Open Access Systematic Review Article

Analgesic Efficacy of Corticosteroids Used as Intracanal Solutions to Control Inter Appointment Pain during Root Canal Treatment – A Systematic Review

Sneha Pai, M. S. Nivedhitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630649

Patients often associate endodontic treatment with pain. Inter appointment pain is common during endodontic treatment and is due to acute inflammation of the apical periodontal ligament space. Till date, several agents have been employed to manage inter appointment pain by administering them through different routes. All the agents for pain control were administered orally in the past. In order to bypass the unwanted side effects and achieve immediate and effective pain control, local administration was followed by intracanal administration. This systematic review analyzes the effect of intracanal delivery of various steroid solutions and their effectiveness in pain management.
A search was performed in electronic database (i.e. Pubmed Central, Google and Hand Search) till August 2019.All in vivo studies that used intracanal corticosteroids for controlling inter appointment pain during endodontic treatment were selected.The outcome measure was to evaluate the reduction of pain in the inter appointment period after intracanal drug delivery.
Since all the studies included for this review showed high risk of bias, no conclusion could be drawn on intracanal use of corticosteroid solutions for analgesia. Further studies have to be conducted with a proper design, standardization of the drug and appropriate statistical analysis to obtain accurate results.

Open Access Minireview Article

Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Properties of Malpighiaceae Family and Its Potential Impact for Oral Cavity Infectious Diseases

Getsemaní Sinaí Villanueva-Amador, Luis Octavio Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Alberto Gaitán-Cepeda, Maira Huerta-Reyes

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 139-152
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630658

Recently, the impact of oral infections on global human health and their importance in the complications of patients with some chronic conditions have been recognized. Current medical treatments deal with the specificity and resistance of pathogenic strains of the oral cavity made up of by bacteria, fungi and viruses; thus, novel substances are necessary for use as effective drugs. Plants have been a source of active chemical agents since ancient times; however, a number of family plants still remain unstudied. This is the case of Malpighiaceae, a flowering plant family that possesses secondary metabolites that have exhibited a variety of pharmacological effects with promising results. This review has as objective to provide an overview of the extracts and active constituents isolated from species belonging to the Malpighiaceae family, to emphasize their activities against bacteria, fungi and viruses during recent years and their potential impact on the pathogens of the oral cavity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Platelet Rich Plasma Injection in Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis

K. Vivek

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630642

Background: Platelet-rich plasma helps in repair because of its growth factor. Platelet-rich plasma has been used in humans for its healing properties. Increased concentration of growth factors and secretory proteins may increase the process of healing on a cellular level.

Aim: This study was done to check the effectiveness of PRP injections in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis.

Methodology: This was accomplished in patients visiting the orthopaedic OPD at the Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamilnadu. There were 40 physicians in this study, among whom 37 were homosexual and 87 were female. The mean age of the patients was 48.1 years (17-82 years). The study period was 3 months. The analytical method used is a visual analog score.

Results: Effective therapy was performed with a decline of more than 20% (24 out of 40 patients) in visual analog score after a dual-month period. After 3 months in boys, the mean VAS score dropped from 6.88 to 9.41.

Conclusion: Medication of PRP patients with chronic epicondylitis or PRP tennis elbow reduces pain and increases the flexibility of the affected knee joint.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Streptococcal IgY on Quantity of Streptococcus mutans in High Caries Risk Children

Ditty J. Mary, Mebin George Mathew

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630643

Early childhood caries (ECC) is defined as a condition of one or more of decayed, missing, and filling in teeth (dmft) of children aging less than 71 months or even younger. Prevalence and severity of ECC is still high in some countries. Aim of this study to evaluate the effect of streptococcal IgY on the quantity of Streptococcus mutans in high caries risk children. 20 children aged 3-5 years were selected from the Department of Pedodontics of which 10 children were with high caries experience and 10 were controls who were caries free. Saliva swabs were taken from  the occlusal surface of primary second molars and microbial count was  counted using mitis salivarius bactaracinagar. High risk caries were given one No decayTM tablet morning and evening for 15 days. Swabs were taken before intervention and than 1 month, 2 months and 3 months post intervention. Streptococcus mutans count was significantly reduced in patients who have taken no decay tablets. Within the limits of the study, we found that streptococcal IgY was able to reduced streptococcus mutans count after 2 months. There was no statistically significant difference in  Streptococcus mutans count between high caries risk children and caries free children after 3 months.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Adhesive Virulence Factor fimH among the Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in India

S. Padmaja, A. S. Smiline Girija, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630644

The objective of the study was to detect the presence of fimH gene among the drug resistanst strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. fimH gene was found to be associated with a catch bond mechanism which led to better evolution of biofilm formation. Since there are not many studies done with this gene it would be a timely investigation and this study mainly aims in molecular characterization of fimH gene among clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Semi quantitative bio adherent assay was done by the multidrug resistant strains of A. baumannii to find the formation of biofilm. The DNA was extracted with the help of kit and PCR was performed for amplification. Pearson correlation analysis was done to find the existing correlation between the fimH gene and MDR strains of A. baumannii with significant p-value of (<0.05). From the screened 73 genomes of MDR A. baumannii 6.8% showed positive amplicons for the fimH gene which were related to biofilm and porin formation (Fig. 1). Correlation of its existence was high in beta lactamase (100%), cephems (100%), folate (100%) resistant strains, followed by aminoglycosides (80%), carbapenems (60%) and fluoroquinolones (60%) and efflux pumps (20%). In Spite of various measures undertaken to prevent the disease, the prevalence of the pathogen is multiplying. The current study recorded the presence of fimHgene (6.8%) among the clinical isolates of A.baumannii. This gene can be used as a target to develop new drugs and vaccines to combat the menace of A.baumannii infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Chromosomally Encoded gyrA and parC Genetic Determinants of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in A. baumannii

Amit Kumar Singh, A. S. Smiline Girija, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini, A. Paramasivam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630645

Fluoroquinolones are administered as routine drugs of choice for treating complicated urinary tract infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains. It is now a world-wide issue that gyr and par induced quinolone resistance as one of the major drug resistance mechanisms. This investigation is thus aimed to assess the prevalence of quinolone resistance and to characterize the gyrA and parC producing strains of A. baumannii. Genomic DNA from 50 fluoroquinolone resistant A. baumannii were screened for gyrA and parC by PCR for the genetic relatedness with fluoroquinolone resistance, with sequencing of the representative strains. All the strains were positive for gyrA(100%) and 82% (n=41) for parC. Presence of parC was observed in 56.09% (n=23) ciprofloxacin resistant A. baumannii with 43.90% (n=18) in levofloxacin resistant A. baumannii. The findings of the present study showed the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance among A. baumannii in urinary tract infections and the frequency of gyrA and parC in inducing the resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Mouthwash Incorporated with Silica Nanoparticles against S. aureus, S. mutans, E. faecalis: An in-vitro Study

Manali Deb Barma, Srisakthi Dorai Kannan, Meignana Arumugham Indiran, S. Rajeshkumar, R. Pradeep Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630646

Silica based nanoparticles are used in various fields of medical sciences to diagnose, control disease, for genetic disorders, owing to their size, surface area, biocompatibility and low toxicity. In dentistry, silica nanoparticles have been used as dental filler, teeth whitening agent but limited evidence is there regarding antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the anti-bacterial activity of mouthwash incorporated with silica nanoparticles against oral pathogens. Tetraethoxysilane, ammonium hydroxide, absolute ethanol were used and centrifuged to obtain the silica nanoparticle pellet. XRD analysis was done to confirm the characterization of the thus obtained silica nanoparticle. The mouthwash was prepared with the synthesized silica nanoparticle as the main constituent. Agar well diffusion method was used to assess the antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, S. aureus and E. faecalis. The XRD analysis confirmed the amorphous nature of the synthesized silica nanoparticles. The zone of inhibition was found to increase as the concentrations increased mainly for S. aureus and E. faecalis. The synthesized nanoparticles incorporated mouthwash showed good potential as antimicrobial agents against strains of gram positive bacteria. Further animal studies/in vivo research should be conducted to validate the above findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness about Antibiotic Usage and Emerging Drug Resistance Bacteria among Dental Students

G. Pushpaanjali, R. V. Geetha, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630647

Antibiotics are commonly used in dental practice. It has been estimated that 10% of all antibiotic prescriptions are related with dental infection. Antibiotic treatment is a feature of pharmacotherapy with the particularity of providing both prophylactic and curative action. It was introduced in the mid twentieth century in the form of sulfa drug (1935), penicillin (1941), tetracycline (1948) and erythromycin (1952). Since then, antibiotics have focused much clinical and pharmacological research, in response antibiotics, the consolidation of new disease, and novel clinical “Penicilin antibiotics are commonly use in dental practice. Amoxicillin, metronidozole and clavulanate are frequently prescribed drugs by dentists.”
The aim of this study is to create knowledge and awareness about antibiotic usage and emerging drug resistance bacteria among dental students. The Questionnaires had been prepared and distributed to 100 participants of dental students. The resulting data have been analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out and chi square test was used and p value was calculated. Most of the participants in the survey were aware about antibiotic use and emerging drug resistance bacteria. From this present study, it can be concluded that the participants are aware about antibiotic usage and drug resistance bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on the Management of Bleeding Disorders among Dental Students

Preethi Mariona, M. Dinesh Prabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630648

Continuous bleeding in the surgical site can be associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality across all surgical areas. To avoid complications related to excessive bleeding, numerous products have been developed to achieve hemostasis. It is of utmost importance to know the use of each and every product and effective method on how to manage excessive bleeding. The study aims at assessing the awareness on management of bleeding disorders. An awareness based survey was conducted in January 2020 among dental students (Third years, Final years, Interns). The questionnaire consisted of 10 awareness based questions and were equally distributed among Third years, Final years, Interns. The total sample size was 150 dental students. The data collected was entered in an Excel sheet and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 20. From the results obtained it was seen that 33.33% of third years, 30% of final years and 22.67% of interns had never come across a patient with bleeding disorders. 33.33% of interns, 31.33% of final years, 28.67% of third years said that they collect a detailed history on the past medical problems of the patients. 33.33% of interns, 30.67% of final years, 20.67% of third years were aware of the possible bleeding disorders that might occur in a patient. 33.33% of interns and final years and only 4% of third years knew about hemostatic therapies. 30% of interns, 28% of final years and 16.67% of third years were aware of prophylactic transfusion of FFP.  Chi square test shows p<0.05, significant. Thus it was seen that Interns had a good awareness on management of bleeding disorders when compared to the final and third years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on Nanoparticles Incorporation in Dental Materials among Undergraduate Students - A Cross Sectional Survey

Aarthi Muthukumar, Revathi Duraisamy, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630650

Nanotechnology is widely used in day to day life including its use in medicine. Using nanotechnology it is easy to analyse the atoms , chemical bonds and molecules present between various compounds. Use of nanoparticles in the field of dentistry is called nano dentistry. Chemical, physical and biological aspects of nanoparticles should be taken into account while choosing nanoparticles for the use in the field of nano dentistry. Nanoparticles are used in innovations of dentistry. Nano materials can be used for preventing and curing oral diseases such as oral cancer and to maintain oral health care. This study aims at evaluating knowledge and awareness of nanoparticles incorporated in dental materials among undergraduate dental students. A questionnaire with a set of 9 questions to assess the students knowledge and awareness about nanoparticles incorporation in dental materials. The sample size of 99 participants of dental students of Saveetha Dental College were selected by a simple random sampling method. The participants were asked to fill the questionnaire in an online site called survey planet. The results were collected and statistically analysed. Chi square test was done and it was found that 71% of the participants were aware about the use of nanoparticles in dental materials, even though it is statistically not significant (p value- 0.436), 73% of respondents were aware about nanoparticle incorporation in impression materials with p value 0.449 (not significant) and 72% were aware about use of nanomaterials in titanium implants(p value-0.340). Within the limitations of the study, it can be observed that the undergraduate students at the Faculty of Dentistry of Saveetha were well aware about the use of nanoparticles in dental materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Targeting the Secreted Aspartic Proteinase (SAP-1) Associated with Virulence in C. albicans by C. cassia Bio-compounds: A Computational Approach

Abigail Ranasinghe, A. S. Smiline Girija, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630651

Evaluation of the drug ligand interactions between the C. cassia bio-compounds with the SAP-1 in C. albicans to explore the inhibitory medicinal potential of C. cassia bio-compounds by a computational approach is performed in the present investigation.

Antimicrobial assay was done using agar well diffusion method with the crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the dried barks of C. cassia against C. albicans. 2D & 3D structures of the active bio-compounds of C. cassia were optimized and the 3D structure of SAP-1 was retrieved from the PDB data bank. In-silico inhibitory potential of the selected C. cassia biocompounds against SAP-1 was done by Auto Dock 2.0 and was visualized with Accelrys discovery studio visualizing tool with the assessment of the molecular properties of the ligands against SAP-1 by molinspiration calculations and further assessment for their drug likeliness. In-vitro analysis showed a promising anti-fungal activity of C. cassia extracts against C. albicans. Cinnamoyl E-acetate and Eugenyl acetate seem to possess promising inhibitory effect to target SAP-1 with a least binding energy of –5.33 and -5.21 Kcal/mol with four hydrogen bonds respectively. Molinspiration assessments showed zero violations for all the C. cassia compounds with the TPSA scores of <140 Å towards the best oral bioavailability. The findings of the study emphasize that cinnamaldehyde, cinnamoyal acetate and eugenol from C. cassia seem to possess a promising inhibitory effect against SAP-1 of C. albicans suggesting the medicinal value of the spice against SAP-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness about the Mode of Transmission of Vector Borne Diseases among General Public

C. M. Aathira, R. V. Geetha, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630652

Vector borne diseases account for more than 17% of other contagious diseases and can be caused either by parasites, bacteria or viruses. Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by female Anopheles mosquitoes. It causes millions of cases globally and most deaths occur in children. Dengue is another vector disease caused by Aedes mosquito and also affects millions of people, also causing more deaths. Other vector diseases may include yellow fever, zika fever, west nile fever, chikungunya, elephantiasis etc.  The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and awareness about the mode of transmission of vector borne disease among the general public and also to analyse the correlation between gender and the level of awareness about vector borne disease among them. A cross sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among people in the region of Chennai. A set of 15 questions including questions on knowledge and awareness on the mode of transmission of vector borne diseases among the general population. It included questions like examples of vector borne diseases, mode of transmission of disease, preventive measures etc. The people of age group between 25-45 years were involved in the survey. There were 100 responses to the survey. The duration of the study was about 7 days. It is clear that the population was aware about the vector borne diseases but not very clear about the preventive measures to be taken to prevent the spread of vector borne diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Nicotine Dependence Using Fagerstrom Test among Patients with Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis

N. Prashaanthi, Sreedevi Dharman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 97-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630653

Tobacco consumption has an influence on the oral mucosa and causes oral malignancy in the due time. On assessing nicotine dependence, appropriate counselling can be given to prevent further progression of the habit. Aim of this study was to assess the nicotine dependence levels among patients with potentially malignant disorders such as leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) using fagerstrom test. This study included 140 patients from October 2019 to January 2020 in a dental hospital. Variables such as age, gender, tobacco form and lesion were assessed. Descriptive and chi square statistics were performed. Out of 140 patients, higher prevalence with tobacco usage were among 41-50 years (40%), 94.29% were males and 5.71% were females, 16.43% had low dependency, 52.86% had medium dependency and 30.71% had high dependency. Association between   age; nicotine dependency in patients with and without lesion p=0.000(p<0.05), statistically significant. Association between gender and patients with and without lesions p=0.151(p>0.05), statistically not significant. Within the limitations of the present study, males had higher prevalence of tobacco use among 41-50 years. Patients with potentially malignant disorders and smokers without lesion had medium dependence while smokeless tobacco users without lesion had a high dependence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness about the Relation between Obesity and Academic Performance

B. Sushma, R. Gayatri Devi, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630654

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. It may even affect mental health also. Obesity also plays a role in academics; it may be disadvantageous to some of the students. Previous studies have found that obesity could influence academic performance. So this study concerned preparing questions and circulating among the students (school and college). The aim of this study is to determine the awareness level of association between obesity and academic performance. The purpose of the study was clearly explained to the students. A total of 100 responses were received. All the responses were taken into consideration and the statistical analysis paired t test was made using SPSS software for the representation of pie charts and bar graphs (association graphs). According to the results, 67% students answered that the rough weight of the topper of their class would be 45-65 kgs, 25% of them said that it would be 65-80 kgs and the rest 8% said that it would be 80-90 kgs. 37% of students responded that obesity is disadvantageous towards academics, another 63% disagree with it. Most of the students of this survey responded that obesity does not cause any adverse effects on academics. But the care should be taken by the obese students towards their health and academics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on Topical Corticosteroids among Dental Students

Aarthi Muthukumar, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 116-125
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630655

Topical corticosteroids play a major role in the treatment of many dermatologic conditions. They are FDA-approved and indicated for the use of inflammatory and pruritic presentations of dermatologic conditions. The well-known indications are for diseases such as psoriasis, limited areas of vitiligo, eczema, atopic dermatitis, phimosis, acute radiation dermatitis, lichen planus, lichen simplex chronicus, discoid lupus erythematosus, and lichen sclerosus. They are effective for conditions involving hyper-proliferation, immunological, and inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of topical corticosteroids among the dental students. The present study was an online-based survey conducted among dental students. Questionnaires were prepared and distributed among dental students through an online portal system called google forms. About 84% of dental students were aware of topical corticosteroids. From the results of the survey, it is clear that most of the dental students were well aware of topical corticosteroids and also had proper knowledge and its complications. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Graft Uptake in Overlay and Underlay Technique Myringoplasty

K. Jaya Sudha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 126-130
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630656

The aim of this investigation was to compare the graft uptake in overlay and underlay system in myriongoplasty. The examination led among 50 patients in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital. Among 50 patients 25 patients underwent overlay and 25 patients experienced underlay strategy. This study concludes that underlay technique should be preferred compared to overlay method, but the ultimate decision about the technique to be employed depends on the surgeons preference and the site of perforation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness about Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniques in Periodontics among Dental Students

T. Cibikkarthik, Arvina Rajasekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 153-158
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630659

Minimally invasive surgical techniques (MIST) are performed using magnification from surgical microscopes, surgical telescopes or endoscopic visualization. The exclusive property of MIST is that it reduces the chair time required to perform the procedure and results in limited morbidity to the patient during the surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness about minimally invasive surgical techniques in Periodontics among dental students. A 6-item questionnaire was prepared and circulated through an online portal among dental students. The results obtained from the survey were tabulated, analysed and represented graphically using SPSS software (Version 23). Frequency distribution and percentage were calculated. In the present study, 56% of them were aware about the implications of MIST in Periodontics, 73% of them knew the advantages of MIST and 53% of them were aware that MIST reduces healing period of the periodontal wounds. However, only 10% of them have performed MIST in periodontal procedures. The present study suggested that even though majority of the undergraduate dental students had adequate knowledge and awareness about MIST and its advantages; only very few had incorporated the technique in their practice. Therefore, this study emphasizes the need for more clinical training programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among Dentists towards Oral Herpetic Infections

A. Ashik Ahamed, Dhanraj Ganapathy, R. Subhashree, V. Rakshagan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 159-167
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630660

During the course of the oral examination or during procedures, dentists, auxiliaries, and other healthcare personnel have an increased chance of getting exposed to various pathogens. There were about 80 known herpes viruses, and in that at least eight of them are known to cause infections in humans. Herpes labialis also known as cold sores is the most common orofacial form of recurrent HSV infection. The dentist should have a clear knowledge of herpetic infections because they are frequently exposed to patients who suffer from HSV infections.  A close-ended questionnaire comprising 10 questions regarding encompassing major aspects of herpetic infections were prepared and distributed among dentists through an online survey. Data were tabulated and analyzed by computing the percentage response for each question. Proper awareness should be created among dentists for treating patients in their clinical practice. From this survey, it can be concluded that the majority of dental practitioners were aware of oral herpetic infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness on Silver Diamine Fluoride among Paediatric Dentists and Post Graduates in India - A Survey

V. Balaji, Mebin George Mathew

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 168-176
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630661

Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a topically applied liquid that has been used to treat tooth hypersensitivity and arrest cavitated carious lesions. Lesion arrest can be achieved by painting the cavitated lesion with the SDF liquid without removing any infected soft dentin. SDF can serve as an alternative, particularly for patients who cannot tolerate traditional dental treatment, and can reduce the need for dental care to be performed under general anesthesia, with its associated health risks. The aims of this study were to assess Indian pediatric dentist’s SDF educational experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and professional behavior and to explore the relationships among these constructs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 paediatric dentists and post graduates by asking them to take up a survey. All dentists from India. were invited to participate in the survey. An online multiple-choice and fill-in response questionnaire was created in Google Forms. Questions. The data obtained were compiled systematically and then statistically analyzed. Survey responses were received from 100 members. The data showed that 41% percent of respondents under 40 years of age in our study. Out of the 100 respondents were male (53%) than female (47%). The respondents ranged in age from 26 to 65 years; they had graduated from their BDS /MDS program. A lack of self-reported knowledge was most frequently reported concerning whether a restoration must be placed after SDF treatment even if SDF is being reapplied twice per year, whether SDF can be used on root caries lesions, and under which codes SDF treatment can be billed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness on Personalized Medicine amongst Health Care Specialists and University Students in Health Colleges in Saudi Arabia

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 177-183
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630741

Aim: There are a few studies about the populations' knowledge and perceptions on personalized medicine in Saudi Arabia until now. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness on personalized medicine amongst health care specialists and university students in health colleges in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study that include a survey targeting health care specialists. The survey translated to Arabic and after validation, it was converted to an online survey using google forms.

Results: About 52.34% of the participants have heard about different terms regarding personalized medicine (personalized medicine, healthcare reform, individualized care and pharmacogenomics). Most of the health care specialists in the present study said that they have poor knowledge about personalized medicine (68.75%). Most of the participants in the present study were interested to learn about personalized medicine and showed a positive attitude about it.

Conclusion: The present study found that health care specialists had a poor knowledge about personalized medicine but they are interested to learn more about this field.  Therefore, more training and awareness programs about personalized medicine are needed to facilitate its introduction in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, more focus on this field should be introduced into the health colleges’ curricula.

Open Access Review Article

Platelet Rich Plasma - Platelet Counts and Application - A Literature Review

P. Kalyani, G. Kaarthikeyan, M. P. Santhosh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 131-138
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1630657

Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a novel method of using plasma concentrated with platelets for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Platelet rich plasma is prepared from the venous blood using a differential centrifugation technique. It involves a separation spin and a concentration spin, yielding platelet rich plasma. PRP products have been classified into 4 types depending upon major cell constituent and fibrin density upon activation. These are as follows: Pure PRP, Leukocyte and PRP, Pure PRF, Leukocyte and PRF. PRF differs from PRP in that it is rich in a high density fibrin network after activation. PRP is abundant in a variety of growth factors such as VEGF, PDGF, TGF, EGF, and Interleukin-1. Literature consists of reports by different authors about the platelet yield of PRP centrifuged by different systems. A number of factors have also been quoted to influence the platelet concentration in platelet rich plasma. Hence, the aim of this review is to discuss the platelet concentration in PRP centrifuged by different systems and to observe for variations if any.