Open Access Minireview Article

The Relationship between Exercise and Medication in Preventing Severe forms of COVID-19 Infection

Bogdan-Alexandru Hagiu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 164-167
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430616

Prophylaxis of severe forms of COVID-19 infection can be achieved by exercising, especially endurance, which stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and improves their functionality, these organelles having a key role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Some drugs and supplements that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis through exercise (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox), ω3 fatty acids, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin B12, folic acid, magnesium, MitoQ) and others that inhibit it (acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, acetaminophen).

Open Access Original Research Article

Echocardiographic Changes in Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Reference to Body Mass Index and Waist Hip Ratio

G. Meenakshi, N. N. Anand

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430598

Type2 diabetes mellitus is associated with central obesity. Studies shows that central obesity, leads to insulin resistance is an important determinant for insulin resistance and cardiovascular morbidity. In the present study clinical profile of type2 diabetics with special reference to cardiac changes were studied and their relationship were established. This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital. 50 obese patients with controlled diabetes less than 5 years of duration were compared with obese non diabetics. There is significant statistical correlation with obese diabetic subjects particularly females, alterations in LV geometry. Obese female subjects had predominantly higher left ventricular mass. From the data of the present study high BMI, WHR have increased incidence of cardiovascular disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Cytokines, CD4, Hepcidin, Iron, and Some Haematological Parameters of Patients Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Southeastern Part of Nigeria

Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi, Kalu, Ochie, Ogbu, I. S. I., Esimai, Bessie Nonyelum, Ugwuja, Mabel Chikodili, Ogbu, Chinemerem, Asogwa, Eucharia Ijego

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430599

A study to evaluate the levels of interferon-gamma, interleukins 6 and 10, hepcidin, iron status and some haematological parameters in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus was carried out. A total of 150 subjects aged 18-60 years were enlisted for this study. The subjects were grouped into: Group A (50 control subjects) and Group B (100 HIV subjects, 50 subjects were non ART HIV patients, 50 subjects were on Lamivudine, Tenofavir and Efavirenz). About 7ml of venous blood were collected from each subject; 4.5 ml of blood were placed into plain tubes for assay of interferon gamma, interleukins (6&10), hepcidin and iron and 2.5ml for FBC, CD4 count and HIV screening. The cytokines and hepcidin were measured using Melsin ELISA Kits and Teco Diagnostics kits used for iron. Full blood count was determined by automation using Mindray BC-5300, China. The data was analysed with the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using ANOVA and the level of significance set at P<0.05. The results showed difference that was statistically significant (P<0.05) in IFN-γ (16.25±0.87 pg/ml, 29.31±1.44 pg/ml,18.49±1.48 pg/ml, P=0.000), IL-6(7.98±0.22 pg/ml, 11.08±1.21 pg/ml, 8.79±0.76 pg/ml, P=0.000), IL-10(8.52±0.62 pg/ml, 16.62±1.53 pg/ml, 10.39±1.06P g/ml P=0.000), CD4 (1045.54 ±247.24 Cells/L, 195.60 ±35.94 Cells/L,10.39±1.06 cells/L P=0.000), hepcidin (6.03±1.38 ng/ml, 39.59 ±4.50 ng/ml, 20.86±3.43 ng/ml, P=0.000), Iron (86.29±7.27 µg/dl, 73.43±5.45 µg/dl, 85.44±8.45 µg/dl, P=0.000), TIBC (345.56±28.40 µg/dl, 287.19 ±8.21 µg/dl, 305.46±18.82 µg/dl, P=0.000), %TSA (25.16±3.18%, 25.61±2.22%,28.08 ±3.42%, P=0.000) WBC (5.87 ±0.88 X 109/L, 4.69±0.72X 109/L,4.80±0.45X 109/L, P=0.000), Neutrophils (60.57±2.83%, 75.16±3.68%, 69.04±2.90%, P=0.000), Lymphocytes (30.69 ±2.84%, 17.24±2.50%, 24.46±2.60%, P=0.000), Monocytes (5.59 ±1.2%, 4.18±1.12%, 3.97±0.92%, P=0.000), Eosinophils (2.30 ±1.05%, 2.16±0.82%, 1.67±0.57%, P=0.000), Basophil 0.86 ±0.39%, 1.31±0.94%, 0.86±0.44%, P=0.018), RBC (4.92±0.30 X 1012/L, 3.34±0.21 X 1012/L, 3.60 ±0.18X 1012/L, P=0.000), Haemoglobin (14.75±0.90,g/dl, 10.05±0.65 g/dl,10.80±0.53 g/dl, P=0.000), PCV (44.25±2.70%, 30.14±1.95,32.56±1.50%, P=0.000), MCV (89.92±2.3fl, 79.49±1.28fl,88.15±2.08fl, P=0.029), MCH (36.12±1.53 pg, 26.60±0.48P, P=0.002), Platelets (261.75±22.71 X 109/L, 246.16±9.93 X 109/L,189.32±17.00X 109/L, P=0.000), ESR (7.03 ±1.38mm/hr, 59.52 ±6.46mm/hr,43.34±4.82mm/hr, P=0.000) when compared among Control, Non ART HIV and ART positive subjects.g,28.57±1.78 pg, P=0.000), MCHC (368.46±12.28 g/l, 318.92±7.33 g/l, 333.56±22.61 g/l. The study shows that interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 10 and hepcidin are some of the biomarkers in the pathogenesis of HIV. The infection of HIV increases the levels of the cytokines. The cytokines and hepcidin can be used as prognostic and diagnostic markers as their levels decreased with treatment of the patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Serum Lipoprotein (a) in Hypothyroid and Healthy Subjects

Leishangthem Rina, V. S. Kalaiselvi, B. Shanthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430601

This study is taken up to estimate and compare the level of serum Lp(a) in hypothyroid patients and in healthy controls. A total of 50  hypothyroid patients within aged group 20-60 years and total of 50 healthy controls within 20-60 years were enrolled in the study after taking written consent.  Thyroid profile and Lp(a) were measured by CLIA and immune turbidemetric method respectively. Data collected was analysed using Stata version 14.1 software. Result shows an increased level of Lp(a) among hypothyroid patients when compared to healthy controls.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Dispensing Practices in Community Pharmacies: A Major Health Concern in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

Aimerance Bahati Ntizala, Tresor Yoshua Mulume, Bernard Lukundja Runyeruka, Antoine Sadiki Kishabongo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430603

Aims: The practice of antibiotic dispensing in community pharmacies may contribute to irrational use of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic dispensing patterns in community pharmacies of the Eastern DRCongo.

Methods: It is a cross-sectional study carried out at Bukavu city. The study included 1504 subjects attending community pharmacies. Thus, a total number of 40 pharmacies were selected. The sociodemographic profiles of patients and dispensers were also recorded. The pharmacological interventions were investigated in terms of antibiotics dispensed according to patient’s complaints, antibiotic dispensing with or without prescription, the substitution of antibiotics in prescriptions.

Results: Participants attending pharmacies for antibiotic needs were in the mean age of 29.8±13 years. Most of the pharmacy workers consisted of pharmacy technicians (70%) and no trained dispensers (20%). Pharmacists represented only 10% of all dispensers in community pharmacies. We found that 67.8% of subjects purchased antibiotics without prescription. The antibiotics dispensed without prescription were either on patients’ requests (70.1%) or the suggestion of dispensers (29.9%). Only 18.4% of prescriptions were subject to substitution. The conditions for requiring antibiotic dispensing without prescriptions were respectively gastrointestinal (34%), respiratory (27%), genitourinary (25%), skin (11%) and dental (2%) infections. Conditions that were not well defined represented 1%. In cephalosporins, Cefixime was the most important drug dispensed without prescription (72.5%) whereas in penicillins, this was Amoxicillin (55.5%). Doxycycline was more dispensed in the class of cyclines (69.4%). Erythromycin (53.1%) and Azithromycin (29.4%) were more dispensed in the class of macrolides. Ciprofloxacin was the most dispensed drug in the class of quinolones (74.3%) and Metronidazole (86.8%) in the class of imidazoles.

Conclusion: The Antibiotic dispensing practice is very critical in the community pharmacies of Bukavu city due to the lack of qualified dispensers. This may increase the antibiotic self-medication and contribute to antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Etiological Factors of Female Primary Infertility

T. Mohana, R. Yuvarani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430604

Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the etiological factors of female primary infertility.

Place and Duration of the Study: This prospective study was conducted in the Gynaecology clinic of Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, from August 2016 to February 2018.

Methods: All the reproductive age group women coming to Gynaecology opd out patient clinic with history of anxious to conceive. Those patients who satisfy the above criteria those have been selected for the study.

The test has been carried out in hospitalized patients:

  1. A detailed history were taken.
  2. General physical and systemic examination were done.
  3. Ovarian factors and uterine factors ruled out.
  4. For tubal cannulation.

The data collection technique adopted in this technique is structured questionnaire on the evaluation of infertility in couple of less than 35 years of age in a period of infertility less than 5 years from infertility OPD for one and half years of Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital. Detailed history obtained from the couple and evaluate, informat ion with the help of various investigation in evaluating an infertile couple [1].

Results: Age: The prevalence of infertility in the age group 21 – 29 years were about 76% in women. Menarche This showed that maximum number of female attain menarche at the age group of 12 to 14 years. In our study, it is observed that there is a strong relation of infertility with BMI, the prevalence of infertility increases as BMI Increases in population. 22% of the women have BMI above 30 (obese). In our study, 8% of the women has hydrosalpinx, 4% of the women had fibroids and 6% of the women has polyps. We observed that 4% of the women had unilateral fallopian tubal block and 2% had bilateral fallopian tubal block [2].

Conclusion: In modern era of economically growing world we have concluded that the prevalence of infertility is about 76% in women age group of 21-29, 40% of the women has attained menarche at 12-14 years, observed hydrosalpinx in 8%, polyps in 6% and fibroids in 4% [3].

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Left Ventricular Mass of Patients Having Hypertension in Women with Menopause

Daya Sindhu Krishna, T. Manivel, S. Palaniandavan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430605

Increase in left-ventricular mass has become an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although, there is an obvious change in the cardiac size with respect to age and the hypertrophic stimuli, it is very different in men and women. In men the left ventricular mass may remain constant with age, while in women it increases with age. These findings are even more pronounced in women more than 50 years of age who have attained menopause. This study is to show that even though left ventricular mass increases in menopausal women compared to younger women in the reproductive age group, it is more severe in women who have hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Propranolol on Sperm Parameters, CatSper 2 Gene and Protein Expression, and Oxidative Stress in Adult Mice

Shabnam Mohammadi, Farimah Beheshti, Sepideh Elyasi, Mehdi Jalali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430606

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of propranolol on sperms, histopathology of testes, and CatSper 2 gene and protein expression in adult mice. 18 adult male mice were randomly divided into control, propranolol 1 (receiving 10 mg/kg dose) and propranolol 2 group (receiving 15 mg/kg dose for 35 days). The mean amount of sperm parameters in the propranolol 1 and propranolol 2 groups was significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). CatSper2 gene and protein expression have significantly decreased in propranolol 1 and propranolol 2 groups compared to the control group (P<0.05). Reduction of CatSper2 gene and protein expression in low dose of propranolol was more severe than high dose. In testicular tissues of the propranolol 1 group, vacuoles and necrosis in the germinal epithelium were observed, and in testicular tissues of propranolol 2 group decrease in the thickness of the germinal epithelium, some vacuoles and necrosis were observed in germinal epithelium as well as congestion in the interstitial space. The mean value of thiol and catalase enzyme in the propranolol 1 and propranolol 2 groups, and the mean value of superoxide dismutase in propranolol 1 group, were significantly different compared to the control group (P<0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Maternal Serum Levels of Alpha Tumour Necrotic Factor, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 6 and Interleukin 4 in Malaria Infected Pregnant Women Based on Their Gestational Age in Southeast, Nigeria

Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi, Esimai, Bessie Nonyelum, Ekelozie, Ifeoma Stella, Asogwa Eucharia Ijego, Amaeze Augustine Amaeze, Chukwu, Stella Nchekwubedi, Amaeze, Florence Ngozi, Ugwuja, Mabel Chikodili, Chukwu, Sunday Kyrian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430607

Malaria has been reported as a condition caused by infestation with Plasmodium parasite species, is a major public health problem globally especially in developing countries like Nigeria. This study was carried out in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia in Abia State, Nigeria. A study was done to determine the maternal serumlevels of alpha tumour necrotic factor, interleukin 10, interleukin 6and interleukin 4 in malaria infected pregnant women based on their gestational age in Southeast, Nigeria. A total of 150 subjects between the ages of 18-45 years were recruited for the study comprising of fifty (50) subjects each of the 3 trimesters. Commercial ELISA Kit by MELSIN Medical Co Limited was used to measure all the cytokines. The results of Table 1 showed no significant difference of TNF-α (p=0.346), IL-10 (p=0.059), IL-6 (p=0.811) and IL-4 (p=0.257) of malaria infected pregnant women at first trimester and second trimester respectively. The results of Table 2 showed no significant difference of TNF-α (p=0.642), IL-10 (p=0.678), IL-6 (p=0.551) and IL-4 (p=0.280) of malaria infected pregnant women at first trimester and third trimester respectively. The results of Table 2 showed no significant difference of TNF-α (p=0.062), IL-10 (p=0.016), IL-6 (p=0.352) and IL-4 (p=0.914) of malaria infected pregnant women at first trimester and third trimester respectively. The study showed no changes in the cytokines studied among the malaria infected pregnant women based on gestational ages except when IL-10 was compared between the subjects on second trimester and third trimester. This study shows that malaria infection does not changes these cytokines in pregnant women based on gestational ages except the il-10 when compared at second trimester and third trimester but changes when compared at other trimesters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Dietary Supplements among Women in the Aseer Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mabrouk Al- Rasheedi, Maha ALrajhi, Saad S. Alqahtani, Alreshidi Mateq Ali, Mohammad Alharbi, Nayef Samah Alharbi, Somayah Alsuhaibani, Abdulaziz Kardam, Yasir Alhazmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430608

Background: A significant growth in dietary supplement usage has occurred and this trend is particularly evident among females. This underlines the need to establish current knowledge levels among a female participant cohort based in the Aseer Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), along with determining the types of products being used and the typical reasons cited for their consumption.

Methods: A total of 173 participants drawn from various age groups took part in this descriptive cross-sectional survey design. The survey was conducted over a three-month period from September to November 2019, using a structured online questionnaire.

Results: The results of this research show that dietary supplement usage was highly prevalent among study participants. Young females (18–24 years) demonstrated significantly higher knowledge levels as compared to all other age groups (p<0.001 vs. other participants).

Conclusion: This study has clearly shown that the participants in fact have a very varied range of knowledge, very often according to age, about the use of dietary supplements. 18–24-year-olds demonstrated higher levels of dietary supplement knowledge compared to the other age groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Crude Extract of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae IBRL OS-64 against Foodborne Bacterium, Yersinia enterocolitica

M. M. J. Taufiq, I. Darah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-102
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430609

The antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of crude extract of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae IBRL OS-64 was studied and tested against a foodborne pathogenic bacterium, Yersinia enterocolitica. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited favorable antibacterial activity with the zone of inhibition was 20.3±0.6 mm compared to dichloromethane (15.0±0.3 mm) and butanol (9.0±0.3 mm) extracts. Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the extract were 125 and 250 µg/mL, respectively. Structural degeneration studies through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs exhibited major abnormalities that occurred on the bacterial cells after exposure to the extract were complete alterations in their morphology and collapsed of the cells beyond repair. The findings showed that the extract possesses antibiofilm activity against the initial and preformed biofilm of Y. enterocolitica with the highest inhibition value of 69.12% and 58.70%, respectively. The results also revealed the initial biofilm was more susceptible to the extract as compared to pre-formed biofilm. The light microscopy (LM) and SEM photomicrographs proved that the fungal extract significantly eliminates extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrices and hinder the attachment of the bacterial cells for biofilm formation. Therefore, the current study suggested the ethyl acetate crude extract from an endophytic fungus, L. pseudotheobromae IBRL OS-64 may be an effective antibacterial and anti-biofilm agent to treat foodborne pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ultrasonographyical Study of Kidneys Length Correlation in Various Clinical Stages of Chronic Type II Diabetes

M. Jayanth, V. Chandrasekhar, M. Prabakaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 103-108
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430610

The aim of the study was to use ultrasound imaging technique to differentiate between acute and chronic kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes. The renal length of left and right kidneys was compared and a detailed documentation was made. The study was carried out in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Our study included adult male and female population who were known case of Diabetes Mellitus, above 18 years of age and biochemically diagnosed for nephropathy. All patients were subjected to ultrasonography evaluation of the renal parenchymal thickness and the findings were documented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation of a Topical Tannic Acid and Chitosan Gel Haemostatic Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Wounds and Abrasions

Aysha Hafeji, Michael Paul Danckwerts

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 109-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430611

Haemostatic agents accelerate blood clotting and help in wound healing processes for wounds or abrasions. The purpose of this study was to prepare and evaluate a haemostatic gauze impregnated with chitosan and tannic acid as two effective haemostatic agents. The haemostatic gauze was easy to prepare and produce by means of a simple solvent casting method followed by lyophylisation. Nine different concentration combinations of tannic acid and chitosan were impregnated onto a 50 mm x 50 mm 8 ply gauze strip and were prepared and evaluated for dissolution into simulated body fluid (SBF) and finally tested for in vitro blood clotting ability versus Quikclot© (a commercially imported haemostatic gauze).

There was an initial quick release of tannic acid from the haemostatic gauze strips within 60 secs and thereafter a constant release of tannic acid. The in vitro blood clotting ability was found to be better in all the formulated haemostatic gauze strips than that of Quikclot©. Best clotting extent was achieved from 0.5% w/v chitosan and 1% w/v tannic acid gauze strips at 180 secs. In conclusion, the combination of tannic acid and chitosan haemostatic gauze strips developed in this study presents an inexpensive and effective alternative to importing haemostatic gauzes and bandages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanism of Unstable Inter-trochanteric Fractures in the Elderly

S. Santhosh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-134
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430612

The aim of this prospective comparative study is to analyse the short term follow-up results of unstable inter-trochanteric fractures in the elderly treated with Bipolar hemi-arthroplasty and Dynamic hip screw fixation done in our institution from March 2017 to October 2018. Proximal femoral fractures in the elderly individuals have a tremendous impact on both the health care system and society. Upon treatment of inter-trochanteric factures with conservative management, it usually unites with a mal-union, non-union and with shortening, but the problem of non –union in trochanteric fractures has less incidence. Because of complications associated with prolonged recumbency and its associated morbidities. Primary hemiarthroplasty in these patients provides for adequate fixation and early mobilization. It alleviates pain and improves function. It also prevents post-operative complications such as pneumonia, lung atelectasis and pressure sores. From our clinical observation we would suggest that unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly result most frequently from accidental fall (52.5%), being the most common described mechanism of injury.

Open Access Original Research Article

Societal Determinants of Anemia among Women of Reproductive Age and Role of Community Pharmacist for Its Management

Nazneen Habib, Aneela Afzal, Saif-Ur-Rehman Saif Abbasi, Wajid Aziz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 135-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430613

Aims: To study societal determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age (WRA) and elaborate the role of community pharmacist for its management.

Study Design: To investigate the societal determinants of anemia, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the Muzaffarabad district of AJK, Pakistan.

Methodology: We collected the data from 384 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) having at least one child using a self- constructed interview schedule. The population sample size was calculated using Krejcie formula and purposive sampling was used for data collection. Two hospitals, Abbas Institute of Medical Sciences and combined military hospital Muzaffarabad were selected for blood samples to screen the hemoglobin (Hb) level of the respondents and data collection. Univariate analysis was performed to examine the frequency distributions and percentages of cases depending on a single variable at a time. The bivariate analysis was performed using chi-square test to determine empirical relationship between the anemia severity and socio-cultural risk factors of this ailment. The odd ratios were computed to investigate the odds of occurrence of anemia among respondents. The results were considered statistically significant at significance level ≤ 0.05. 

Results: The findings revealed that prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anemia are 26.3%, 40.9% and 14.3% respectively among WRA, which shows that anemia is a significant health problem from public health perspective in the region. Major contributing factors are respondent’s and her husband’s education, age at marriage, number of pregnancies, knowledge about balanced diet and anemia, male preference in food intake and violence.

Conclusion: Anemia is a multifactorial problem among WRA in the study population, which can be dealt with using an integrated approach by combating malnutrition, provision of adequate healthcare, quality education and devising strategies for avoiding domestic violence. The community pharmacists can play an effective role to educate people about the selection of iron supplementation for adequate management of anemia among WRA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Behavior, Quit Attempts and Attitudes of Smoking Pharmacy Students in the Pharmacy Faculty at Isra University in Jordan

Anas Khaleel, Hadeel Tawfiq AL- Hadithi, Venus Samawi, Ayah Daghash, Rowan Al Ejielat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430614

Background: The proportion of smokers in Jordan is one of the largest in the world and ranks number one the Middle East and second worldwide.

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the behavior, quit attempts and attitudes among pharmacy students in the pharmacy college at Isra University – Jordan.

Methods: Participants answered a structured questionnaire and were randomly selected from students who smoke who were enrolled at the faculty of pharmacy at Isra University during the academic year of 2017-2018. Students were eligible to participate if they smoked regular cigarettes, or hookah or other types of smoke devices.

Results: Most participants smoke cigarettes (n=82, 71.9%) over hookah. Thirty-seven students (32.5%) of the age group 20-25 have started smoking less than 5 years ago. A total of 72 students (63%) are highly addicted consuming at least one pack of 20 cigarettes or more per day. Most students (87.7%) spend between 50-100 JOD (~$70-141USD) monthly on smoking.  Furthermore, 80 students (70.2%) have tried to quit before.

Conclusions: The current study showed a positive attitude toward establishing designated smoking zones. Smokers also stated their eagerness to quit smoking. There is an urgent need to have more awareness campaigns and smoking cessation clinics or counselors on college campuses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Different Polarity Extracts of Polygonum minus towards Cytotoxic Activities against Colon Cancer Cell Lines (HT-29, HCT-116, CT-26)

Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin, Norhayati Abd Hadi, Norhaslinda Ridzwan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 168-180
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430617

Aims: To investigate the cytotoxic properties of different polarity solvents of Polygonum minus extracts towards colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, HCT-116 and CT-26.

Study Design:  Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Laboratory, Tissue Culture Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu between September 2019 until December 2019.

Methodology: The different polarity solvents of P. minus extracts had been led to tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay and an inhibition concentration of 50 (IC50) value for their cytotoxic potential against colon cancer cells. Then, cell morphology observation and fluorescence double staining of treatment cells were determined using a light inverted microscope and acridine orange/propidium iodide staining.

Results: The results indicated that an extraction yields aligned from 0.01% for acetone and ethyl acetate to 0.45% for aqueous solution with decreasing order of aqueous solution > 70% aqueous ethanol > 50% aqueous ethanol > methanol > ethanol > acetone and ethyl acetate. Meanwhile, the ethyl acetate extract showed a higher cytotoxic effect at IC50 values of 7.00 ± 0.06 µg/mL and 7.00 ± 0.30 µg/mL towards the HCT-116 and CT-26 cells; and 50% aqueous ethanol towards HT-29 cells (24.00 ± 0.01 µg/mL). The different solvent extracts of P. minus induced cytotoxic effects on the treated cell lines by altering their normal cell morphology and cell membrane integrity (except for acetone extract).

Conclusion: Therefore, the use of different polarity solvent extracts of P. minus as an anti-cancer agent is promising more on ethyl acetate and warrants further investigation.

Open Access Review Article

Breast Carcinoma- A Review

Shreya Rajkumar, P. Darwin, C. T. Karthikeyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430600

Breast malignancy has fast overtaken ovarian malignancy as the leading cause of death in women. A number of factors attribute to the rise in breast cancer, including obesity, food habits and carcinogen exposure. This article is a review of breast malignancy, and its pathological nature, and highlights the significance of axillary staging as a prognostic factor, and hence the importance of axillary investigation.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Pharmacoscintigraphy

P. V. Kamala Kumari, S. Anitha, Y. Srinivasa Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430602

Pharmacoscintigraphy is a non-invasive technique for determining the fate of drugs after administration into humans. Collecting valuable information through the pharmacoscintigraphy about absorption and release mechanisms of drugs from formulations, and thus proving to be an invaluable tool in developing newer and more effective formulations. Such studies can be used to determine the behavior of drugs, formulation as well as diagnostic agents that are administered. In this technique, radiolabelled formulations are administered to patients by their intended route of administration. Their transit through the body is monitored using sophisticated imaging cameras. Since the amount of radiotracer that is used is very low, this is a safe, efficient, and accurate method for studying the behavior of drugs in the human body. Preclinical studies of newer drugs have successfully been carried out using the pharmacoscintigraphic technique. 

Open Access Review Article

Acrylamide Toxicity and Mitigation Strategies: A Summary of Recent Reports

Nisreen Abdullah Rajeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-163
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430615

Acrylamide is a potential carcinogen, with proven neurotoxicity and genotoxicity. In the current scenario, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity of acrylamide have not been conclusively established for humans; however, the same has been established in laboratory animal species. In this review, we summarize the factors dictating the exposure of acrylamide to humans and subsequently caused toxicity to humans. Further, we review the neurotoxic and genotoxic effects of acrylamide on animal models, with a particular emphasis on reproductive toxicity. We also talk about various strategies such as physical, chemical, and biological approaches, employed for acrylamide. Overall, we discuss that consumption of acrylamide through food products has toxic effects on the endocrine system, and it is deleterious for human health. A novel aspect of this review is that we provide a molecular mechanism of action in conjunction with clinical data on acrylamide toxicity along with relevant examples. This review also highlights the requirement of further research on the consequences of acrylamide toxicity, molecular modes of action, and the overall impact on the human body.