Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Pattern in Dermatoglyphics

S. R. Sruthy, Jayakar Thomas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330576

Aim: The aim was to study the analytical pattern in dermatoglyphics.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Skin Opd, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 100 participants with different hand dermatitis pattern were included in the study. All patients were subjected to: 1. Complete history, 2. Dermatological examination, 3. Finger print pattern of all the patients, 4. Informed consent.

Results: This hospital-based study involved 100 patients with Psoriasis (47) Eczema (23) Dermatophytosis (12), Syphilis (3), Drug reaction (5) Palmar keratoderma. (10), the most common being psoriasis and eczema. In psoriasis patients, whorl pattern was the commonest (48.29%), followed by 31.43% loop, 21.43% arch and 2.86% composite pattern. In eczema patients, loop and whorl pattern was found in (44.74%) followed by 34.23% loop, 22.43% arch and 1.86% composite pattern.

Conclusion: The palmar pattern intensities were increased in both sexes, while the digital pattern intensities were increased in males and decreased in females. TFRC was increased in males and decreased in female patients. In both cases and controls, TFRC was more in males than females. A-b count showed a significant reduction in both sexes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Saudi Public Awareness Regarding Colon Cancer

Nehad Jaser Ahmed, Meshari Alrashidi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330578

Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy in the world and in Saudi Arabia it is the second most common cancer ranking first among men and third among women. In Saudi Arabia there are no screening programs on a national level that conduct organized screening of colon cancer. Moreover, the knowledge about colon cancer is poor.

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and awareness of Saudi population about colon cancer.

Methodology: The study consisted of a survey that was developed using a survey of previous study and after validation it was converted to online form and was distributed to be filled by the public.

Results: Public awareness regarding colon cancer is suboptimal, improving colon cancer awareness with educational interventions is needed specially for vulnerable people.

Conclusion: Serious active measures should be taken to fill the gap in awareness of this disease for the public and health care workers.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Study Dermoscopic Findings in Alopecia Areata

Kovi Sneha, Jayakar Thomas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330579

Introduction: Alopecia areata is a common chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that involves hair follicles, characterized by hair loss on the scalp and/or body without scarring. Clinically, the disease presents as smooth, patchy hair loss with various patterns - diffuse or reticulate alopecia, ophiasis, ophiasis inversus, alopecia totalis (loss of hair all the scalp), or alopecia universalis (loss of hair all over the body). Clinical diagnosis of AA is made based on typical pattern of hair loss and the presence of characteristic exclamation mark hair in microscopy. Invasive (punch biopsy) techniques are often required in some cases where the clinical diagnosis is not straight forward Biopsy shows peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrates in a “swarm of bee pattern” which is characteristic of the acute stage of the disease.

Dermoscopy is an imaging instrument that immensely magnifies surface features of skin lesions. It works on the principle of illumination and transillumination of skin with different light sources and studying it with a high magnification lens. Dry dermoscopy was done with heine delta 20 dermoscope which was followed by wet dermoscopy. Liquid paraffin was used as the immersion media. It is a noninvasive, repeatable, recordable bedside investigation.

Objective: To study dermoscopic findings in alopecia areata.

Materials and Methods: Study Design: Cross sectional study; Study Area: Skin Outpatient Department, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital; Study Population: All patients with hair loss, attending skin OPD, who are clinically diagnosed as Alopecia Areata; Study Method: Observational study; Sample Size: 30.

Results: Clinically, the disease presents as smooth, patchy hair loss with various patterns. Dermoscopy is useful for diagnosis of AA clinically by the presence of cadaverized hairs (black dots), circle hair, coudablity hair, exclamation mark hairs (tapering hairs), broken hairs, yellow dots and clustered short vellus hairs in the hair loss areas. The results wear tabulated.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents among Outpatients in Alkharj

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330580

Background: Thromboembolic diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications are important therapies in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. There is a limited data about the prescribing of these medications. 

Aim: This study aims to describe the pattern of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents use among outpatients in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that includes the electronic prescriptions among outpatients in a public hospital in Alkharj

Results: Aspirin was the most commonly prescribed agent (61.73%) followed by clopidogrel (18.60%) and enoxaparin (69%). Aspirin and clopidogrel was the most commonly prescribed combination (77.27%). Antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants result in improve several benefits but also could result in severe adverse effects and several drug interactions.

Conclusion: The prescribers should ensure that benefit of Antiplatelet and anticoagulant outweigh the bleeding risk before prescribing these medications. It is important also to implement educational interventions to improve their use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Healthcare Providers about Using Face Mask to Limit the Spread of the Novel Coronavirus Disease

Nehad J. Ahmed, Omar S. Alanazi, Abeer A. Alzahrani, Rana E. Alonazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330581

Aim: There is evidence that health care providers have insufficient knowledge and poor practices regarding the use of surgical mask. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the knowledge, practices and attitude of healthcare providers about using face mask in order to limit the spreading of the novel coronavirus disease.

Methodology: This was a cross sectional pilot study included a questionnaire about the knowledge of health care workers regarding the use of surgical face mask to prevent the new COVID-19 spreading and about their practices and the attitude of them regarding the use of surgical face mask to limit the new COVID-19 exposure.

Results: About 86.21% of health care workers said that the correct way of using surgical face mask is White side facing in and about 65.52% of them said that N-95 mask is the mask type that actually protect against COVID-19. All of the respondents reported that they wear a mask in public places to protect themselves against COVID-19 and that they wear a mask in hospital premises to protect themselves against COVID-19 (100.00%).

Conclusion: The Knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care providers regarding the use of surgical face masks were found to be good but still more knowledge is required about several aspects such as the types of masks, the duration of using masks and the disposal of the masks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the P16INK4a Expression in Cervical Biopsy Specimen SBMCH

Amish Aggarwal, I. Venkatraman, M. Prabakaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330582

In early 1980 human papillomavirus (HPV) were the risk factor and most commonly affects younger women. Many test have developed since then and among that a biomarker test system have developed and clinically evaluated.  P16INK4a is used as an important marker for indicating neoplastic transformation for cervical dyplasia. This study was done to evaluate the P16INK4a expression in cervical biopsy in 50 cases. Two cases were identified a P16INK4a positive and remaining 48 didn’t show P16INK4a expression proving the hypothesis that p16INK4a is capable of showing the dysplasia positive cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison between Conventional Gastric Adenocarcinoma and EBV Associated Gastric Carcinoma

A. R. Arshad, M. R. Rajashekar, N. Srinivasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330583

Epstein Barr Virus (EBV or Human herpesvirus 4) belongs to the genus Lymphocryptoviridae, the gamma 1 subtype of the Subfamily Gamma herpes viridae and is one of the most common viruses in humans. It is present in all populations, infecting more than 95% of all individuals within the first four decades of life. In developing countries, infections occur very early in life with no specific characteristics other than the general symptoms of acute viremia. In developed countries however, the infection is usually delayed until adolescence or early childhood years where it causes infectious mononucleosis, a benign self-limiting lymphoproliferative disorder. Though the infection with EBV is benign in the acute stages and latent in the chronic phase in the vast majority of people, the virus has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of many malignancies with the list of such malignancies progressively increasing. The first association was with the endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma. Subsequently, other lymphomas (subtypes of Hodgkin’s and non-hodgkin’s lymphomas) are also known to be associated with EBV infection. Epithelial malignancies such as lymphoepitheliomas of nasopharynx and stomach are included in the list of EBV associated tumors. Tumors arise as a result of genetic and epigenetic alterations produced by the virus, which transforms the normal cell into an immortalized proliferating cell. Since Burke et al first detected EBV in undifferentiated lymphoepithelioma like gastric cancer in 1990, many researches are undertaken to prove the same. EBV expresses latent membrane protein which can be detected immune histochemically. Our study is aimed at detecting the EBV expression in gastric carcinoma cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbon Based Kajal Formulations: Antimicrobial Activity and Feasibility as a Semisolid Base for Ophthalmics

Dheeraj S. Randive, Somnath D. Bhinge, Namdeo R. Jadhav, Mangesh A. Bhutkar, Mrunal K. Shirsat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330586

Study aimed to prepare and evaluate carbon based kajal formulation and carry out its comparative evaluation with the marketed formulations of kajal.

Initially, carbon soot was deposited on Aloe vera mucilage spreaded on a copper plate, in specifically designed apparatus. Subsequently, sun dried plate was allowed to expose to the flame of cow ghee for 1 hr. Soot which was deposited on the copper plate was scrapped and Characterization of Soot by SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD and EDX was carried out and kajal was prepared by adding few drops of cow ghee to it. The kajal was compared with the five marketed kajal formulations available in India, on the basis of physical characteristics their antibacterial potential was also assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

All the formulations exhibited almost similar physical characteristics. The prepared kajal showed pH (7.06±0.13). The antimicrobial activity of the marketed formulations was comparatively less than that of freshly prepared exhibiting zone of inhibition 13.05±0.11, 20.08± 0.13 and 22.06±0.18 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and   E. coli respectively. EDX spectra, revealed that the cow ghee soot have the weight percentage of carbon and copper as 79.20 and 17.10% respectively and Confirmed the absence of Lead (Pb). The eye irritation test (OECD 405) also showed no any irritation, redness, watering of the eye or swelling was not observed for prepared formulation in test animal. Prepared Kajal can be safely used for beatification and also in the treatment of eye diseases especially in pediatrics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eleusine indica Linn, Baertin (Poaceae) Ethanol Leaf Extract and Its Ethyl Acetate Fraction Display Potential Anti-inflammatory Activities

Peter Achunike Akah, Adaobi Ogonna Ezeugo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330587

Objective: Inflammation is the underlying cause of most of the chronic diseases that occur with aging. Although many drugs are available for the management of inflammatory disorders and their symptoms, most of these drugs possess serious adverse effects that limit their usefulness. This has encouraged the unending search for potent anti-inflammatory drugs from plant sources as alternatives to conventional drug treatment of inflammation. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol leaf extract of E. indica and the ethylacetate fraction in rodents.

Materials and Methods: The leaves were extracted with ethanol by cold maceration and the extract was fractionated with n-hexane, ethylacetate, butanol and water. The oral acute toxicity (LD50) of the extract and the phytochemical constituents of the extract and the fractions were determined. The anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract (EE) and ethylacetate fraction (ETF) and their possible mechanisms of actions were investigated.

Results: The oral LD50 of the extract was above 5000 mg/kg. Both the EE and ETF displayed dose-dependent inhibition of the rat paw edema, with ETF producing between 48-54% edema inhibition. Xylene-induced topical edema was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both the EE and ETF, with ETF causing between 48 and 65% inhibition. The EE and ETF preserved the integrity of gastric mucosa. Their average ulcer index (1.37±0.02) was significantly lower than that of indomethacin (5.20±0.23). Pre-treatment with the EE and ETF significantly (p < 0.05) reduced leucocyte migration, especially the neutrophils. Both heat- and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis of RBC membrane were remarkably inhibited.

Conclusion: The mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity may involve among others inhibition of leukocyte migration and membrane stabilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age and Gender Differences in the Pattern of Antiplatelet Agents Prescribing

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-91
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330588

Aim: There is a scarcity of data regarding gender and age related aspects of antiplatelet drugs utilization in the outpatient setting. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the age-and gender-related differences in the outpatient use of antiplatelet drugs in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that include the assessment of electronic prescriptions in the outpatient setting that include an antiplatelet drug in 2018.

Results: Ticagrelor was prescribed mainly for patients more than 60 years old (84.62%). Clopidogrel was prescribed mainly for patients more than 50 years old (79.76%) and aspirin also was prescribed mainly for patients more than 50 years old (71.67%). Generally, most of the patients who received antiplatelet agents were male (52.76%).

Conclusion: The present study showed that there were differences in prescribing antiplatelet agents between different gender and different ages. So it is important to know the prescribing trends and to give the appropriate drugs based on several factors such as gender and age. It is expected that in the future, antiplatelet therapy may be based on age and on endogenous sex hormone level or genetic female/male differences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Lumefantrine-2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Binary Systems

Adebanjo J. Adegbola, Ezekiel Omotoso, Olujide O. Olubiyi, Julius O. Soyinkaa, Oluseye O. Bolaji, Cyprian O. Onyeji

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 92-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330589

Lumefantrine contributes significant roles in artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment but associated with a limitation of poor aqueous solubility and low permeability. This study investigated lumefantrine-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex to improve its solubility profile. A phase-solubility analysis and molecular modelling were carried out before the preparation of the complex by physical mixture, kneading, co-evaporation and freeze-drying methods. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic and powder X-ray diffractometric (PXRD) techniques were used to characterised the complex. The phase-solubility studies showed a type AL diagram with an apparent stability constant value of 243.4 M-1 suggesting the formation of a soluble and stable complex. Significant improvements in aqueous solubility was achieved, notably the freeze-dried system gave a 3-fold and 11-fold increase in solubility in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids respectively. The FT-IR spectra and PXRD patterns of co-evaporated and freeze-dried systems indicated stronger interactions and complexation of lumefantrine in the 2-HP-β-CD cavities. Our findings suggest that the host-guest binary system of lumefantrine-2-HP-β-CD is achievable, structural stable via intermolecular interactions consisting of hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interaction. The inclusion complex is considered a formulation option to ameliorate the poor aqueous solubility of lumefantrine which might improve the absorption and therapeutic efficacy of the drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Social Empowerment Status of the Medicinal Plant Growers

N. Suganthi, P. Balasubramaniam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 106-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330590

The indigenous systems of medicine in India are Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani which is practised from ancient times. India and China are the two major countries having 40 per cent of the global diversity and are known as the house of medicinal plants. Most of the medicinal plants are gathered from the forest areas to meet the demand of the medicinal profession, which becomes exhaustible if overused and sustainable when used with care and wisdom. Hence, it is important to take efforts to grow them as commercial crops. Several theoretical concepts to measure empowerment of farmers have been identified and proposed world wide, very few studies have been conducted to measure their empowerment. This paper presents the Perceived Social Empowerment status of medicinal plant growers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Reflex Therapy on Stress and Blood Pressure among Older Adults with Hypertension

Sahbanathul Missiriya, J. Suhail Hassan, Arul Anunncia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-117
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330591

Aims: Reflex therapy relieves tension, relaxes the mind, improves the circulation of the body. In hypertension, vascular resistance increases the pressure of the blood vessels. The study was aimed to assess the pretest and post-test levels of stress and blood pressure (BP), evaluate the effectiveness of the reflex therapy among older adults with hypertension, and to associate the level of stress and BP with demographic variables.

Study Design: Community-based randomized controlled trial was adopted.

Place and Duration of Study: The urban area, Poonamallee, in Chennai, between October to December 2019.

Methodology: Among 100 older adults, 50 participants were selected in each experimental and control group by using simple randomization. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and dual function BP monitor was used to assess the stress and BP respectively. Reflex therapy was provided for 6 weeks to the older adults with hypertension, who had low and moderate levels of stress in the experimental group. The different pressures such as 100%, 75%, and 50%, that was applied in the foot for 15 minutes weekly twice by reflexology stick, when the participants were in an empty stomach. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The mean and standard deviation value of pretest and post-test stress level was 14.84±6.02, 9.4±4.73 in experimental group, 13.32±5.3 and 13.04±5.09 in control group respectively. This proves that reflex therapy was effective in reducing stress levels which was statistically significant (P=0.001). Mean and standard deviation of systolic BP in pretest and post-test was 142.74±5.98 and 137.78±5.69; 141.11±6.18 and 142.03±6.29, and diastolic BP was 98.21±3.28; 97.31±3.15 and 97.94±3.59; 98.96±3.34 in experimental and control group respectively indicated that the reflex therapy helps to reduce the level of BP (P=0.001).

Conclusion: Reflex therapy is beneficial to older adults particularly with hypertension for relieving stress and reducing systolic and diastolic BP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Cytokines, CD4, Hepcidin, Iron Profile and Some Haematological Parameters of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Coinfected with HIV in Southeast of Nigeria

Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi, Esimai, Bessie N., Obeagu, Getrude Uzoma, Ochiabuto, O.M.T.B., Chukwurah , Ejike Felix, Ekelozie, Ifeoma Stella, Ochei , Kingsley Chinedum

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 118-130
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330592

The study was done to determine the levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, iron status, hepcidin and haematological parameters of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Southeast, Nigeria. This study was carried out at the directly observed treatment-short course Tuberculosis (TB DOTS) centre of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, located in South-Eastern Nigeria. Therefore, sample size of 240 was used to give room for attrition. A total of two hundred and forty (240) subjects aged 18-60 years were enlisted for this study. Seven milliliters (7ml) of venous blood was collected from each subject and 2.5 ml was dispensed into bottles containing di-potassium salt of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (K2-EDTA) and was used for full blood count, CD4 count and HIV screening. Also, 4.5ml was dispensed into plain tubes. Serum was obtained after clotting by spinning at 3000 RPM for 10 minutes and was used for interferon gamma, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10, iron and hepcidin determination. Data was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Student t-test, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), Pearson Product Moment and Chi-Square were the tools employed. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are presented in table and significance level was set at P<0.05.The results showed difference that was statistically significant (P<0.05) in IFN-γ (P=0.000), IL-6 (P=0.000) IL-10 (P=0.000), CD4 (P=0.000), hepcidin (P=0.000), Iron (P=0.000), TIBC (P=0.000), %TSA  (P=0.001) ,WBC (P=0.000), Neutrophils (P=0.000), Lymphocyes (P=0.000), Monocytes (P=0.000), Eosinophils (P=0.000), Basophils (P=0.018), RBC (P=0.000), haemoglobin (P=0.000), PCV (P=0.000), MCV (P=0.000), MCH (P=0.000), MCHC (P=0.000), Platelets (P=0.000), ESR (P=0.000) when compared among  control, TB, HIV and TB-HIV subjects respectively. The co infection of HIV on pulmonary TB patients increases the levels of the cytokines. The cytokines and hepcidin can be used as adjunct to prognostic and diagnostic markers as their levels decreased with increased duration of treatment of the patients. The study has shown wide variations in the haemtological indices studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in Brain Disorders; A New Window

Afshan Abbas, Rahila Ikram, Saadia Iftikhar, Qurrat ul Ain Bukhari, Uzair Nisar, Abeer Adil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 131-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330593

Aims: Alzheimer disease and epilepsy are two of the central nervous system (CNS) disorders that not only affect the quality of life of patients but also of family members and caretakers. Remedies for these illnesses are available in allopathic medicines but not without side effects. Herbal products are being investigated for these ailments. Protective role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was assessed in this study.

Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Conducted in Pharmacology Department of University of Karachi, between March 2018 and April 2018.

Methodology: Mice and rats were divided in three groups, control, 2% and 4% F. vulgare groups, each containing 10 rodents. Control group was fed standard rodent diet, whereas, study groups were given 2% and 4% F. vulgare seeds (crushed) incorporated in standard rodent diet. Epilepsy model was made for mice and Alzheimer disease study was done using rats and passive avoidance test.

Results: Lower incidence of seizures and mortality in both study groups as compared to control in epilepsy model and memory retaining effect in both treated groups in Alzheimer disease model was recorded with statistical significance.

Conclusion: Clinical studies should be conducted to validate the protective role of this herb in these disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

MicroRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 Regulate Monocarboxylate Transporter-4 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Expression in Colorectal Cancer

Anas Khaleel, Rowan AlEjielat, Cristina I. Batarseh, Walid Abu Rayyan, Abdallah Ahmed Elbakkoush, Amneh Tarkhan, Aiman Mahdi, Yazan S. Batarseh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-152
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330594

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently the third most common cancer type in males and the second most occurring in females. The role of microRNA (miRNA) in the development of colorectal cancer is not fully elucidated. Therefore, understanding the mechanistic interaction between miRNA and their target oncogenes may hold great importance as a possible target for interventional anticancer therapy.

Aims: To identify miRNAs that are part of the regulating pathway of Monocarboxylate Transporter-4 (MCT4) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) oncogenes.

Study Design: We used publicly available prediction tools (e.g. TargetScan, MicroCosm, PicTar, and DIANA-microT-CDS) to identify the possible miRNA that target the two oncogenes.

Methodology: We used the GeneMania database to visualize the network and verify gene names and remove ambiguity and duplications.  Furthermore, we used miRTarBase database to identify experimentally validated targets which we used to further confirm miRNA-oncogene relationships.  Finally, we utilized miR-Mfold web-tool to further visualize the circular structures and the simulated miR-1 and miR-206 targeting arrangements.

Results: We found two putative miRNA (miR-1 and miR-206) that may downregulate MCT4 coded by SLC16A3 gene and VEGF which is coded by VEGF gene. We found relationships between the validated target genes of miR-1 and miR-206 through GeneMania which we extracted from the literature. And we elucidated the proposed structure of these two miRNAs through miR-Mfold web-tool.

Conclusion: Our results elucidated a novel regulation pathway in CRC cells and may suggest a potential therapeutic approach for CRC therapy. MiR-1 and miR-206 may help cells go to apoptosis and inhibit the angiogenesis of colorectal cancer cells by down-regulation of MCT4 and VEGF proteins in tumor tissues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Lipid Profile in Metabolic Syndrome Patients

Pinky Karam, B. Shanthi, Kalai Selvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 166-173
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330596

Background: Metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic abnormalities in which the chance of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease are high.

Aim: It aims at studying the lipid abnormalities in metabolic syndrome patients.

Methods: Total of 100 metabolic syndrome patients were selected for study over a period of 1year. These patients were selected based on the criteria for metabolic syndrome as established by National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Demographic data were taken and biochemical parameters were estimated by standard guideline.

Results: Total cholesterol is significantly higher in very high risk (272.1 ± 8.591) compared to high risk (241.2 ± 3.901) and moderate risk (231.5 ± 4.498). TGL is significantly higher in very high risk (263.9 ± 13.70) compared to high risk (202.1 ± 6.531) and moderate risk (183.7 ± 7.650). HDL is almost same in very high risk (43.09 ± 1.533), high risk (40.44 ± 0.996) and moderate risk (42.53 ± 1.088). LDL is significantly higher in very high risk (177.9 ± 4.255) and high risk (169.4 ± 3.190) compared to moderate risk (155.7 ± 3.098). VLDL is significantly higher in very high risk (52.78 ± 2.739) compared to high risk (40.43 ± 1.306) and moderate risk (36.73 ± 1.530). CHO: HDL is significantly higher in very high risk (6.648 ± 0.366) compared to moderate risk (5.560 ± 0.207). High risk (6.060 ± 0.156) is not significantly different from very high risk and moderate risk. Thus, TC, TGL, LDL, VLDL, and CHO: HDL is significant as p value < 0.05 while HDL did not have any significance as p value > 0.05.

Conclusion: In this study, high prevalence of dyslipidaemia is seen. So, timely diagnosis and treatment will help in detecting dyslipidaemia patients in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Prospective Study on Functional Outcome of Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Acetabular Fractures

Venkata Kiran Pillella, J. Lionel John

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 174-183
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330597

The current study is a prospective study on the functional outcome of open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures. About 30 patients were analyzed for the functional outcome of acetabular fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation over a period of one year and eight months from March 2017 to October 2018 with a minimum follow up period of 9 months at Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital, Chromepet, Chennai. The mean age of the patient was 37.96 year ranging from 20 - 60 years. The Joel Matta score was used for calculation of radiological outcome of 30 patients. The results were excellent in 19 (66.3%), good in 8 (26.6%), fair in 3 (10%), and poor in 0 (0%) patients. Functional outcome of displaced acetabular fractures more than 2 mm displacement was found to have excellent results on open reduction and internal fixation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Prevalence, Awareness and Practices Regarding Cosmetics Harmful Effects among Saudi Female University Students of Albaha; Saudi Arabia

Hasan S. Al- Ghamdi, Abuobaida E. E. Abukhelaif, Manal Croft, Mohammed Yusif, Horeyah A. Al Ghamdi, Altaf Ali Mangi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 184-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330619

Introduction: Cosmetics are defined by the Saudi Food and Drug Authority as any material or preparation designed to come into contact with various external body parts (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips, and external genital organs) or with the oral cavity's teeth and mucous membranes for a variety of purposes, such as cleansing, perfuming, altering their appearance and/or keeping them in a good condition.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence, level of awareness, and practices regarding cosmetics harmful hazards among Saudi female University Students of Albaha; Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: This was a descriptive study intended to assess the prevalence, awareness and practice of Saudi female students of Albaha University. Systematic sampling methods were used to pick from each college, the predetermined sample size was taken, accordingly systematic random sampling was used to recruit 410 female students from medical and none medical colleges. Medical students at the latter level of their study were excluded from the study. Information was gathered using a self-administered questionnaire which was constructed to explore respondents’ awareness and practice toward using cosmetics.

Results: A total of 410 respondents were enrolled in the study with a respondent rate of 93.2%, most of the respondents (62.4%) were none medical, and (37.6%) medical students. The prevalence of cosmetics use among our respondents is (97.8%), (82%) of them are between the age of 18 and 20 years and (76.3%) were unmarried. Most of the respondents (77.8%) used cosmetics daily while (20%) used to apply them sometimes or on need. Facial cosmetics, lipstick, and eye make-up as a group is the most commonly used cosmetics (64.9%) followed by skin lightening products (14.4%). 69% have an average level of knowledge concerning cosmetics adverse effects; (23%) have knowledge level and only (8%) having a good level of knowledge. A very significant proportion (37%) had experienced at least one side effect. Irritant contact dermatitis is the most commonly seen adverse effect affecting (38.8%) of the study population; followed by acne (27%) and allergic contact dermatitis (18.4%). Perfumes, deodorants, body lotions and creams by far the most common cosmetics products causing adverse effects (52.4%); followed by Facial cosmetics, lipstick and eye make-up in 143 (34.9%).

Conclusion: A high prevalence rate of cosmetic use among Albaha university female students. Unfortunately, only 8% of them have good knowledge about the harmful effects of cosmetics. A very significant proportion was experienced at least one cosmetics-related side effect. This study concludes that cosmetics health-related hazard awareness among our respondents was not satisfactory and therefore needs a special consideration on cosmetic use-related safety concerns through awareness programs to raise their awareness.

Recommendation: More researches should be directed to determine levels of knowledge and awareness towards cosmetic usage and its health hazards and safety measures. We recommended that a well-structured health education program should be done including lectures, workshops, campaigns and mass media orientation to increase the awareness level and educate the students about the hazardous effects of commonly used cosmetics.

Open Access Review Article

Immunomodulatory Effects of Zinc as a Supportive Strategies for COVID-19

Nahla A. Tayyib, Pushpamala Ramaiah, Fatmah J. Alsolami, Mohammed S. Alshmemri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330577

Coronaviruses 2019 (Covid-19) is a massive family of viruses that causes respiratory illnesses ranging from the common cold to the most severe conditions such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that represents the humanitarian crisis on a global scale. Currently, there are no therapeutic strategies approved by the U.S.Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to cure or prevent COVID-19. Global research efforts from around the world extrapolate the updates focusing specifically on the biphasic nature of Covid-19 that involve both innate and acquired immunity. Even though researchers around the globe are racing to invent a life-saving therapeutics and vaccines to tackle COVID-19, the only available venture is a supportive approach in rendering treatment to patients with severe and non-severe cases of COVID-19. Supplementation of several vitamins and trace elements showed the expected favorable impact on enhancing immunity in viral infection. Numerous studies prompted the value of zinc (Zn) supplementation that prevents the virus from entering cells by binding with protein in potentiating antiviral immunity, which is realized through different mechanisms, including the improvement in markers of immune function. Zinc is also an associated factor for several enzymes (needed for the activity for over 300 enzymes), transcription factors, and replication factors. Interestingly, low-level zinc results in dysfunction of all immune cells, subjects with altered zinc state have a high risk for infectious disorders, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Several assumptions regarding immunomodulators of zinc remain unresolved. This review aimed to explore the hypothetical association of Zinc supplementation (the key immunomodulator) in association with a preventive and therapeutic role of treating patients with COVID-19.

Open Access Review Article

Super Porous Hydrogels: A Review

P. V. Kamala Kumari, M. Sharmila, Y. Srinivasa Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 153-165
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1330595

Super porous hydrogels (SPHs) basically developed  initially create as a novel drug delivery system to absorb and continue to hold the drugs in the gastric medium which allows absorption  in stomach and upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. These systems get swollen in the stomach instantly and in the harsh stomach environment they maintain their integrity, while the pharmaceutical active ingredient is being released. Instant and fast swelling property of hydrogel  is based on water absorption through open porous structure by capillary force. SPHs have the poor mechanical strength which has got over by developing the second-generation SPH composites (SPHCs) and the third-generation SPH hybrids (SPHHs).  The present review has been focused on the preparation, characterization and application of SPHs.