Open Access Systematic Review Article

Therapeutic Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review and Treatment Algorithm

Rafat Zreiq, Najoua Haouas, Asma M. Khemakhem, Rawan M. Obeidat, Reem M. Ali, Asma Ayyed AL- Shammary, Bandar Alsaif, Fahad D. Algahtani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 119-134
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230780

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is emerging contagious pneumonia due to the new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It initially appeared in Wuhan China in December 2019 then rapidly spread worldwide and became a pandemic. For the time being, there is no specific therapeutic treatment for this disease. Herein, the "state-of-the-art" of treatment modalities was systematically reviewed and ultimately a practical therapeutic algorithm for the COVID-19 management was proposed. The systematic review was performed by using published articles retrieved from Science Direct, MEDLINE, and Scopus databases concerning this topic. Among 1060 articles collected from the different databases, 19 publications were studied in-depth and incorporated in this review. The most three frequently used medications for the treatment of COVID-19 was: the available anti-viral drugs (n= 9), the antimalarial hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (n = 8), and the passive antibody transfer therapy (n = 2). Among all treatment modalities, antimalarial hydroxychloroquine ranked the highest cure rate. Therefore, this drug is considered as the first‐line of COVID-19 treatment. The second‐line treatment includes the lopinavir/ritonavir drugs combined with interferon β-1b and ribavirin. Finally, the third‐line treatments include the remdesivir drug and passive antibody transfer therapy. However, our review emphasis the urgent need for adequately designed randomized controlled trials, enabling a more significant comparison between the most used treatment modalities.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Effect of Single or Multiple Doses of Grapefruit Juice on the Analgesic Effect of Ibuprofen in Mice

Mohammed Al Za'abi, Amjad Al Sawaqi, Khalid Ali Al Alawi, Mohammed Al Tobi, Mohammed Ashique, Badreldin H. Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230773

Grapefruit juice (GFJ) is a rich source of nutritional compounds but has been shown to alter the concentrations of several clinically useful drugs. Ibuprofen is a commonly used over-the counter-drug.

Aim: This study aims to examine the effect of a single or multiple dose of GFJ on the analgesic effect of ibuprofen.

Methodology: CD1 male mice were randomly distributed into four equal groups (n=9, each). The first group served as a control, the second group was given ibuprofen (100 mg/Kg) by oral gavage, the third group was given a single dose of GFJ (10 mg/Kg) by oral gavage followed by ibuprofen, and the fourth group was given a single dose of GFJ for five days and on the fifth day was given ibuprofen. The analgesic effect was tested using two methods with different mechanisms: thermal (hot plate) and chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction) pharmacologic stimuli models.

Results: Both GFJ dosing regimen significantly increased the duration of abdominal constriction test when compared with ibuprofen group and did not exert any significant effect on the hot plate effect. This suggest that GFJ may affect the peripherally modulated analgesic effect of ibuprofen. Conclusion: The observed effect of GFJ on ibuprofen analgesic effect warrants further studies on their impact and clinical significance on humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ropivacaine Hydrochloride on the Expression of Type I Interferon and Its Receptor in SH-SY5Y Cells

Xianjie Wen, Zhaoxia Wu, Weidong Lin, Yiqun Li, Xiaoping Wang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230766

Nerve injury caused by local anesthetics is a hot issue that people pay close attention to, and its mechanism has not been fully clarified. Type I interferon (I-IFN) is an important factor in regulating inflammatory response. In this study, SH-SY5Y cells were injured by ropivacaine hydrochloride in vitro. The cell viability, apoptosis rate, mRNA and protein expression of I-IFN and its receptor IFNAR, as well as the contents of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were detected to explore the correlation between I-IFN and neurotoxicity induced by ropivacaine hydrochloride. The results showed that after treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride, the cell viability was decreased, the apoptosis rate was increased, the mRNA and protein expressions of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 were up-regulated, and the contents of inflammatory factors TNF - α, IL-6 and IL-10 were increased. These results suggest that type I interference and its receptor are associated with neurotoxicity of local anesthetics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Some Cytokines, CD4, Hepcidin, Iron, and Some Haematological Parameters of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Chemotherapy for 60 Days in Southeast, Nigeria

Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi, Obeagu, Getrude Uzoma, Esimai, Bessie Nonyelum, Amaeze, Augustine Amaeze, Amaeze, Florence Ngozi, Ekelozie, Ifeoma Stella, Odochi, Ogbu Chukwu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230767

A study to evaluate the levels of interferon-gamma, interleukins 6 and 10, hepcidin, iron status and some haematological parameters in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus was carried out. A total of 2000 subjects aged 18-60 years were enlisted for this study. The subjects were grouped into: Group A (100 PTB-HIV subjects on baseline) and Group B (100 PTB-HIV subjects on treatment for 60 days). About 7ml of venous blood were collected from each subject; 4.5 ml of blood were placed into plain tubes for assay of interferon gamma, interleukins (6 &10), hepcidin and iron and 2.5 ml for FBC, CD4 count and HIV screening. The cytokines and hepcidin were measured using Melsin ELISA Kits and Teco Diagnostics kits used for iron. Full blood count was determined by automation using Mindray BC-5300, China. The data was analysed with the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using ANOVA and the level of significance set at P<0.05. The results showed significant difference in IFN-γ (P=0.000), IL-6 (P=0.000) IL-10 (P=0.000), hepcidin (P=0.000), Iron (P=0.004), TIBC (P=0.000), WBC (P=0.029), Neutrophils (P=0.011), Lymphocyes (P=0.000), Monocytes (P=0.000), Basophil (P=0.013), RBC (P=0.000), Haemoglobin (P=0.000), PCV (P=0.000), MCV (P=0.029), MCH (P=0.000), MCHC (P=0.000), Platelets (P=0.000), ESR (P=0.000) and no significant difference in CD4 (P=0.966), %TSA  (P=0.998) and Eos (P=0.052) when compared among PTB-HIV on baseline and 60 days on treatment respectively. The study shows that interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 10 and hepcidin are adjuncts to some of the biomarkers in the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB and HIV infection. The cytokines and hepcidin can be used as prognostic and diagnostic markers as their levels decreased with i60 days of treatment of the patients.The haemtological parameters like haemoglobin, RBC and PCV increased significantly within 60 days of treatment showing improvement in health status of the patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of COVID-19 among the General Population of the Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Subeh Alshrari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230768

The pandemic Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is an international apprehension, and there exists no effective treatment for it. Therefore, educating people about the necessary information regarding COVID-19 has become an essential tool to fight against COVID-19. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the awareness of COVID-19 among the general people of the Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia (NBRSA). A self-administered questionnaire containing basic questions was designed and shared with the people after taking their consent. A total of 249 people participated in this study. The data was collected and analyzed. This study has been revealed that the general public of the NBRSA has a passable knowledge of the specific information about the COVID-19. However, the public is not satisfactorily aware of the complications associated with COVID-19. Accordingly, COVID-19 related education programs should be conducted regularly to increase the awareness of the general public of the NBRSA for COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nimesulide Inhibits MAPK/COX-2 Pathway, and Prevents Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Testes of Cisplatin-Challenged Rats

Amr A. Fouad, Hanaa M. Khalaf, Usama I. Akl, Manal I. Abdelghany

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230769

The potential testicular protective effect of nimesulide (NSE) was studied in cisplatin (CSP)-challenged rats. NSE therapy (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was applied for 15 days, and a single dose of CSP (7 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered on the 10th day. CSP significantly decreased the levels of serum testosterone, testicular reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase. CSP also significantly increased testicular malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2, nuclear factor-κB p65, Bax, and caspase-3. NSE significantly ameliorated all the biochemical changes observed in CSP-challenged rats. Moreover, NSE significantly reduced the histopathological injury, and the expressions of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in testes of rats received CSP. It was concluded that NSE significantly blocked the CSP-induced acute testicular injury in rats through inhibition of MAPK/COX-2 signaling pathway, and by combating oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Feto-Maternal Outcome of Pregnancy Complicated with Preeclampsia

Qaiser Javed Iqbal, Ayesha Javed, Zafar Ali Marri, Nadia Sabeen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230770

Pre-eclampsia is the disorder of extensive vascular endothelial malfunctioning and vasospasm. Both pregnant females and her fetus can develop different complications in the presence of preeclampsia. So we conducted this descriptive cross-sectional study to find the frequency of fetal and maternal outcomes in females having pre-eclampsia. After meeting the inclusion criteria 200 females were enrolled. Patients were followed from 32 weeks of gestation till the end of pregnancy. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were strictly followed. The outcome variable was recorded as per operational definitions. All patients were efficiently managed as per standard protocols. All the data was entered and then analyzed in SPSS v. 22. In this study the mean age of the patients was 28.93 ± 6.75 years, the mean BMI of the females was 27.46 ± 1.48 kg/m2. Partial HELLP syndrome noted in 51 (25.5%) females, maternal mortality occurred in 17 (8.5%) females, while eclampsia, prematurity, perinatal mortality and low birth weight were noted in 26 (13%), 106 (53%), 35 (17.5%) and 78 (39%) females respectively. This study concluded that the most common fetomaternal outcome was prematurity, low birth weight babies, partial HELLP syndrome, perinatal mortality, eclampsia and maternal mortality in patients with pre-eclampsia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Molecular Modelling and Biological Evaluation of Novel Pyrimidine Derivatives as Anti-inflammatory Agents

Naglaa Mohamed Ahmed, Shahira Nofal, Samir Mohamed Awad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230771

Aim: As part of ongoing studies in developing new anti-inflammatory agents, 2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivative 1 was synthesized by direct Biginelli condensation and used for the synthesis of novel series of  pyrimidin-2-thione derivatives  (2a-d to 7a-b).

Materials and Methods: All compounds were examined for their anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema assay in comparison to ibuprofen, as a reference drug. Molecular docking studies were carried out using SYBLYL-X v.2.1 software.

Study Design: A series of pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized by a simple and available method leads to a molecule of promising anti-inflammatory activity, the docking studies show good agreement with anti-inflammatory results. Future researches are recommended to assure the importance of these new derivatives for various applications.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Department and Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt, between February 2018 and March 2019.

Results: Compounds showed 61 to 86% anti-inflammatory activity where-as ibuprofen showed 69% activity. Compounds 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 7a, 7b induced strong anti-inflammatory activity, comparable with that of ibuprofen, they showed significantly difference at 4h post-carrageenan. Compound 3c (86%) showed the best result of edema inhibition in rats. Moreover, compounds 1, 2c and 3c were subjected to in vitro enzyme assay investigations against COX-1 and COX-2. All tested compounds showed higher potency towards COX-2 over COX-1. Compound 3c realized higher potency towards COX-2 (IC50= 0.046 μM) than compounds 1(IC50= 0.21 μM) and 2c (IC50=0.11 μM) as well as ibuprofen (IC50= 43.628 μM). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) has been discussed.

Conclusion: A series of pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized by a simple and available method gave a molecule of promising anti-inflammatory activity, the docking studies showed good agreement with anti-inflammatory results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Porcelain Fused to Metal (PFM) Material used for Fixed Partial Prosthesis Placed on Vital & Non-vital Abutments on the Periodontal Status – A Two Year Retrospective Follow-up

Shreya Shetty, Karunakar Shetty, Othman Wali, Raghad Tayeb, Jumana Abdou, Khamrunissa Hussain Sheikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230775

Objective: Sound periodontal foundation of abutment teeth is essential for successful restorative therapy and also for long-term success of prosthodontic restorations. Porcelain fused to metal (PFM) has been a popular choice of novel esthetic material in fixed prosthodontics over the last few decades. The present study aimed to assess the long term effect and tissue responses of fixed partial prosthesis using PFM material on vital and non- vital abutments on the periodontal parameters both clinically and radiographically.

Methodology: Following ethical committee approval, the study group comprised of 86 abutment teeth in 41 systemically healthy patients (24 males and 17 females) aged between 18 – 45 years who had received 3 unit fixed prosthesis made of PFM, having equigingival margins using vital and non-vital abutments. The following parameters were assessed at baseline, phase 1, 3 and 4 (1 year follow up) – CAL, Probing depth, Distance between CEJ/ cervical crown margin and alveolar crest of the abutment teeth (radiograph).

Results: Statistical analysis carried out by SPSSV22 software revealed no significant changes in probing depth and CAL (p>0.05) and significant changes in radiographic bone levels (p<0.05) in vital abutments whereas significant changes in probing depth and CAL from baseline to the end of 2 years (p<0.05) with no changes in radiographic parameters (p>0.05) with non vital abutments. However, significant differences were observed between vital and non vital abutments with regard to probing depth at the end of 2years, CAL and radiographic bone levels at 6months, 1 year and 2 years (p<0.05)

Conclusion: The response of the periodontal tissues to the PFM material used on fixed prosthesis on both vital and non vital abutment teeth although favorable, were marginally better in vital abutments.

Open Access Original Research Article

TB Infection Control in TB/HIV Settings in Cross River State, Nigeria: Policy Vs Practice

Michael Odo, Kingsley Chinedum Ochei, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Afirima Barinaadaa, Ugobo Emmanuel Eteng, Mabel Ikpeme, Jonah Offor Bassey, Andrew Ogar Paul

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 101-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230777

TB and HIV remain a dangerous duo of significant public health concern across the globe. Both diseases require significant community and health system activities to be successfully managed. TB infection control is an important disease prevention strategy among the general population and among people living with HIV, in cost and management. We undertook to assess the situation of TB infection control at three levels of health care in Cross River State of Nigeria. A qualitative method was used to assess TB infection control (TBIC) knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the health care workers at each of the purposefully selected facilities using a semi-structured questionnaire - University of Calabar Teaching hospital, Calabar; Infectious disease Hospital, Calabar and primary Health Centre, Calabar Municipal, between 15th to 31st November, 2019 in the first phase, and an extension to February, 2020 due to delayed ethical clearance from the University of Calabar Teaching hospital. Data was collected and entered on an excel template and cleaned by trained data entry clerks. Charts and color diagrams were developed to compare specific descriptive data. There is wide variation between the written policies of TB infection control and the practices among health workers. Even though there are strong administrative protocols to support TB infection control in the higher levels of care, it is better practiced in the lower level PHC where the protocols were not spelt out.

Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Awareness among Staff and Students of Academic Institutions towards COVID-19 in India

Shahid Karim, Varish Ahmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-118
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230779

Aim: The conducted survey aims to assess the level of COVID-19 awareness among staff and students of medical and non-medical academic institutions in India.

Methods: The survey was conducted online by consenting students and staff from 02 April-2020 to 16 July 2020, participants completed and submitted COVID-19 questionnaire. A total of 300 participants responded by taking the self-administered questionnaire.

Results: Of 300 participants, almost 83.45% had good knowledge that the disease is contagious; 99% observe acceptable practices regarding COVID-19 and (83%) majority seek knowledge from social media. Learning about symptoms of COVID-19 and its spread was marginally higher (p<0.05) among medical participants as compared to non-medical participants. Awareness about the preventive measures was insignificant (p<0.063) between medical and non-medical respondents. The responses collected for treatment options were also negligible though 83% believe that there is a treatment vaccine and medicine available. Mention single percentage from all participants or mention separate for medical and non medical institutions.

Conclusion:  The study concluded that academic institutions had good knowledge and awareness towards COVID-19 symptoms and its prevention though there are gaps in specific aspects of knowledge, prevention practices and treatments that should be addressed in future awareness and educational campaigns. The study recommends the ministry of health and family welfare to promote all precautionary and preventive measures of COVID-19 consisting of a well-organized approach to include students, institutions and society: including under privileged, geriatric and people with limited information, in order to effectively implement these precautionary and awareness measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among University Students in Uşak, Turkey

Saygın Kamacı, Senem Şanlı, Ayşe Özdemir, Seyfi Sardoğan, Sanem Erdoğan, Nurullah Şanlı

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 135-142
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230781

Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a pandemic with implications for multi-organ systems including bone health and immunological processes. Low levels have been associated with several chronic and infectious diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among university students in Usak, Turkey. This cross-sectional study included 100 (44 male and 56 female) university students between January 2020 to February 2020. Demographics, medical history, sunlight exposure, dietary vitamin D intake, body mass index of each individual were recorded in face-to-face interviews. Subjects with known metabolic conditions affecting vitamin D metabolism were excluded. Vitamin D nutritional status was assessed as deficient if 25(OH)D levels were <20ng/mL, insufficient if between 20 and 30 ng/mL, sufficient if ≥30 ng/mL, while <10ng/mL was considered as severe. The mean age for all students was 20.18±1.77(18-30) years.  The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.60±9.81 among all students (12.22 ± 5.40 ng/mL in males, 11.11±12.24 ng/ml in females). 91 students (91%) were assessed as vitamin D deficient (92.86% among female, 88.64% among male, P >.05). Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among male students were 11.36 and 88.64%, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among medical students included in this study and its deficiency especially among female students is alarmingly prevalent. Absence of vitamin D fortified foods in Turkish market is shortcoming. Therefore, preventive strategies parallel to regular vitamin D fortified food consumption is seriously recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Antidyslipidemic Effects of Fenugreek Seed Extract and Standard Pharmacological Therapy in Diet Induced Animal Model of Dyslipidemia: An Experimental Study

Nisha Zahid, Shehla Shaheen, Zahida Memon, Akhtar Ali, Urooj Zafar, Faiza Agha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 143-151
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230782

Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the antidyslipidemic effects of fenugreek seed extract in comparison to standard drugs used for dyslipidemia in an animal model of dyslipidemia.

Methods: It was an experimental study conducted on 42 male, 9 weeks old Wistar albino rats for a period of 7 weeks. Animals were randomly divided into 7 groups, out of which 6 groups were given lipid rich diet to induce dyslipidemia for 28 days while one group served as control given normal diet. After 28 days standard drugs alone as well as in combinations (statins 10 mg/kg and fibrates 100 mg/kg) and fenugreek seed extract in two different doses, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were administered once a day for 21 days to all the respective groups except positive (lipid rich diet) and negative control groups (on normal diet), both were administered normal saline. Baseline body weights of all groups of animals were measured at the start of the study. At the end of the study period, body weights of all groups of animal groups were measured again and their blood was drawn through cardiac puncture for the assessment of TC, LDL-C, HDL, TGs, D/B, I/B and ALT. All the intervention groups were compared on the basis of above mentioned parameters and changes in weight.

Results: Amongst all the groups, lipid parameters (TC, LDL, TGs) showed a significant reduction and increase in HDL in the group on FSE in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, FSE also showed significant decrease in the levels of liver enzymes including ALT, D/B and in body weight when compared to other groups. While we did not find any significant change for urea, creatinine and I/B amongst all the groups.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the fenugreek seed extract showed superior effects when compared to traditional pharmacological therapy against dyslipidemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Turnover of Herbal Medicines in Pharmacy Organizations and Directions for Increasing Sales of Pharmaceutical Products

Nalbiy Salikhovich Tuguz, Harun Achmad, Inessa Makedonovna Kalyakina, Mikhail Vladimirovich Gnevanov, Ivan Gennadievich Subbotin, Yana Paromova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 160-170
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230796

The article analyzes the turnover of herbal products offered by a single pharmacy organization and identifies ways to increase sales of this group of pharmaceutical products. Every year, the popularity of herbal medicines sold in pharmacy chains among the population increases, this is due to the fact that the population in general is gradually moving to a healthy lifestyle nowadays and people prefer to use natural medicines recommended by pharmacists to restore their health.

Considering the need to popularize phytoproducts among the population, the author analyzes the turnover of this group of products, identifies the most popular names of pharmaceutical products in this group and comes to the following conclusion: the largest number of herbal products is represented by the company "Pharmatsvet" (62%), the company "Evalar" is represented by 38%. The authors found that the pharmacy "Pharmacy for the Thrifty" the largest number of implemented drugs (Q1 in the amount of RUB 1239288, in the 2nd quarter in the amount of RUB 1345320) and the lowest sold of mineral waters (in the 1st quarter of selling amounted to RUB 76321, in the 2nd quarter 54321 RUB). On the basis of the analysis of the structure of the range of pharmacy "Pharmacy for the Thrifty" it is established that in the 1st quarter, the largest number were drugs from 39.04%, in the second quarter this figure had risen to 40.9%.

A study of the range of herbal products in the pharmacy "Pharmacy for the Thrifty" showed that the products of the company "Evalar" have a smaller share in the range. This is due to the fact that the cost of herbal teas of this company is much higher than similar herbal teas of the company "Farmatsvet".

Evalar also publishes its own magazine, phytodoctor, which is distributed free of charge. In each magazine, you can find a tea bag that this company produces. At any purchase, each buyer is issued such a magazine, the pharmacist should invite customers to pay attention to the magazine page, where there is a sample of a particular herbal tea and talk about the advantages of Evalar products.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Ultrasonic Instrumentats in the Dental Practice

Yuriy Andreevich Sergeev, Alexandr Anatolyevich Markov, Bayu Indra Sukmana, Herlina Uinarni, Elena Aleksandrovna Matveeva, Tuguz Salikhovich Nalbiy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 152-159
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230795

The ultrasonic instrumentation in dentistry has been used since the middle of the last century. Improved visualization, ease of operation and precise cutting ability have allowed ultrasonic instruments to be widely used in dentistry. The study considers the possibilities of using ultrasound instruments in various fields of dentistry.

Advantages of ultrasonic instruments include conservative preparation of the cavity, less painful caries removal procedure and minimal noise generation. All these improvements are presented in clinical cases. In addition, the gentle effect on soft tissues is a characteristic feature of ultrasonic devices when applied to operative or orthopedic dentistry during the preparation of the cavity.

Although some issues, such as high-frequency noise, interference to cardiac pacemakers, and low cutting efficiency compared to conventional high-speed or low-speed air-turbine tools, still need to be considered, the results of previous research show that ultrasound tools have an extremely high potential to become a convenient and effective tool for various dental procedures deserve future development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Health and Safety Training Intervention on Women Health Officers' Safety Behavior at Public Health Center Wolasi, South Konawe Regency

Syamsiar S. Russeng, Healthy Hidayanty, Adetya Firdyanti Malik, Harun Achmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 171-183
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230802

Background: Public Health Center is a workplace with the potential for occupational safety and health (K3) hazards to its officers, patients and visitors. The level of occupational safety and health risks can be significantly minimized by implementing safety behaviors. Increased safety behavior can be influenced by the practice of having interventions in the form of K3 training. Interventions are carried out based on risk assessments in the workplace.

Objective: This study aims to know the potential for hazards by conducting a risk assessment and assessing the effect of K3 training on actions based on operational procedures, use of personal protective equipment, use of equipment and tools, work posture of officers at public health center of Wolasi South Konawe Regency.

Methods: This research was a passive participatory observational study to assess potential hazards. To assess the effect of K3 training, a quasi experiment is used with a pretest - post test one group design. The sample obtained by 20 respondents with purposive sampling technique.

Results: The results showed that there were 5 potential hazards of low risk categories, 12 potential hazards of medium risk and 18 potential hazards of high risk. The results of statistical test with Wilcoxon signed rank test was that there was a significant effect on behavior based on operational procedures (p = 0.000 <0.05), the use of personal protective equipment (p= 0,000<0,05) and the use of tools and equipment (p = 0.003 <0.05). There was no significant effect on work posture. Conclusion: There is an effect of occupational safety and health training on safety behavior in terms of operational procedures, use of personal protective equipment and the use of tools and equipment for officers at public health center of Wolasi. Public health center of officers are advised to be more disciplined in performing according to the public health center of SOP. It is better for the public health center of to form a K3 team that oversees the implementation of occupational safety and health and also socializes the Minister of Health Regulation number 52 of 2018.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Interventions of Cardamom in Cancer and Other Human Diseases

Samir Qiblawi, Mohd Adnan Kausar, S. M. A. Shahid, Mohd. Saeed, Awfa Y. Alazzeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230774

Cardamom, a dietary phytoproduct, is the most popular spice in the world, and its beneficial health properties are gaining more and more attention. Small cardamom [Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton. (Family: Zingiberaceae) ] has been used for traditional therapeutic applications, including the management of asthma, teeth and gum infections, cataracts, nausea, diarrhea and heart, digestive and kidney disorders. Numerous studies have demonstrated the biological activity of cardamom and its polyphenols, including antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and metabolic control.1,8-cineole, and its esters, Limonene, α-terpinyl acetates are the most abundant bioactive constituents in cardamom. They are known to be multifunctional compounds that can be efficient in the prevention or treatment of various types of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammatory conditions, digestive disorders, as well as infectious bacterial and fungal diseases. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date research and underlying molecular mechanisms of cardamom and its active components.

Open Access Review Article

Health Professionals Dynamic Role Amid COVID-19: Nursing Perspectives

Pushpamala Ramaiah, Nahla A. Tayyib, Fatmah J. Alsolami, Grace M. Lindsay, Hayam I. Asfour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-100
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2230776

A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a newly discovered virus in 2019 in Wuhan, China.           Globally around the world, healthcare professionals (HCP), including nurses, are the                    front line health workers (FHW), considered as a vital member of the team trying to                      save several people's lives. Although leading health organizations and scientific                      papers consistently addressed the HCP challenging role concerning multidisciplinary       approaches and support systems, along with evidence-based research implications for        delivering the best possible quality care, this review resulted in four primary categories,              such as challenges, domains, support systems (code of ethics), and evidence-based            synthesis of health policy.  A step further, this article will detail the tremendous role of               brave healthcare workers, including nurses and pharmacists who proved themselves as              health warriors, along with the key issues about the nurses' perspectives on the impact of COVID-19, and to debunk the mixed messages what is being reported every day is a virtual drive for nurses focusing on the significant domains of nursing practices as a motivating factor amid COVID-19.