed the influence of the use of low alcohol beverages (beer, champagne and wine) in an amount of no more than 2 doses on the state of the LPO-AOD and glutathione systems in the blood serum and red blood cells of pregnant women and their newborns. It was found that even a single intake of low alcohol beverages is accompanied byoxidative stress development in women and their newborns. The state of the glutathione system in pregnant women is characterized by a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity with an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) levels. In newborns, a decrease in GSH is associated with a decrease in the of GR, GST, and glutathione peroxidase (GPO) activity.

Conclusion: Analyzing the data, in distant perspective the negative role of even small doses of low alcohol (beer, champagne and wine) on pregnant women and their newborns metabolism was established.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cascade Variabilities in TB Case Finding among People Living with HIV and the Use of IPT: Assessment in Three Levels of Care in Cross River State, Nigeria

Michael Odo, Kingsley Chinedum Ochei, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Afirima Barinaadaa, Emmanuel Ugobo Eteng, Mabel Ikpeme, Jonah Offor Bassey, Andrew Ogar Paul

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430789

TB is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) as it accelerates the progression of HIV infection. Every PLHIV is at an annual risk of 10% and a lifetime risk of 50% to acquiring TB and TB is responsible for the death of 30-40% PLHIV. We undertook to assess the WHO recommended intensified TB case finding among PLHIVs in three of levels of ART clinics in cross River State, Nigeria. We used quantitative method to review retrospectively collected routine TB and HIV facility data from University of Calabar Teaching hospital, Calabar; Infectious disease Hospital, Calabar and primary Health Centre, Calabar Municipal ART clinics. The study population for intensified case finding and IPT comprised of available records of HIV- positive patients ≥15 years old seen at the selected facilities for clinical care and treatment from January to December 2016 and January to December 2018. A cohort sampling strategy was used to assess the ICF cascade and IPT uptake. Data collection lasted from 15th to 31st November 2019 in the first phase and had extension to February 2020 due to delayed ethical clearance from the University of Calabar Teaching hospital. Quantitative data was analysed using Stata 13.0 to produce descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Of the 326 PLHIVs (115 females) in the records, 311 had their TB screening recorded (95%). 155(50%) were screen positive while 326(210%) were evaluated for TB in the lab, out of which 182 (56%) were TB confirmed. PLHIVs ages 25-29 years were most affected, with more persons being evaluated for TB before the `test and treat` policy. Of the 207 PLHIVs started on IPT, 103 (99%) started before `test and treat` compared to 102(91%) after policy. IPT uptake was highest among ages 25-29 years. This evaluation shows that intensified case finding among PLHIV is feasible and has a high prospect for TB case finding among PLHIVs. However, critical gaps exist- poor documentation and linkages on the clinical and diagnostic arm of the cascade makes it impossible to estimate yield in a cohort and present the situation of weak clinical interphase with people seeking care.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Significance of Tetrogenic Effect of Alcohol on the Fetus within the Educational Programs of Physicians and Its Practical Application

Anait Yuryevna Marianian, Natalya Vladimirovna Protopopova, Lyubov Ilinichna Kolesnikova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430804

Background: The importance of the problem of drinking alcohol and further, negative consequences in the prenatal period and before planning the pregnancy is not understood sufficiently by the women as well as by the doctors. The goal of our research was to determine Russian specialists’ current awareness p regarding the problem of teratogenic effects of alcohol on the fetus and to illustrate the importance of introducing this knowledge into their educational process to the specialist.

Materials and Methods: To achieve this goal, an anonymous survey was conducted with 146 obstetrician-gynecologists (OG), 70 neonatologists (N), 56 pediatric psychiatrists (PP), 53 pediatricians (P), 46 pediatric neurologists (based at medical and prophylactic institutions in Eastern Siberia Irkutsk in Russia. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions (htt://

Results: The result of the study showed that most doctors were not sufficiently informed about the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the developing fetus, and in particular, its relation to FAS / FASD. It was established that neurologists were more aware in these matters with significant p <0.05 However, obstetrician-gynecologists, who are the primary preventive link to prevent alcohol consumption in the prenatal period and in the period of planning pregnancy showed lesser knowledge than the neurologists in this regard .

Conclusions: Thus, this study concluded that it is necessary to the specialist and other researchers to pay attention in different medical and social spheres that the problem has really become quite urgent for the future generations also, these topics related to the problem of the effects of alcohol on the fetus should be introduced In the physicians ‘education curriculum. Physicians should pay special attention to pregnant women who were taking alcohol even in small doses, as there is no safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Source of Information of COVID-19 among Students of Health Informatics, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Sohail Akhtar, Ali H. Alharbi, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Kesavan S. Nair

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430806

Background: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has undertaken strong measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Several steps were taken to communicate with the public on how the virus spreads and various precautionary measures to be taken to prevent the disease. The knowledge and perception regarding COVID-19 influence the design and implementation of preventive measures and campaigns to control the spread of the virus.

Objectives: This study aims to assess the knowledge and perceptions of students at a health informatics program about COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This descriptive study utilized a web-based survey about COVID-19 pandemic was distributed to 320 students (222 females and 98 males) at the Bachelor in Health Informatics Program, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia the first week of April 2020. The survey instrument was developed and distributed to all students in the program using social media platforms. The survey required 10 minutes to complete.

Results: The study revealed that only 20% of respondents had adequate knowledge about the signs and symptoms of COVID-19, with 22.5% had knowledge about the right modes of transmission of the virus. However, 55.6% of them had adequate knowledge of ways of protection against COVID-19. The study findings reveal that a significant knowledge gap exists among health informatics students about COVID-19 regardless of the amount of available information about the pandemic. Social media was the major source of information to a majority (79%) of respondents.

Conclusion: As COVID-19 continues to devastate the healthcare systems and creates a huge threat to human wellbeing, it is paramount to improve the knowledge and perceptions of university students in Saudi Arabia. An appropriate health promotion platform is recommended to reach all students in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Extraction of Polyphenolic Compounds from Medicinal Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis L.)

Lyubov S. Dyshlyuk, Anastasia M. Fedorova, Vyacheslav F. Dolganyuk, Alexander Yu. Prosekov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430807

Medicinal plants are potential natural sources of biologically active substances that have geroprotective properties, slowing down the aging process. Vegetable raw materials are used as antioxidants in the food industry. Pulmonaria officinalis L. has a high content of biologically active substances. The purpose of this work is to determine the operating parameters for extracting the maximum amount of biologically active substances from Pulmonaria officinalis L. by extracting ethanol and finding sources of natural antioxidants.The antioxidant activity of several ethanol extracts of Pulmonaria officinalis L. – 30-70% with a step of 10 ethanol obtained from the dried root culture of the medicinal plant of biologically active substances was determined. The total content of polyphenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was estimated. According to the data obtained, the relationship between the values determined for the biologically active substances presented and the values of antioxidant activity was revealed. Extracts of Pulmonaria officinalis L. showed a high yield of polyphenolic compounds-889.39±4.29 mcg of Gallic acid/ml, flavonoids-728.90±6.98 mcg of rutin/ml, proanthocyanidins-211.65±5.31 mcg of catechin/ml at an ethyl alcohol concentration of 60% and an extraction temperature of 50°C in 4 hours. The antioxidant activity using 2 methods: A spectrophotometric method DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and the FRAP method (iron reducing/antioxidant power) was investigated. During DPPH spectrophotometric analysis, the antioxidant activity is equal to 86.96% for polyphenols, 75.47% for flavonoids, and 51.25% for proanthocyanidins. FRAP analysis showed that extracts with operating parameters had a pronounced antioxidant activity (tэ= 4 ч; Tэ= 50°C; Сэ= 60%)и (tэ= 5 ч; Tэ= 60°C; Сэ, = 70%).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Workload on Emotional Exhaustion and Its Impact on the Performance of Female Nurses at Hospital Dr. Tadjuddin Chalid Makassar

Syamsiar S. Russeng, . Wahiduddin, Lalu Muhammad Saleh, T. A. Tenri Diah, Harun Achmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430808

In hospitals, most nurses experience a decrease in performance due to the workload factor. Workload is a working condition and job descriptions that must be completed within a certain time. The too high workload experienced by nurses can result in emotional exhaustion, indirectly emotional exhaustion can greatly affect the performance of the nurse. This study aims to determine the effect of workload on emotional exhaustion and its impact on the performance of female nurses at the hospital. Dr. Tadjuddin Chalid Makassar. This type of research is analytic observational with cross sectional design. The sample in this study were 96 married female nurses and the sample was taken using simple random sampling method. Data were taken from respondents using questionnaires on workload, performance and emotional exhaustion. The data analysis technique in this study used SPSS and Smart PLS. The results of this study indicate that there is an influence between workload and emotional fatigue with p value (0.002) < (0.05), emotional fatigue with performance p (0.000) <(0.05), and workload with performance p (0.000) < (0.05). The conclusion of this study is that there is an effect of workload with emotional exhaustion, emotional exhaustion with performance and workload with performance on female nurses at the hospital. Dr. Tadjuddin Chalid Makassar

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Oral Administration of the Leaf Extract of Uvaria chamae (Mmimi Ohia) in Albino Wistar Rats

Innocent S. I. Ogbu, Eugenia O. Okafor, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Chinemerem C. Ogbu, Bessie Nonyelum. Esimai, Nduka J. Okeke, Chukwulete Okafor Ukeekwe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430809

Uvariachamae (vernacular; mmimiohia) belongs to the family Annonaceae. It is a small tree that grows wild to about 4.5 meters in the savanna and rain forest regions of Nigeria and other African countries. It is known to possess various medicinal and therapeutic properties. The biochemical and toxicological effects of its ethanolic leaf extract on Wistar albino rats were assessed in this study. Twenty albino rats grouped into 4 (5 animals in each group) were used. Group A served as control while groups B, C, D received 250, 500 and 1 000mg/kg body weight of the extract for a period of 30 days. The mean alkaline phosphatase activity of the control was 350±11.0Iu/l as against 490±38.00, 630±60, and 370±20 for groups B, C, and D (p =0.01, ˃0.05, 0,001) respectively. The mean serum urea concentration of the control was 5.00±0.19mg/dl as against 3.80±0.31, 3.30±0.28 and 3.50±0.18mg/dl (p=0.01, 0.001, 0.001) for groups B, C, D respectively. The extract had no significant effects on the liver enzymes, ALT and AST, serum sodium, potassium, chloride as well as creatinine of the rats. Serum bicarbonate was raised significantly, 26.00±0.53, 28.00±0.60, 27.00±1.10, 29.00±1.10 for groups B, C, D (p= 0.042, ˃0.05, 0.043) respectively. Histological studies showed no abnormality in the kidneys and mild peri-portal lymphocytic infiltration of the liver. Phytochemical analyses of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, resins, proteins terpenoids and reducing sugar. Hence, ethanolic extract of leaves of Uvaria chamae has no serious deleterious effects on Wistar albino rats and may be safely used in traditional medical practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Combination Therapy of Methotrexate with Leflunomide & Hydroxychloroquine: Comparative Clinical Trial

Qurrat-ul-Ain Bukhari, Kauser Ismail, Muzna Hameed Dar, Afshan Abbas, Madiha Ata

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430810

Aims: To study the role of combination therapies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Study Design:  This an open-label, randomized 180-days clinical trial.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, BMSI and Medical unit ward 6, after approval of JPMC ethical committee, between March 2013 and May 2014.

Methodology: We included 90 patients (69 women, 21 men; age range 28-62 years) which were divided into two groups, A and B. 44 patients of group A received methotrexate (MTX) 7.5-20 mg/ week orally and Leflunomide (LEF) 10-20 mg/ day QD orally as maximally tolerated. 46 patients of group B were given MTX 7.5-20 mg/ week orally and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) 200 mg twice daily orally as maximally tolerated.

Results: Comparing the combination of group A with group B, group A showed highly significant improvement in mean patient’s global assessment (1.4 ± 0.66) and mean pain (1.3 ± 1.11) as compared to group B (2.4 ± 1.14, 2.2 ± 1.49). The drugs of group B showed significant improvement in mean physician’s global assessment (1.7 ± 0.92) and mean morning stiffness (49.2 ± 10.59) as compared to group A (2.8 ± 0.97, 54.4 ± 10.14). Combination treatment of group B showed significantly lower adverse effects (4.3%) as compared to group A (11.4%). Statistical analysis revealed that patients receiving both the combinations responded equally in terms of effects but group B showed significantly better in terms of adverse effects.

Conclusion: Both combinations of MTX & LEF and MTX & HCQ were well tolerated but the efficacy of MTX and HCQ was significantly superior in terms of adverse effects to the combination of MTX and LEF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Specificity of Paclitaxel towards the Marker Proteins of Breast Cancer Using In silico Molecular Docking Study

V. Senthil Kumar, T. V. Ajay Kumar, V. Parthasarathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430811

Breast cancer is highly prevalent next to lung cancer. Breast cancer occurs as a result of mutation in the genes like proto-oncogenes as well as tumor suppressor genes in a single clone of cells in the ductal and glandular regions of the breast. The drugs used to prevent breast cancer are Raloxifene hydrochloride and Tamoxifen citrate. The drugs used to treat breast cancer are Abemaciclib, Paclitaxel, Everolimus, Imatinib, Alpelisib, Anastrozole. Although several drug molecules had been developed, their specificity towards the potential breast cancer specific marker proteins such as activated threonine kinase 2/Protein kinase B (AKT2), cell division protein kinase 6 (CDK6), estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), and poly ADP ribose polymerase1 (PARP1) need to be studied in silico. The present study was undertaken 1) to assess the specificity of paclitaxel towards the breast cancer specific marker proteins using molecular docking analysis and 2) to identify various physico-chemical properties of drug molecules including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). The interaction between paclitaxel and the target proteins of breast cancer was analyzed using the Schrodinger Maestro Ver.2018.4. The results of the present study reveal that paclitaxel shows good binding interactions with the target proteins in the following order, ER > PARP1 > AKT2 >CDK6 > HER2. Among the five proteins, ER and PARP1 showed good binding interactions as compared to AKT2, CDK6 and HER2 proteins. The ADME properties of paclitaxel were predicted using QikProp module of Schrodinger Maestro version 2018.4. The present study warrant further studies which helps in the development of potent anticancer drug to treat breast cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antidiarrheal, Antispasmodic and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Seeds Extract of Peganum harmala L. (Nitrariaceae)

Mohd Nazam Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430812

Background: Many plants and herbs have been shown to possess antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, and antimicrobial activities. The present study was developed to determine the possible antidiarrheal and antispasmodic effects of methanolic extract of Peganum harmala L. (MEPH) in diarrhea and hyperactive gut.

Methodology: The crude MEPH was studied using the in-vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, while isolated rat ileum was used in the in-vitro studies. Antimicrobial efficacy of MEPH was tested against different bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia), Yeast (Candida albicans) and Fungus (Aspergillus niger) using in-vitro assays.

Results: In the castor oil-induced diarrhea, MEPH at 100 and 200 mg/kg showed 40% and 80% protection in mice while positive control drug, loperamide showed 100% protection. In the in-vitro experiments, MEPH dose-dependently (0.01 to 0.3 mg/mL) inhibited carbachol and high K+-induced contractions at comparable EC50 values similar to papaverine, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor. The PDE inhibitory like effect was further confirmed when pre-incubated ileum tissues with MEPH (0.1 and 0.3 mg/mL) shift the isoprenaline-mediated inhibitory CRCs against carbachol to the left, similar to papaverine. In antibacterial assay, MEPH showed efficacy against two Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus, and B. subtilis) and one Gram negative bacteria (E. coli). But extract didn’t show any effect against K. pneumoniae. The MEPH also showed efficacy against fungal strain (A. niger) and yeast strain (C. albicans).

Conclusions: MEPH shows antidiarrheal and antispasmodic effects because of its antimotility effect which were possibly due to the inhibition of PDE enzyme. The study has shown an optimal antimicrobial activity of MEPH as all bacteria, yeast and fungal strains were found sensitive except K. pneumoniae. MEPH proved efficacy against both enteric and non-enteric pathogens causing diarrhea, thus confirming its role in both the infectious and non-infectious diarrhea.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Content, Purification Degree, and Molecular Weight of Inulin of Natural Dangshen Roots (Codonopsis javanica) in Highland Lam Vien, Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Thang Long, Vu Ngoc Boi, Dang Xuan Cuong

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430813

Introduction: Inulins are a group of natural active polysaccharides found in ginseng and dangshen and mainly used in pharmaceutical preparations and functional food. The purification condition of inulin from dangshen grown in Vietnam did not occur in previous studies. Hence, the study presented on the content, purification degree, molecular weight, and functional group characteristics of inulin extracted from natural dangshen roots (Codonopsis javanica) in other purification conditions.

Methods: Some factors survey impact purification conditions of inulin, for example, the kinds and the concentration of the solvent, the temperature and the times of the precipitation, and the active coal impact. The objects such as the content of inulin, fructan, and crude polysaccharide, purification degree of inulin, and fructan were analyzed. Molecular weight and functional group characteristics of purification inulin extracted from dangshen roots (Codonopsis javanica) grown in highland Lam Vien, Vietnam, were also analyzed.

Results: The purification degree of inulin purified by using ethanol was higher than that using active coal, corresponding to 97.85a ± 0.84 % and 94.05 %, respectively. Inulin content was the large ratio in crude polysaccharide, exhibited via FTIR and the analysis results. Inulin and fructan were the most precipitated in ethanol, for example, 80 % and 90 % ethanol, respectively, compared to another solvent. The kinds and the concentration of the solvent, the temperature and the precipitation times, and active coal impacted the content and the purification degree of inulin and fructan (p < 0.05). The precipitation of inulin and fructan in ethanol solvent was affected by the temperature. The molecular weight of inulin and fructan corresponded to 3,193 Da and 1,112,892 Da, respectively.

Conclusion: Inulin of natural dangshen roots in Lam Vien highland, Vietnam was useful for functional foods and pharmaceutics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breast Self Examination: Knowledge and Practice of Young Female Students towards Breast Self Examination and Breast Cancer

Muhammad Parial Shahani, Arslan Ahmer, Fahad Jibran Siyal, Shahid Hussain Soomro, Arsalan Humayun, Abdul Aziz Shaikh, Jabbar Abbas, Zainab Shahani, Raheela Saleem, Ayaz Ali Unar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-100
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430814

Objective of the study is to assess the knowledge towards breast self-examination (BSE) of breasts among young adults in various districts of Sindh province in Pakistan. Descriptive cross sectional study design was used to conduct the study at Larkana. A total of 171 young female students participated in the study including students of matric, intermediate, undergraduate and postgraduate level. Participants were given a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the knowledge of students towards SBE and Breast cancer. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests in SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23.0). A total 171 young adults participated in the study. Only a 2.33% were married. Most of the participants (47.36%) had intermediate level education, 43.85% were undergraduate, 8.18% had a family member with breast cancer, 38.6% of the respondents didn’t know that breast cancer is the most fatal cancer in women all over the world. A 43.8% considered that family history as a risk factor for the breast cancer, 61.4% considered that pain in the breast is symptom for the breast cancer, 83.63% of participants didn’t know how to perform breast self-examination, 88.3% of the participants were not practicing self-breast examination. It was concluded that most of the young students in various districts of Sindh province in Pakistan do not have reasonable knowledge towards Self-breast examination and do not practice the same in routine life.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Evaluation of Antiviral Activity of Moringa oleifera Extracts against Polio virus

Halidu Mhya Adamu, Mahmud Yerima Iliyasu, Mohammed Nuru Yakubu, Adamu Babayo Samaila, Ahmed Faruk Umar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 101-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430815

Background: Moringa oleifera plant parts extract have been utilized tremendously in traditional medicine, having various pharmaceutical activities such as antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral properties.

Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate antiviral activity of aqueous extract of Moringa leaves, seeds and flowers against Polio virus isolates (Vaccine Strains P1&P3), MDG-17-04852; MDG-17-04881.

Study Design: This is a baseline study carried out to determine the efficacy of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of poliomyelitis.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital Maiduguri and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi from September 2018 to October, 2019.

Methods: Phytochemical substances was extracted and screened from the Moringa using standard laboratory techniques. Continuous cell line L20B cells was used to isolate polio virus. Polio virus stock was prepared and titration was carried out to determine TCID50 by Kerber’s formula, L-d(S - 0.5). Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated using the end-point cytopathic effect assay. Antiviral assay and Polio virus Intratypic Differentiation (ITD) was performed using Real-Time PCR.

Results: The results revealed present of Tannins in leaves and flowers, Alkaloids and Saponins in all the extracts, Glycosides and Steroids in leaves and Flavonoids in flowers only. Cytotoxicity of the extracts shows 50% effects in 100mg and 50mg concentrations, while 33.3% and 16.7% was observed in 25mg and 12.5mg (P>.05). The titration of the tissue culture infective dose 50% (TCID50) shows that Polio virus type 1and 3 had a titre value of 106.5 and 106.25 respectively. The ITD results observed presence of Sl1 and Sl3 from the extracts.

Conclusion: This study found that the Moringa extracts did not neutralized the Polio virus strains studied, as the phytochemicals show no antiviral activity. Therefore further study is needed in this area to ascertain its antiviral potentials against poliomyelitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

AChE Inhibition Study for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment: An In-silico Study

Mohd Adnan Kausar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 119-125
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430817

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. Several acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have been clinically used to delay or halt the progression of the disease. Solanadine (Snd) and gamma solamargine (Gsm) have been shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The current study attempts to describe the molecular interactions between human brain AChE and inhibitors Snd and Gsm. The free energy of binding and estimated dissociation constant (Ki) for the 'Snd-AChE Catalytic Anionic site (CAS)-interaction' were determined to be –9.51 kcal/mol and 107.54 nM, respectively and the free energy of binding and estimated Ki for the 'Gsm -AChE CAS-interaction' were determined to be – 8.64 kcal/mol and 463.88 nM, respectively. Hydrophobic interactions, polar interactions, and hydrogen bonding play an important role in the correct positioning of Snd within the 'catalytic site' of AChE to permit docking, while hydrophobic interactions and polar interactions play a significant role in the correct positioning of Gsm within the 'catalytic site' of AChE to permit docking. It is hoped that the information provided in this study will help in the design of AChE-inhibitors as anti-Alzheimer agents.

Open Access Review Article

Molecular Mechanism and Role of Translational Values of Heat Shock Protein (HSP27) in Various Disease

Sameer Chaudhary, Sapana Sameer Chaudhary, Sakshi Rawat, Savneet Kaur, Bogireddy Devi, Malik M. Ahmad, Zia Arshad, M. Mustafa, Manie M. Al Jedaie, Pravej Alam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-118
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430816

HSP27, also known as HSPB1, was first discovered with a molecular weight 27kDa belonging to the four member gene family. Elevated levels of HSP27 are seen when different unfavorable conditions prevail such as increase in temperature and oxidative stress or exposure to heavy metals or organic solvents. They possess ATP-independent chaperone like activity which helps in maintaining protein homeostasis. It can also form large oligomers (300-600 kDa) containing different numbers of subunits. It is composed of total 205 amino acids. HSP27 undergoes post-translational modifications i.e. phosphorylation thereby converting large oligomers into dimers. It can act as an anti-apoptotic and antioxidant molecule during oxidative stress.  The elevated form of HSP27 is also seen in some cancer belongs to breast, ovary, prostate, brain, colorectal, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung, liver, and cervical regions. Keeping in view of molecular roles of HSP27 signaling in various pathways, we have proposed their translational values in different diseases. In addition, we have also reported the existing scientific data on the HSP27 as the potential cancer biomarker and their therapeutic targets for improved prognosis and treatment in different diseases.