Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Three Different Dentifrices on Enamel by Automated Brushing Simulator- In vitro Profilometric Study

T. Keerthana, Sindhu Ramesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030723

Bacterial plaque control is critical in maintenance of oral health because dental plaque is the primary etiological factor for both caries and periodontal disease. Toothbrush and dentifrices play an integral part in accomplishing plaque removal. The aim of the study was to assess the                enamel surface abrasion caused by three different dentifrices using automated brushing            simulator and profilometer. A total of 24 samples (N=24) which are extracted for orthodontic purposes were divided into three groups based on the dentifrices used. They are Group 1-Colgate Swarnavedsakthi (n=8), Group 2-Dabur Herbal(n=8),Group 3-Ayush(n=8). Samples were  subjected to take pre profilometric readings and brushing was done by an automated brushing simulator. A Laser 3D profilometer was used to detect the wear in the enamel surface.                  Pre and Post profilometric readings were compared. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in the values of enamel abrasion among the Group 1(Colgate               Swarnavedsakthi) and Group 3(Ayush). After analysing the profilometric values, significant differences were found among the Ayush group while comparing with other groups such as Colgate Swarnavedsakthi and Dabur herbal. This indicates the higher enamel surface abrasion in the ayush group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nano-hydroxyapatite Crystal Incorporated Herbal Dentifrice on Remineralization of Incipient Caries Lesion- A Pilot Study

Shivashankar Kengadaran, Sri Sakthi, Divvi Anusha, I. Meignana Arumugham, R. Pradeep Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030724

Fluoridated dentifrices are considered as an effective method for preventing dental caries. Nano-hydroxyapatite crystals which have remineralizing potential can be combined with herbs with antimicrobial activity and used as a dentifrice without any risks like cytotoxicity and adverse effects. Nano-hydroxyapatite crystals are formulated by wet chemical precipitation method and tested using X-ray diffractometer. An herbal dentifrice is formulated from extract of Salvadora persica to which Nano-hydroxyapatite crystals are added. A 3x3mm wide window has been created in 14 extracted first premolars which are then processed through a pH cycling for 7 days. The depth of the lesion is assessed using a confocal microscope. The difference in mean depth of the lesion between test dentifrice (Herbal dentifrice with Hydroxyapatite) (240.33.± 23.47) and fluoride dentifrice (272.75±29.38) was found to be statistically significant. Herbal dentifrice with Hydroxyapatite group mean depth of the lesion was 763.13+66.18 before and 240.33+23.48 after the remineralization cycle. In the Fluoride dentifrice group the mean depth of the lesion is 763.14±66.18 before and 272.55+29.38 after the pH cycle. Herbal dentifrice incorporated with hydroxyapatite had higher remineralizing potential compared to a fluoride dentifrice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Salivary and Blood Glucose Level among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus – A Comparative Study

M. Sagana, Sreedevi Dharman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030725

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia because of the absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. It requires frequent monitoring of glucose levels in the body which requires multiple pricking at regular intervals. It could be physically and psychologically traumatic to the patient. This necessitates an alternative to measure the glucose level. This study aims to correlate the salivary glucose level with the blood glucose level in diabetes patients. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 60 patients. Patients were categorized into two groups as Group A- 30 patients with diabetes and Group B- 30 healthy subjects. The blood and saliva samples were collected from the patients and the glucose levels were recorded. All these data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed statistically using SPSS software. The mean (±SD) value of the random blood and salivary glucose level in diabetic patients were found to be 251.4±82.66 and 2.85±0.85 respectively and the mean blood and salivary glucose level in healthy subjects were found to be 101.12±10.14 and 0.875±0.13 respectively. There was a significant correlation between the salivary glucose levels and blood glucose levels among diabetes (p-0.00) and healthy individuals (p-0.00). From the data, the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 100%. Thus, Saliva could be used as an alternative to blood for monitoring the glucose status in diabetes patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Chromium Picolinate Mediated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle

M. Kavya Shree, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030726

Aim: To study the chromium picolinate mediated with zinc oxide nanoparticle and its cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity

Introduction: Chromium can alleviate glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and it is involved in the metabolism of glucose, lipid, protein, and nucleic acid .Chromium picolinate [CrPic], also named as picolinic acid chromium and several studies have proved that CrPic, as the source of Chromium, can alleviate the high level of blood glucose, blood lipid, insulin, and cholesterol in the patients with metabolic syndrome and  zinc oxide [ZnO] has also gained momentum due to their unique properties in the process of nanotechnology. Chromium picolinate works together with insulin that produced by the pancreas to metabolize carbohydrates. It's made by combining chromium with picolinic acid. The acid helps the body absorb chromium. Randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate a link between chromium supplementation and the prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Chromium supplementation of young men and women does not promote muscle accretion, fat loss, or gains in strength. Physically active individuals with concerns about meeting guidelines for nutrient intake should be counseled to select and consume foods with high nutrient densities rather than to rely on nutritional supplements.

Materials and Methods: Chromium picolinate mediated with ZnO nanoparticles were evaluated for its antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity potential using brine shrimp lethality assay.

Results: Chromium picolinate mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles show good results in antimicrobial activity as well as in cytotoxicity.

Conclusion: Chromium picolinate mediated Zn nanoparticles is an efficient antibacterial and a potential cytotoxicity agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Potential of Hyaluronic Acid Mediated Zinc Nanoparticles

N. Akash, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030727

Aim: The aim of the study is to interpret the hyaluronic acid mediated with zinc oxide nanoparticle and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

Introduction: Hyaluronic acid has a role as ‘physiological selector’ for spermatozoa prior to intracy to plasmic sperm injection (icsi). They are mostly seen in the synovial joints and act as a shock absorber. The objective of this study is to analyse the results achievable by the introduction of a routine HA. Hyaluronic acid is an immune neutral polysaccharide that is ubiquitous in the human body, and it is crucial for many cellular and tissue functions. Nanoparticles are the compounds which respond to the applied magnetic fields, magnetic separation labelled cells, therapeutic drug, gene and radionuclide delivery and other biological entities.

Materials and Methods: Hyaluronic acid mediated with zno nanoparticles were evaluated for its anti inflammatory activity and antioxidant potential using photometry analysis.

Results and Discussion: Zinc nanoparticles shows a higher efficiency of antibacterial activity, but sublethal concentration causes adverse effects and results in increased biofilm formation of V. cholerae Hyaluronic acid mediated zinc oxide nanoparticle show good result in anti inflammatory activity as well as in antioxidant activity. The biosynthesis of the nanoparticle was done by addition of hyaluronic acid with zinc nanoparticles in a scarese amount. This was kept in the orbital shaker, hence they take a long time for the synthesis. The colour change was observed, hence the synthesized nanoparticles proceeded with the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant tests.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey on Awareness of Rubella Vaccine among College Girls

Allour Vaishnavi, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030728

Background: The Rubella virus is classified under the Arbovirus. It commonly affects children of age less than 10 years. In an adult, it mostly remains as a latent infection. Its persistence in an adult is more significant in a woman's life especially after adolescence, in the childbearing age. It is a factor commonly associated with infertility in a woman and congenital malformation. Latent infections in women will also lead to abortion. It is recommended by WHO that all women at childbearing age should be given a booster dose before the age of 18. In a country like India, rubella infection in women leads to social and mental issues. Thus the awareness among the girls at the age of 18 is imperative.

Methods: This survey was conducted among the 100 undergraduate students and postgraduate students at saveetha dental college from December, 2019 to January,2020. They were given a questionnaire to know about the rubella viral infection and the issues related to infertility. The results were collected and then analyzed through SPSS software. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out and the chi-square test was used and the p-value was calculated.

Results: The survey reveals that many girls are aware of the rubella vaccine but not its benefits in preventing rubella virus infection and its complications. Among them 50% girls have knowledge about the significance of rubella infection in young adults, 22% among them are aware of female infertility is also related to poor rubella immunity, 42% are aware of congenital malformation are common in rubella, 30% girls answered that rubella vaccine at our teenage will prevent infertility issues.

Conclusion: It is also found that the information they have on the consequence of the persistence of rubella in them is abstract. The real impact on their life is not understood by many. This is evident with their willingness to get immunized at the risky part of their life. This can be mitigated by conducting regular awareness camps in schools, colleges, and their workplace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Nicotine Dependence, Cotinine Level and Carbon Monoxide Levels among Tobacco Users Employed in Private Automobile Companies in Chennai

Manali Deb Barma, R. Pradeep Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030729

Background and Aim: Tobacco is a leading preventable cause of death which causes death of six millions each year worldwide. One of the most effective methods of preventing this are tobacco counseling sessions as it provides a platform for the patient and the dental professionals to map out a plan for the patient to lead a tobacco free life. Therefore, the study was conducted to assess nicotine dependence, cotinine level and carbon monoxide levels among tobacco users employed in private automobile companies in Chennai.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Subject and Methods: A cross sectional study of 53 males was conducted among automobile company employees, using simple random sampling technique in Chennai, India. A detailed questionnaire assessing their demographic data, pattern of usage of tobacco, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine Dependence was recorded, carbon monoxide levels were recorded using Smokerlyzer, and presence of urine cotinine was recorded. Descriptive statistics and Chi square test were used to analyze the data.

Results: The mean age of the study participants was 31.7±11.32. Prevalence of smoking tobacco (64.20%) was higher among the study participants. Majority of the smoker study participants were highly dependent on tobacco, according to the FNTD scale. No statistical significance was found between dependency on nicotine and carbon monoxide levels among users of smoking tobacco (p <0.05). A statistical significant association (p <0.05) was found between dependency on nicotine and presence of urine cotinine among smokers.

Conclusion: High level of nicotine dependence was observed in the smoker participants, and cotinine in urine was found to be a prominent marker of nicotine among users of smoking tobacco. Carbon monoxide levels were high among people with higher dependency on smoking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Aromatherapy in Healing Stress and Body Pain among Dental Students

V. A. Muralidharan, A. Jothi Priya, Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030730

Aromatherapy is a style of practice in medicine where essential oils or other scents are used. These are either applied or directly inhaled to attain therapeutic benefit. Also they are used either by distillation with water or steam, or from the epicarp of citrus fruits by a mechanical process or by dry distillation. The mechanism of action in aromatherapy is unknown, but recent studies have shown that aromatherapy is also beneficial for a few health problems. A range of essential oils are found to possess various degrees of antimicrobial activity and are believed to own antiviral, nematicidal, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties. Hence this treatment is also known as essential oil therapy. At the current situation of COVID -19 there is a prevalence of stress due to lockdown. This mental stress can adversely affect the physical and mental well-being of each and every individual. In order to overcome this stress this aroma therapy can be used. The main aim of the study is to assess the awareness of the use of aromatherapy in healing stress and body pain. This was a cross sectional study conducted among the dental students through a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 10 questions and was circulated among the student population. The statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS software version 2.0. The results concludes that most of the participants are aware of aromatherapy and the found it beneficial in healing stress and body pain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age-and Gender-Related Differences in Anticoagulant Drugs Use Patterns

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030731

Aim: Drug utilization study is considered a powerful exploratory tool to assess the present trends of drug prescribing and appropriateness of prescription and to analyze the differences in drugs utilization with respect to several factors such as age and gender. This study aims to describe the age-and gender-related differences in anticoagulant drugs use patterns.

Methodology: The present study included the review of outpatient electronic prescriptions that include an anticoagulant drug in 2018 in a public hospital in Al-karj, Saudi Arabia.

Results: Enoxaparin was prescribed mainly for patients between 20-39 years old (63.48%). Warfarin was prescribed mainly for patient more than 50 years old (59.38%). Enoxaparin was prescribed mainly for female patients (86.09%). Rivaroxaban and warfarin were prescribed mainly for female patients, 64.71% and 59.38% respectively.

Conclusion: There are differences in prescribing anticoagulant according to gender and age. It is important to know the differences in prescribing anticoagulants according to age and gender and if the treatment is inappropriate, it is important to identify and address reasons for treatment disparities in anticoagulation prescription.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Approach to Identify Mutations in Genes of Notch Signaling Pathway and Its Association with OSCC

Madhumithaa Sivarajan, A. S. Smiline Girija, A. Paramasivam, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030732

Derailments in signal transduction pathways are associated with the development of tumors. One such vital pathway is the Notch signaling pathway which is associated with various processes of carcinogenesis such as proliferation of cells, cell renewal, angiogenesis and oncogenic microenvironment preservation. Interestingly, Notch also plays a pivotal role in tumor development by acting as an oncogene as well as tumor suppressor gene. In view of this fact, the present study was designed to analyze mutations in Notch signalling pathway which might have a crucial role in the etiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computational approach. The Cancer Gene Atlas data set hosted in the cBioportal was used in the present study. These samples were queried for the presence of mutations in Notch signalling genes which included a predefined list of 55 genes. Further, the Oncoprint data obtained was compared to that of gnomAD database which identified novel and reported mutations in the genes analyzed. Additionally, I-Mutant and MutPred analysis was carried out to determine the stability and pathogenicity of the variations recorded. Among 55 genes analysed, SPEN gene was shown to possess the highest frequency of mutation (5%) followed by FBXW7, Notch1, EP300, NUMB, and RBPJL genes. Most of the mutations identified were novel as assessed using the control dataset from the gnomAD database. The stability of the protein was found to decrease upon nucleotide substitution. Finally, the MutPred score revealed that most of the mutant proteins were pathogenic.  Several novel mutations have been identified in the pathway analyzed. Functional analysis of these variants using experimental approaches would aid in dissecting their association with OSCC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decoding the Genetic Alterations in PRAME Gene Family and Its Association with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

J. Dhivyadharshini, A. S. Smiline Girija, A. Paramasivam, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-102
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030733

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common form of cancer with an incidence rate greater in male than in female. Advancements in molecular diagnostics have identified several pathways which can have a direct or indirect role in the development and progression of HNSCC. The PRAME (PReferentially Antigen expressed in MElanoma) gene family is yet another group of genes which has been recently implicated in HNSCC. The present study aims to identify the genetic alterations, the pattern of gene expression and the consequence of mutations in the PRAME family of genes in HNSCC patients. Several databases such as cBioportal, gnomAD, IMutant, PROVEAN were used to assess genetic alterations. The alterations included deep deletions, amplification, inframe, missense, truncating mutations. The gene showing the highest frequency of alteration (PRAME - 3%) was further assessed for its gene expression profile using the UALCAN database. The expression profile relative to normal samples was found to be significantly higher in HNSCC patients (p = 1.11 x 10-16). Further, the survival curve based on high and low/medium expression of the PRAME gene was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. The analysis revealed a significant difference in the survival rate of patients with high and low/medicum level expression (0.0095). In addition, the high level expression was found to be associated with poor survival rate in HNSCC patients compared to those exhibiting low and medium level expression. In conclusion the study provides insights into the putative association of genes of the PRAME family with HNSCC. The preliminary results have to be further validated using experimental procedures.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Antibiotic Use for Children in Chennai among Mothers

B. Revathi, Kiran Kumar Pandurangan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 103-112
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030734

Background and Aim: Mothers play a vital role in providing antibiotics to their children since they are too often affected with infections. Hence, the purpose of this study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards antibiotic use of children in Chennai among mothers. 

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among mothers of 250 participants. A questionnaire based online survey was conducted and distributed through the survey planet. The data were collected and tabulated in Microsoft Excel sheets which were transferred to SPSS Version 20 for statistical analysis. Chi square test was performed to check for association between variables. 

Results: About 71.3% of the mothers are not aware that antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem and 53.3% are paying attention to the expiry date of antibiotics and also 59.3% of the respondents give higher doses of antibiotics to their child than what doctor’s prescribed. 44% of them are providing antibiotics prescribed by local pharmacists without any doctor's prescription.      A highly significant association was seen in mothers with monthly income of <30000 rupees do not prefer expensive antibiotics compared to monthly income of >30000 rupees (Chi square test; p<0.001, statistically significant). 

Conclusion: The study concluded that the mother’s limited knowledge about antibiotics. Hence it is important to facilitate multilevel parent’s education programs regarding antibiotic usage and create awareness about the complications of misconceptions of antibiotics. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Day to Day Use of Disinfectant Methods for Different Impression Materials among Dental Practitioners

Santhanam Panneer Selvam, V. Rakshagan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 113-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030735

One of the major problems which most dental professionals face is cross contamination and cross infection. During the fabrication of dental prosthesis, special care should be taken for every step, especially impressions as they are one of  the main concern.  This  is because impressions are one of the most known  to  be  the  main  source of  infection for  any potentially infectious material . To check the practice of disinfection level among the dental practitioners, a questionnaire containing 15 questions was prepared. This survey was carried between the month of June 2019 to March 2020 among the dental practitioners living in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This survey was carried under an online platform where the participants responded to their answers. Based on their responses, the result was tabulated. We got a result of about 64% practitioners practicing protocol to disinfect impressions 65% use alginate to take impressions. 44% use 2% glutaraldehyde to disinfect impressions. 46% prefer spraying disinfectant over impression tray. Based on much research, it was reported that dental technicians were suffering from infections in hand restoratory systems, so on humanitarian basis we dentists can take better measures ourselves in avoiding cross contamination to fellow dental technicians by following proper and simple methods for disinfection of impressions before sending them to dental laboratories. To conclude awareness workshops, programs must be organised to create awareness among dentists to present cross infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Toad Parotid Gland Secretion from Indian Toad (Bufo melanostictus) in Diabetic Rats: An Experimental Evidence of P-Glycoprotein Inhibition

Naveen Kumar Madugula, Prasad Neerati

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-135
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030736

The study was conducted to improve the oral bioavailability of glyburide (GLY) with Indian Toad Parotid Gland Secretions (TPGS). P-glycoprotein is an efflux transporter cellular protein and effluxes xenobiotics and drugs to the outside of cells lead to decreased concentration of drugs at the target site. P-gp inhibitors essentially increase the levels and there is a need for new P-gp inhibitors to develop for the improvement of the oral bioavailability of P-gp substrate drugs because the existing inhibitors have serious side effects. This study was aimed to describe the P-gp inhibitory action from TPGS, Bufo melanostictus, in diabetic rats by using glyburide as p-gp substrate. Acute toxicity studies showed 300 mg/kg as toxic dose and 50 mg/kg was selected as study dose according to OECD 423. LC-HRMS study conducted to identify the new compounds. Apparent permeability (Papp) was estimated by non-everted sac method (In Vitro) with rat jejunum and ileum to confirm the P-gp inhibitory activity of TPGS by using fexofenadine (FEX) as P-gp substrate. In in-vivo protocol rats grouped into 4 groups (n=6), the first one is normal, second diabetic, third GLY 30 mg/kg, and fourth group GLY+ TPGS, 50 mg/kg for the single and multiple-dose treatment study. The spectrometric analysis revealed the new compounds, and TPGS Papp (X10-6 cm/s) in rat jejunum and ileum was significantly increased from 2.0±0.1 to 6.4±0.3 and 1.2±0.3 to 3.0±0.3 respectively. Blood glucose concentration in rats more than 250 mg/dl were considered as diabetic and in single, multiple-dose interaction studies (SDI, MDI) the concentrations decreased from 140.0±2.0 and 122.0±2.2 µg/dl respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters like Cmax, Cl and in SDI, MDI and significant increase of C max and AUC t and decrease of Cl was observed. The above results conclude that TPGS had the potential P-gp inhibitory activity and improved the oral bioavailability of GLY significantly. Subsequent experimentation is warranted to chemically characterize the compounds from TPGS as potential new P-gp inhibitors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with Adherence to Medication among Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital of Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

Sristi Neupane, Parbati Thapa, Anil Giri, Sumitra Shrestha, Nirmal Raj Marasine

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 136-144
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030737

Objective: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known to have poor medication adherence in Nepal. Various factors affect the medication adherence of COPD patients. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the medication adherence and its associated factors among the COPD patients in tertiary care hospitals in central Nepal.

Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 164 patients aged ≥18 years, diagnosed with and under medication(s) of COPD for at least 6 months from  September 2017 to March 2018, in a tertiary care hospital in central Nepal, using a purposive sampling technique. Morisky Green Levine Adherence (MGLA) score was employed to determine the rate of medication adherence. The differences between the two groups (adherent and non-adherent) were tested using independent t-test, and Chi-square tests, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.  

Results: Patients were mostly ≥60 years (87.1%) and female (56.7%). The majority of the patients were found adherent to the prescribed treatment (108; 65.9%). The major reason for non-adherence was seem to be stopping medicine when feeling better (41.08%) and most of the patients had discontinued the medication due to experience of symptomatic relief (42.9%).Medication adherence was statistically significant with age group at p=0.040, educational status p=0.020, no. of daily drugs p= 0.029, and health behavior of the patients (p= 0.025).

Conclusion: Our study suggested that two-third of COPD patients were adherent to their medication, and age, education, number of drugs, and health behaviors of the patients were the most influencing factors for medication adherence.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Pharmaceutical Application of Sulfoxy Amine Chitosan in Design, Development and Evaluation of Transdermal Drug Delivery of Gliclazide

Jadhav Rahul Laxman, Ahire Pallavi, Yadav Adhikrao Vyankatrao, Gharge G. Varsha, Patil Manisha Vyankatrao, Shaikh Siraj Nawaj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 145-161
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030738

Objective: The aim & objectives of this research work was to explore applicability of our previously synthesized sulfoxy amine chitosan in design, development and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery of Gliclazide.

Methods: To determine the interaction between excipients used and to find out the nature of drug in the formulation, Fourier transforms infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC) studies were performed. Gliclazide containing transdermal patch were formulated with help of Sulfoxy Amine Chitosan, HPMC, Penetration enhancer Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Glycerine by using solvent casting method.9 formulations prepared by using 32 full factorial designs the effect of formulation variable was studied on % Moisture Content, Folding endurance, % Cumulative drug release at 12 hrs.Formulated transdermal patches were evaluated for various parameters.

Results: FTIR & DSC suggest study no drug & polymers interaction .All the prepared transdermal patches were found to be faint yellow in colored, flexible, uniform, smooth, and transparent. The weight of the transdermal patches for different type of formulations ranged between 12.00 ± 0.6 mg & 14.2 ± 0.52 mg. The thickness of the patches varied from 0.171 ± 0.0035 mm to 0.182 ± 0.0026 mm. The moisture content & water vapour transmission rate in the patches ranged from 2.33 to 4.55% & from 0.002246 to 0.003597 24hrs.XRD diffractogram revealed  pure Gliclazide exhibited characteristic high-intensity diffraction peaks & optimized formulation showed  three peaks in 2θ= 20.6 28.7 and 38.95 with very weak intensities. Optimized batch F7 showed maximum drug release 98.41%. The folding endurance was lies in between 301 and 359. Optimization study was successfully conducted using 32 factorial designs.

Conclusion: We concluded that transdermal patches Gliclazide of was successfully formulated with synthesized Sulfoxy Amine Chitosan & evaluated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders as an Occupational Hazard among Periodontists in India – A Questionnaire Based Survey

Gaurav N. Ketkar, Sankari Malaiappan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 162-183
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030739

Ergonomics can be defined as a discipline that studies workers and their relationship to their occupational environment. To prevent musculoskeletal disorders which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability proper ergonomic design is necessary. Periodontal work covers most of the areas in the oral cavity including distal aspects of posterior teeth which are difficult to approach. Hence preventing work related strain was of greater significance in ensuring long term successful practice as a periodontists. The purpose of this survey was to assess the knowledge attitude and practice of ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders as an occupational hazard in periodontists in India .A survey was conducted among 150 periodontists in India in which 120 periodontists responded. The survey was distributed through questionnaire printouts and electronic media. The data was collected, analysed and interpreted. The results suggested that 85% of the periodontists had adequate knowledge and attitude towards ergonomics, however the practical application was not as satisfactory. This survey concludes that the knowledge and attitude of periodontists in India regarding ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders as an occupational hazard is good overall, but the practice is needs some improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cross-Sectional Study of Prevalence of COVID-19 in Alkharj, Saudi Arabia

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 184-188
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030740

Aim: Forecasting the prevalence of the disease is important for health departments to strengthen surveillance systems and reallocate resources. The aim of this study is to assess the occurrence of COVID-19 in Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.

Methodology:  This is a cross-sectional study that included data about the occurrence of COVID-19 cases in Alkharj, Saudi Arabia between the 12th of July, 2020 till 5th of august, 2020. Data were extracted from Saudi Ministry of Health official site and also from Saudi Ministry of Health page on Facebook.

Results: The rate of cases in Alkharj were low in comparison with other cities. The number of population in Saudi Arabia was 34,871,847 in 2020. among of these people, More than 425,300 live in Alkharj. So Alkharj residents represent about 1.219 % of the total population in Saudi Arabia. COVID-19 cases in Alkharj represent only 0.576% of total cases in Saudi Arabia. In Alkharj, only 0.387 % of the population suffered from COVID-19 (out of 425,300 people there were 1646 COVID-19 patients)

Conclusion: This study showed a reduction in the number of COVID-19 cases but still it is essential to implement the preventive measures to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Ocular Perfusion Pressure in Hypertensive Patients

S. Shruthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 189-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030742

Aim: To describe the distribution of ocular perfusion pressure hypertensive patients.

Design: Cross-sectional observation study.

Materials and Methods: Hospital-based, case control cross-sectional study conducted on 100 patients. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) was measured with a Mercury Sphygmomanometer. Mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) = ⅔ (mean arterial pressure − IOP), where mean arterial pressure (MAP) = DBP + ⅓ (SBP − DBP), systolic perfusion pressure (SPP) = SBP – IOP and diastolic perfusion pressure (DPP) = DBP − IOP was calculated.

Results: High values of diastolic BP (>90 mmHg) and low values of OPP (<40 mmHg) were associated to an increased risk of confirmed POAG.

Conclusion: There is a close relationship between OPP and confirmed glaucoma in hypertensive patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Evaluation of the Effects of Quercetin On Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication in Rats

Hasan Hüseyin Kozak, İbrahim Kılınç, Alpaslan Özkürkçüler

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 195-201
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030743

Previous studies have shown the role of oxidative stress in methanol toxicity. Also, studies have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin (Q). This study evaluates the effect of quercetin (Q) administration on total oxidant status (TOS), total anti-oxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and paraoxanase 1 (PON1) levels in rats with experimentally-induced methanol (MeOH) intoxication. Six groups were constituted as control, methotrexate (Mtx), Mtx+MeOH, Mtx+MeOH+ethanol (EtOH), Mtx+MeOH+Q1, Mtx+MeOH+Q2. All rats except controls were injected Mtx (0.3 mg/kg daily) intra-peritoneally (IP) for 7 days. On the 8th day of the test, 3 g/kg MeOH was injected IP in MeOH, EtOH and Q groups. Four hours after MeOH administration, 0.5 g/kg EtOH was injected IP in EtOH group and 50 mg/kg Q was administered IP in Q1 and Q2 groups. In addition, a total of 5 doses of 50 mg/kg Q was injected IP 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the first dose in Q2 group. Saline solution was given IP in the other groups. Rats were sacrificed with anesthesia 8 hours after the administrations. Blood samples were obtained for evaluating total oxidant status (TOS), total anti-oxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and paraoxanase 1 (PON1) levels. The highest TOS level was found in MeOH+MTx group. A significant reduction was detected in serum TOS levels in MeOH+Mtx+EtOH, MeOH+Mtx+Q1 and MeOH+Mtx+Q2 groups. The lowest serum TAS level was detected in MeOH+Mtx group. Maximum TAS level elevation was found in MeOH+Mtx+Q2, MeOH+Mtx+Q1 and MeOH+Mtx+EtOH groups. The highest OSI ratio was found in MeOH+Mtx group. A reduction was detected in OSI ratios in MeOH+Mtx+EtOH, MeOH+Mtx+Q1 and MeOH+Mtx+Q2 groups as compared to MeOH+Mtx group. The lowest serum PON1 level was found in MeOH+Mtx group. Maximum serum PON1 level elevation was found in MeOH+Mtx+Q2 group. The results indicating that quercetin administration could be effective on both acute and subacute processes of methanol intoxication were tried to be revealed through serum TOS, TAS, OSI and PON1 levels. These results show that quercetin could be used as an alternative treatment option in methanol intoxication.

Open Access Review Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Herbal Nano-suspensions and Evaluation of their In-vivo Antihypertensive Potential with Especial Focus on Piperine

Arifa Murtaza, Tayyba Rehman, Zohaib Zafar, Safia Noreen, Mahwish Iqbal, Samia Hassan, Iqra Khawaish, Muhammad Haseeb Anwar Tarar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 202-215
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2030772

Poor aqueous solubility is the principle obstacle in accomplishing suitable oral bioavailability for huge proportion of drug composites in drug development todays. Nano-suspension is an emerging field of research in the scientific community to provide a new solution for poorly water-soluble active constituents. The objective of the nano-suspension is to reduce the drug particle size (100-200 nm) range, which enhance solubility and bioavailability of biopharmaceutical active compounds. Crude extract of Piper nigrum shows various biological activities but poor aqueous solubility so, there is a need to isolate the piperine from Piper nigrum and prepare its nano-suspension to reduce particle size and enhance its bioavailability. This review defines the principles behind nanosizing, the synthesis and characterization of piperine nano-suspension as well as the recent practice withapplication of such formulations in-vivo can be used as a better alternative to treat cardiovascular diseases with improved therapeutic efficacy compared to extract.