Open Access Original Research Article

Randomized Clinical Trial of Anesthetic Efficacy of Buffered Versus Conventional Local Anesthetic Agent in Patient with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis

Srujana Hemmanur, Iffat Nasim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730662

Local anesthetics are used to alleviate pain and discomfort of the patient during root canal therapy. Effective pain control is an absolute essential for better patient compliance and attitude towards the treatment. The purpose of the study was to observe the onset of action of local anesthesia, its duration of action and pain experienced by the patient during treatment procedure. Patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and no changes in the periapical tissues indicated for endodontic management were included in the study. The study was a double blinded randomised clinical trial. The non-randomization procedure allocated 32 teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, 8 teeth to each control group (group I treated by conventional 2% Lignocaine and group III treated by conventional 4% Articaine HCL) and 8 teeth to each experimental group (group II treated by buffered 2% Lignocaine and group IV treated by buffered 4% Articaine HCL).The buffering of local anesthetic agent improves the efficacy, onset of action and longevity of the local anesthetic agent. Buffered local anesthetics can be used in place of conventional local anesthetic agents. Long term clinical trials will be required to observe the result and to draw a comment and conclusion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Awareness towards Benefits of Lavender Oil

G. Preethi, R. Gayatri Devi, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730663

Lavender essential oil is one of the famous essential oils which is used in aromatherapy. Lavender oil is known to relieve psychological problems and also helps in treating fungal infections, allergies, insomnia, etc. Lavender oil possesses certain properties like antibacterial, antifungal and antidepressant. Lavender oil is found to be useful in the treatment of acute as well as chronic pain. Thus the aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and awareness about the benefits of the lavender oil among people. A questionnaire comprising 10 questions was posted on an online survey platform. The data collection was done through Google forms and the statistical software used for the analysis included the SPSS software. Descriptive analysis was used. In this study, 69% of the people were aware that lavender oil helps in reducing anxiety and 78% of them believed that lavender oil is good for skin. From this survey, it is evident that the majority of them were aware about uses and medicinal benefits of lavender oil. The present study assessed the knowledge and awareness about the benefits of lavender oil among people, by using a survey on one hundred persons. This survey may help the people to use lavender oil in day to day life and thereby they can improve their mental health and relax themselves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Nanomedicine among Undergraduate Dental Students

P. Deeksheetha, Kiran Kumar Pandurangan, Ashok Velayudhan, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730664

The term Nanotechnology involves a spectrum of technologies, techniques and processes that can deal with a matter at the nanoscale falling in between 1 nanometre to 100 nanometres in size. The concept of nanotechnology was introduced in 1959 by Richard P Feynman, a Nobel winning physicist. The aim of this research is to assess the knowledge and awareness of nanomedicine and its application in the field of dentistry among dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 dental undergraduate internship students. The questionnaire contained 10 open-ended questions eliciting the knowledge and awareness about nanomedicine and its application in dentistry. The questionnaire was distributed via an online survey tool. The responses were collected and tabulated in the excel sheets, following which they were exported to SPSS software for statistical analysis. 52% of the students were aware of the term nanomedicine. 33% and 16% of the students had awareness of the nano modified impression material and nano modified denture teeth respectively. This study concluded that the knowledge and awareness of nanomedicine and its application in the field of dentistry was moderate among dental students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness among the Public and Pharmacists on Storage Media for Avulsed Tooth and the Availability of the Same in Pharmacies of a Metropolitan City in India - A Survey

Keerthana Baskar, Geo Mani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730665

It's always important to save and preserve the natural tooth rather than fix a replacement for it. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of transport media for avulsed teeth among public and pharmacists, and the availability of the same in pharmacies in a metropolitan city in India. Two separate structured questionnaires consisting of demographic details, and questions to assess the knowledge and attitude of the general public and the pharmacies were distributed. From the study it was elicited that the awareness among the general public as well as the pharmacists regarding transport media for avulsed teeth is inadequate. In most of the pharmacies the transport media for avulsed teeth was not available and the awareness among the pharmacists regarding the same was found to be inadequate.Within the limits of the study, it was found that inadequate availability and lack of awareness regarding transport media for avulsed teeth was noticed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness of Vitamin K Therapy among Dental Students

Hena Mariam Fathima, Dhanraj Ganapathy, R. Subhashree, V. Rakshagan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730666

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, important for the function of numerous proteins within the body, such as the coagulation factors, osteocalcin, and matrix-Gla protein. Vitamin K exists naturally as vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone). Vitamin K has a plethora of potential implications, including prevention and treatment of arterial calcifications, coronary heart disease, and cancer, improvements in bone strength, and reduced risks of fractures as well as improvements in insulin sensitivity. The survey was cross-sectional in design. Following participant self-administered enrolment in the study, data were collected by a questionnaire that assessed participants’ knowledge about vitamin k therapy. This study was conducted among the clinical dental students in different dental colleges across Chennai. The questionnaire consisted of 10 multiple-choice questions. From the results, it is seen that only 10% of the participants knew that Vitamin K2 can increase bone mass while most of them were unsure. Only 16% were aware that Vitamin K2 can improve the salivary buffering capacity via its impact on the secretion of calcium and inorganic phosphates while a large 65% were not aware. Only 18% knew that Vitamin K can actually build new dentin and 60% were unsure of the same. The level of knowledge and awareness of vitamin k therapy among dental students in dental students was poor. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on Herbal Mouthwash among Dental Students

Nathasha Sivakumar, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Kiran Kumar Pandurangan, Ashok Velayudhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730667

Background: Plaque is the main factor responsible for dental diseases such as dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Dentists play a vital role in the maintenance of oral hygiene and prescribing mouthwash of plaque control agents is of greater value. This study carried out the awareness of herbal mouthwash among dental students and knows about the herbal mouthwash in detail

Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the awareness of herbal mouthwash among Dental students.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by assessing responses to 10 selected questions related to herbal mouthwash through a survey planet among 100 dental students. The results were studied and analyzed.

Results: In this present survey, Awareness of dental students related to herbal mouth wash, only 67% answered only peppermint oil is used in herbal mouth wash. While 9% said it has only cinnamon oil and 3% of them said it has lavender oil and 21% answered it has all of the essential oil mentioned. About 8% of the students said herbal mouthwash only has antibacterial effects. While 12% answered for antimicrobial effect, 6% answered for anti-inflammatory effect and the rest of 24% of the students said it has an antibacterial, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effect.

Conclusion: Awareness on herbal mouthwash for general oral health among dental students is still below the satisfactory level. Awareness of the herbal mouthwash for maintaining good oral hygiene needs to be enhanced among dental students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on the Use of Steroidal Drugs among Basketball Players in School

Kaushik Vishnu Rajkumar, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Keerthi Sasanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730668

Background: The use of performance enhancing drugs by pre-teenagers and teenagers has increased tremendously over the past decade. The trend is driven by multiple factors, including the decrease in the age of participation in competing sports, the increase in popularity of team sports. The questions were distributed through an online survey planet link to the study professionals including 69 basketball professionals. The participants were explained in detail about the purpose. The questions were carefully studied and the corresponding answers were marked by the participants the data was collected and statistically analysed. From the current study, about 83.3% of the population were aware of the use of steroidal drugs in basketball and 16.7% were not aware of it. Majority of the population are aware of the use of steroidal drugs in sports and they are aware of the harmful effects of it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Octenidine Dihydrochloride with Contemporary Root Canal Disinfectants: A Systematic Review

Rukhsaar Akbar Gulzar, P. Ajitha, Haripriya Subbaiyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730669

Octenidine is a cationic disinfectant that has been tested for its wide range of antibacterial efficacy and biocompatibility. It finds its application in the medical field as an antiseptic for wounds and mucous membranes. The present systematic review aims to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of Octenidine Dihydrochloride with various root canal irrigants and medicaments. An electronic search strategy was planned to search the database of PUBMED CENTRAL and MEDLINE using the search terms alone and in combination using PUBMED search builder till September 2019 for related studies. In Vitro studies that compared the antibacterial efficacy of Octenidine Dihydrochloride to other irrigants and medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using extracted human teeth were included in the review. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in the microbial load which was assessed through either CFU or the percentage of viable and dead bacteria. A total of 7 studies that matched the inclusion criteria were included in the systematic review. The studies indicated that Octenidine Dihydrochloride was highly effective in eliminating E faecalis and C albicans and could be a more biocompatible potential alternative or an adjunct to the existing irrigants and medicaments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cross Sectional Survey on the Amount of Sugar Content in Cakes on Sale in Chennai and Its Correlation with Dental Caries

Rachel Paul, Deepa Gurunathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730670

Cakes are one of the most commonly consumed product by kids and adults and are consumed even more during special occasions. Packaged cake products have a lot of sugar content in them and sugar is one of the main factors causing dental caries in children. Keeping all this in mind this research was done to evaluate the correlation between the amount of cakes consumed and the incidence of dental craie in children. The data was collected from products packaging nutrition labelling provided by the company and also included the products name, pack weight, serving size, total sugars per 100 gms as well as per suggested serving size. A questionnaire was used to obtain the information on the correlation with dental caries. The data was collected and tabulated in excel sheet. The data analysis was done using SPSS software by IBM.  A total of 40 products were collected and tabulated. The average sugar content in cakes was 22.5 g. There was a large variation in sugar content between different cakes of the different categories within the same categories. Among the 40 products, 36 products showed a high sugar content when compared to the normal recommended dose for children. The study showed that the sugar content present in cakes was high and there can be a reduction in the amount of sugar present in it and thus reduce the risk of obesity and dental caries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-microbial Efficacy of Commercially Available Herbal Dentifrices on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

Naziya K. Babu, I. Meignana Arumugham, R. Pradeep Kumar, D. Sri Sakthi, S. Shiva Shanmugham

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-94
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730671

Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease .Various chemically derived antimicrobial agents are incorporated to dentifrices to curb cariogenic microorganisms. There has been renewed interest in naturally occurring products in recent years, the side effects encountered with the use of synthetic formulations led to the surge for novel alternatives. To compare the efficacy of herbal dentifrices on oral microflora using antibiotic susceptibility tests. Two strains of microorganisms- Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans were taken and incubated in Mutans media, Sabouraud Dextrose agar respectively. Different dilutions (1:5, 1:10, 1:15) of several brands of toothpastes with different compositions were made. Sterile discs were incorporated with equal amounts of prepared toothpaste formulations. Then these discs were placed equidistant to each other followed by plates were incubated for 24 hours. Zone of inhibition is found to be higher in Ayush (30 mm), followed by Dant kanti, Colgate vedshakti, Meswak, Dantajeevan and Dabur red showing inhibition zones of 26 mm, 24 mm, 17 mm and 14 mm respectively. Results show that herbal toothpaste formulations were effective in controlling the oral microflora. The antimicrobial properties of the six dentifrices concluded that almost all the commercially available herbal dentifrices had antimicrobial activity to some extent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding HPV Vaccination among Undergraduate and Postgraduate Dental Students in Chennai

Keerthana Baskar, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 95-100
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730672

Background: It is important for dental students to be aware of the HPV vaccination as they are prone to cervical cancer caused due to HPV 16 and 18. HPV can be transmitted through saliva from the patient's oral cavity to the dentist. To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HPV vaccination among dental students in Chennai.

Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was prepared to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HPV vaccination. The questionnaire was circulated among 150 students.

Results: 90 students were undergraduates and 60 were postgraduates, p<0.05. 72.7% of the students were aware of HPV vaccination. 45.5% of the students were aware that HPV vaccination is administered against cervical cancer. Only 30% of the students were immunised against HPV.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study it was found that most of the students were aware of HPV vaccination, although very few were immunised with HPV vaccination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Dental Students on the Application of PRF in Dental Practice - A Survey

Kadambari Sriram, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Revathi Duraisamy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 101-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730673

Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a fibrin matrix in which platelet cytokines, growth factors, and cells are trapped and may be released after a certain time and that can serve as a resorbable membrane.

In other words, it is an increased concentration of platelets suspended in a matrix which can serve as a vehicle to carry cells involved in tissue regeneration. This survey aimed at assessing the knowledge and awareness of Platelet-rich fibrin among dental students. The study was done in an online setting among the dental students of the Chennai population. The sample size of 150 participants of the age group 20-23 years, both males and females were selected by a simple random sampling method. Both descriptive (frequency of the responses) and inferential statistics (Chi-square tests) were done and the results were presented in the forms of graphs. According to this survey-based study, it was noted that the majority of participants were comprised of females (67%). It was observed that 87% of the population participated in the study were aware of the term PRF (ie. platelet-rich fibrin) whereas 13% of the population was not aware of the term. The statistical association between gender and the awareness of PRF, its advantages, and components was found to be significant (p<0.05), with females having more awareness than males. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that while dental students are aware of PRF they do not have extensive knowledge of its components and its application in various procedures. It was also observed that there was a disparity in awareness between the genders where females were much aware compared to males. We propose to include this knowledge of PRF in the curriculum to ensure increased awareness of PRF among dental students. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on Intradermal Injection among Dentists

Chithambara Shathviha Palaniappan, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 114-125
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730674

An intradermal injection may be given for diagnostic purposes checking for allergy, lymphogranuloma inguinale or tuberculosis and for treating diseases like vitiligo. Due to the limited blood supply of that skin layer, medication injected into the dermis is absorbed slowly. The aim of the study is to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on the use of intradermal injection in dental practice by the dentists. The study was formulated as a questionnaire-based observational study comprising 100 participants. All the subjects were requested to respond to a list of questions regarding the intradermal injections and their use in dental practice by the dentists. More than 88% of the dentists are aware of the intradermal injection and they prefer them during the clinical practice for diagnostic purposes. The intradermal injection of lidocaine reduces the pain in patients and dentists are aware of its use in dental practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Awareness and Perception about Osteoporosis among Housekeeping Employees – A Survey

M. Rangeela, R. Gayathri, V. Vishnu Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 126-135
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730675

Osteoporosis is a serious health concern that affects millions of people around the world, and India is not an exception. Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and deterioration of the microarchitecture of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in the bone fragility and increased susceptibility to trauma fractures. Awareness and perceptions of belief and susceptibility in the seriousness of a disease can help in its prevention and control. It includes a questionnaire based study. The survey was conducted among 150 housekeeping employees of age group 45 and above from a private college. The results were obtained and statistically analysed through SPSS software, chi square test was done to check the association and a p value of 0.05 was said to be statistically significant. Osteoporosis is considered to be the most common skeletal disorder affecting humans with high prevalence, worldwide. About 73% of employees were aware of osteoporosis in which 45% of women had experienced bone pain and fracture. Fracture is one of the most serious consequences of osteoporosis that hinders the patient’s quality of life. About 75% of employees have moderate awareness about low calcium or high salt intake and family history predispose a person to osteoporosis. The current study concluded that the knowledge on osteoporosis risk factors, exercise and calcium intake among housekeeping employees could be considered moderate. Furthermore, education of the public regarding prevention of osteoporosis must be incorporated in the health services.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey Based Study on Effectiveness of Oil Pulling and Mouthwash

V. Vamshi Ram, Jothi Priya, Gayathri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 136-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730676

Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness between oil pulling (Gingelly oil) and mouthwash.

Objective: To create awareness and to compare the effectiveness between oil pulling and mouthwash.

Materials and Methods: The questionnaire- based study was carried out online through a survey monkey app. Individuality was ensured when the subjects filled up the survey. 100 students took part in the survey. A total of 10 questions were asked based on the responses from the subjects, statistical analysis was performed and the results were tabulated systematically.

Result: The studyshows that the effectiveness of cleaning the mouth is almost equal between oil pulling and mouthwash with a result 51% for mouth wash and 49% for oil pulling. And for the question which is safer among oil pulling and mouthwash the result shows that oil pulling(61%) is safer than that of mouthwash(39%). But nowadays the usage of oil pulling is comparatively less than mouthwash. But still some people are following traditional methods.

Conclusion: This survey was done to access the knowledge and awareness on the effect of oil pulling and mouthwash.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness on the Effect of Lemon Grass Tea on Oral Health among College Students

J. D. Monesh Babu, Jothi Priya, Gayathri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-157
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730677

Lemongrass tea can be utilized to treat fever, cold and stomach upset. The tea has diuretic properties and water maintenance, making it accommodating individuals with hypertension. The tea can likewise assist with forestalling typhoid fever, malignant growth and obscuring of vision. It can assist with mitigating menstrual issues and sickness. The tea can assist with bringing down cholesterol levels. A total of 200 college students were involved in the study. Self administered questionnaire related to the impact on the impact of lemongrass tea on oral health along with sociodemographic details was prepared and it was distributed through an online survey link. Chi square analysis was used for inferential statistics. 66% of the participants have tasted lemongrass tea, only 34% of the participants have not tasted lemongrass tea. 28% of male and 38% of female participants have tasted lemongrass tea. More females have tasted lemongrass tea than males. There was a significant correlation between gender and participants who have tasted lemongrass tea with p value-0.003(<0.05) which was statistically significant. Majority of the participants (81.0%) were aware that drinking lemongrass tea prevents oral diseases. Lemon grass helps to prevent the growth of bacteria which causes plaque formation. By drinking lemon grass tea we can prevent most of the oral diseases. In the present study, the knowledge and awareness on the effect of lemon grass tea on oral health was satisfactory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Immunosuppressant Drugs among Dental Students - A Cross-sectional Survey

B. Reshmi, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Ashok Velayudhan, Kirankumar Pandurangan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 158-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730678

Drugs to suppress the human immune response in cases of organ transplants and autoimmune disorders have been used for more than half a century. Such agents are essential for treating patients who have received organ transplants or suffer from autoimmune diseases. The main drawback to the early immunosuppressive agents was their lack of specificity. As the understanding of immune system response at the cellular and molecular levels evolved, newer and more specific agents were developed that targeted particular components and elements of the immune response. While these newer immunosuppressive agents are not without potential adverse effects, their efficacy and safety have improved greatly when compared to earlier agents. Therapeutic guidance for the clinician is needed to handle those drugs. In dentistry, care should be taken for patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Hence knowledge about immunosuppressive drugs is needed to be known by the dental practitioners also to provide a proper treatment that benefits the patient. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey among 100 dental students pursuing the final year and internship in Chennai city. A self-assessed questionnaire containing 10 questions eliciting information about the knowledge of immunosuppressive drugs were framed. The responses obtained from the participants were compiled, processed further, and analyzed. Various studies were referred to gain more knowledge to improvise the study. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of students about immunosuppressant drugs.95.0% of the students knew about immunosuppressant drugs This study concluded that knowledge about immunosuppressive drugs is adequate. Dental awareness programs or lectures if arranged to address this concern may give additional knowledge and so as to ease their practices and pave more comfort for the patient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness about Food Carcinogens among Dental Students

A. Trishala, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-181
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730679

The risk of developing cancer from carcinogens occurring in food is of widespread interest to scientific researchers, food policymakers, and food surveillance institutions, as well as to the general public. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of food carcinogens among dental students. A structured self-assessed online questionnaire having 15 questions on food carcinogens was prepared and distributed to the dental students who have clinical exposure including 3rd BDS, final BDS, interns, and postgraduates of all specialties. It was circulated using online software, a survey planet, and the response was collected through it. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Considering the responses, it can be interpreted that the knowledge regarding food carcinogens is above average among dental students. Also, postgraduate students were more knowledgeable than undergraduate students. Interns showed more awareness than third-year or final year undergraduate students. Educational workshops, conferences, and CDE’s are essential for both undergraduates and postgraduates to improve their knowledge regarding various carcinogenic properties of different food items.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness about Ketamine as Anaesthetic among Dental Students - A Survey

Debarun David, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 182-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730680

Ketamine has been used as a safe and effective sedative to treat adults and children exhibiting high levels of anxiety or fear during dental treatment. Pediatric dentistry often involves patients with high levels of anxiety and fear and possibly a few positive dental experiences. Patient management can involve behavioral approaches, as well as the use of sedation or general anesthesia with a variety of agents, including ketamine. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of ketamine as an anesthetic among dental students. A questionnaire survey was carried out online containing 10 questions that were sent to 100 dental students through survey planet software and the data was collected and statistically analysed. 74% of the students were aware about the uses and adverse effects of ketamine .Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that most of the students were aware of ketamine as an anesthetic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on Nicotine Gums among Undergraduate Dental Students

D. Lekha, Dhanraj Ganapathy, L. Keerthi Sasanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-198
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730681

Background: The use of tobacco by smokers contributes to the increase of the number of deaths worldwide. According to WHO, nearly 4 million deaths are recorded annually, and 10 million are expected by 2030. Cigarette smoke contains more than 4000 chemicals and the foremost nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is by chewing gum. The nicotine resin is obtained from a buffered chewing gum base. Those nicotine chewing gums enable nicotine to be immediately absorbed by means of the buccal mucosa, which in turn causes a plasma concentration that is half that produced by way of smoking a cigarette. The gum has numerous strengths and it can be used both after scheduled periods or maybe taken while needed. 

Purpose: To assess the awareness of nicotine gums among dental students.

Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire with 10 questions eliciting responses regarding the awareness of nicotine gums was prepared and circulated to 100 dental students after obtaining informed consent. The responses were collected and analyzed.

Results: The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20 and results were expressed as percentages. 75% of the participants were aware of nicotine gums. 43% said nicotine absorption from the gum is predominant in the mouth and 38 % said it is from gastric mucosa.

Conclusion: In summary, nicotine gums awareness among dental students is a moderate fact, and efforts to improve this are required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Presentation and Different Treatment Modalities of Obstructed Jaundice

Ahsan Ali Laghari, Qamber Ali Laghari, Aijaz Ahmed Shaikh, Ambreen Muneer, Muhammad Pandhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 199-203
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1730747

Objective: To determine the clinical presentation and different treatment modalities of obstructed jaundice at tertiary care Hospital.

Study Design: Prospective observational study.

Place and Duration: Present study was conducted in the Department of general Surgery of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro during two years from July 2015 to June 2017.

Patients and Methods: Total 50 patients having obstructed jaundice and either gender were evaluated after taking history, clinical examinations including specific investigations like ultrasound of abdomen, liver function test (LFT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), computed tomography (CT) endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) biopsy, tumor markers and x- ray chest for diagnosis and prognosis purpose. All the data was recorded via self-made proforma.                                                   

Results: Out of all cases, 20 patients were in age group of 30 to 45 year, 21 patients were in age group 46 to 64 years and 09 patients were in age group 65 to 80 year. Thirty one patients were presented with intermittent jaundice and pain,14 patients had jaundice, pruritus, pale stool, dark urine and 5 patients were presented with jaundice, pruritus, pale stool with dark urine, pain, anorexia and weight loss. Thirty one patients were diagnosed with benign lesions and 19 patients had malignant lesions. Most of the patients (26.52%) were treated by ERCP, stent. Fifteen underwent open surgery, and 9 were treated by palliative procedure, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and gene therapy.

Conclusion: Obstructed jaundice is a critical problem all over the world, in which initially patients present with jaundice, pain, pruritus with pale stool, dark urine and weight loss. Patients can be treated by ERCP, stent. Fifteen patients underwent open surgery and 9 were treated by palliative procedure, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and gene therapy.