Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Enoxaparin in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830464

Aims: This study aims to demonstrate the use of enoxaparin in obstetrics and gynecology department in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Alkharj city. The outpatient prescriptions were reviewed to evaluate the prescription patterns of enoxaparin. The data were collected and analyzed using Excel software, the descriptive data were represented by frequencies and percentages.

Results: About 86.32% of the prescriptions contain enoxaparin syringe were prescribed for female patients. The majority of enoxaparin prescriptions were from obstetrics & gynecology department (79.48%).Moreover, the majority of enoxaparin prescriptions were prescribed by consultants (62.39%).

Conclusion: The result of this study show that enoxaparin was prescribed commonly in the obstetrics and gynecology department for female patients because of its efficacy and safety profile. Enoxaparin is safer than other anticoagulants but still could cause many adverse effects so it is important to increase the health care professional awareness about its use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Candida Species Infections in a Military Hospital in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830465

Aim: The present study aims to demonstrate the incidence of Candida species associated with infections in a Military hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that was conducted to assess the prevalence of Candida species in a Military hospital in Alkharj – Saudi Arabia. The isolates from various clinical specimens in 2018 and 2019 were studied.

Results: The percentage of candida species in the 2 years was 6.21% of isolates. The Candida albicans were 40.87% of the total Candida isolates. The majority of Candida species cultures were collected from wound/pus/skin or vagina and to lesser extent urine and lower respiratory tract.

Conclusion: Candida species are now common pathogens that cause infections specially in the gastrointestinal tract, vagina and at surgical site. It sometimes may lead to high morbidity and mortality rate. It is important to know the resistance rate for the fungi and it is important to start the implementation of antifungal treatment programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of a Period of Magnesium Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Resistance of Bodybuilders

Seyyed Mehdi Razavi Dehkordi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830466

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of magnesium supplements on the muscular strength of active men.

Materials and Methods: Samples were matched into two groups. Magnesium supplements (containing 47 mg of calcium and 250 mg of magnesium oxide produced by al-Hawi Company) were given to the experimental group and the placebo that was completely similar to the supplements for the control group. The tablets are given to every other subject individually and they performed strength training. Supplements were ingested before strength training in the gym and the supplements were consumed with a glass of water. The statistical population of the study included male bodybuilders’ athletes who are regularly excising three days a week in Shahre Kord sports clubs. 40 subjects were selected from people who were interested to participate in the research. After selecting the samples, they are randomly divided into two groups A and B (double-blind method). The strength of the athletes was measured by the CPR machine based on the 1-RM and their resistance by more repetition of bench press with a standard device using 1-RM by 0.5 Kg in the gym.

Results: The results of Wilks' lambda test showed that there is a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in one of the measurements related to arms muscle strength and chest muscle strength, while there is no a significant difference between the two groups in measurements related to muscle strength and resistance of the upper body, which means that magnesium supplementation for 8 weeks has had a significant effect on the strength of the hands and chest muscles of the bodybuilders ‘athlete.

Conclusion: Magnesium supplementation can affect the strength of upper body’s muscles of men.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Adverse Effect Reporting for the Most Commonly Used Antibiotics

Nehad J. Ahmed, Mohammed I. Fouda, Dina I. Fouda, Ahmed I. Foudah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830467

Aim: Antibiotics save lives, but the excess use of antibiotics leads to more side effects. Patients benefit from medications but also complain about their adverse effects. This study aims to explore the reports of the adverse effects for the most commonly used antibiotics in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: The Data regarding the adverse events reports were collected from The National Pharmacovigilance Center in Saudi Arabia. The data include the major allergic reactions and gastrointestinal side effects for the most commonly used antibiotic classes.

Results: The total number of allergic and gastrointestinal adverse effects in 2017 and 2018 for the included antibiotic drugs is 583 reports. The majority of the reports were for penicillin antibiotics (39.96) particularly Amoxicillin/Clavunate.

Conclusion: The most common adverse effects of antibiotics are allergic and gastrointestinal effects. It is important to report any adverse drug reactions either by health care providers or patients to the Saudi Pharmacovigilance Center.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Drug-related Knowledge and Clinical Skills among Future Healthcare Professionals

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Sawri Rajan, Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830469

Background: The main objective of this study was to determine and compare current drug-related knowledge and clinical skills in terms of medication error identification among future healthcare professionals.

Methods: Study participants were asked to identify errors in three different prescriptions. Around 15 minutes were given to complete the questionnaire without using any references in a classroom setting. The medication error identification rate was calculated based on the number of students that have identified the errors correctly.

Results: Among 225 respondents, significant differences were found between the three groups, i.e. Prescription 1 p=0.001, Prescription 2 p=0.023, Prescription 3 p=0.024. Pharmacy students had higher medication error identification rate compared to medical and nursing students.

Conclusion: Final year pharmacy students were found to have the best drug-related knowledge and clinical skills in terms of medication error identification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Threonine-based Sulfonamide Derivatives

M. C. Egbujor, U. C. Okoro, D. C. Nwobodo, C. U. Ezeagu, U. B. Amadi, C. G. Okenwa-Ani, J. I. Ugwu, I. G. Okoye, I. P. Abu, P. I. Egwuatu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830470

Aim: To systematically design, synthesize and evaluate the biological activities of new threonine-based sulfonamide derivatives in order to achieve improved drug potency.

Methodology: Sulfamoyl carboxylic acids were prepared by the reaction of threonine with the appropriate sulfonyl chloride while their acetylated, carboxamide and aniline derivatives were synthesized via Lumiere-Barbier acetylation, Schotten-Baumann ammonolysis and Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling methods respectively. The FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analytical data were employed in the structural characterization. In vitro and in silico antioxidant and antimicrobial studies were carried out.

Results: Compounds 1b and 1d displayed the best in vitro antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and antifungal activities against Candida albican sand Aspergillus niger. Compound 1f (IC50 = 1.150±0.003 µg/ml) exhibited the best in vitro antioxidant activity. Compound 1a had a higherin silico antibacterial (-11.51 kcal/mol) binding energies than antibacterial reference drug, penicillin (-10.89 kcal/mol). Compound 1c had the highest in silico antifungal binding energy (-10.48 kcal/mol)comparable to ketoconazole (-10.85 kcal/mol).

Conclusion: All the compounds were found to be potential antioxidant and antimicrobial drug candidates having complied with Lipinski’s rule of five.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Ciprofloxacin Prescribing at Outpatient Setting in Al-Kharj

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830471

Aim: The study was conducted to demonstrate the pattern of ciprofloxacin prescribing at outpatient Setting in Al-kharj.

Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted to demonstrate the pattern of ciprofloxacin prescribing. The Information was collected from electronic prescriptions in a public hospital in Al-Kharj city. The data was processed using Microsoft Excel and the descriptive data was represented as frequencies and percentages.

Results: There were 611 ciprofloxacin prescriptions in 2018. Ciprofloxacin is the 5th most commonly prescribing antibiotics in the outpatient setting in 2018. The majority of the patients were in the age level between 20-39 (53.51%). Out of 773 prescriptions, 162 were excluded (eye or ear drops). There were 608 tablets (99.51%).

Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin is one of the common prescribed antibiotics in the outpatient settings. If it is prescribed inappropriately it will lead to increase bacterial resistance rate, increase adverse effects and increase the cost of the treatment. It should be prescribed appropriately and the patients should be monitored frequently during its use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Co-Administration of Bioflavonoid on Diuretic Activity of Furosemide

Fahad I. Al-Saikhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830472

As bioflavonoids have a strong affinity to bind with albumin, it is plausible that they may have the ability to displace the diuretic furosemide bound to albumin. In this study we sought to verify this hypothesis by examining the effect of the co-administration of a bioflavonoid with furosemide on the diuretic activity of the latter.  Diosmin is a bioflavonoids type of plant chemical found mainly in citrus fruits.

For this purpose, we analyzed bioflavonoids by their ability to bind to human serum albumin (HAS) using an in silico method and found that diosmin had a higher affinity to albumin than furosemide. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of the co-administration of diosmin with furosemide on the diuretic activity of the latter in mice.

Our results showed that the combination did not produce any significant change in the diuretic activity of furosemide; however, after 3 hours of treatment, the urine volume of the mice that received diosmin along with frusemide was greater than that of mice administered only the same dose of furosemide. There was no significant difference in urine volume between the two groups at the end of 24 hours. A similar trend of increased levels at 3 hours in the combination group and absence of any difference at 24 hours was noted in the case of the urine concentrations of Na+, K+, and 2 Cl.

Our findings indicate that co-administration of diosmin increased the immediate diuretic effect of furosemide for the first few hours and that this effect subsides within 24 hrs. Therefore, this combination should be used with care, especially during the first few hours of administration.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Outpatient Prescribing Pattern of Cefuroxime in Al-Kharj

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830473

Introduction: Several previous studies reported a high prescribing rate of cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefuroxime. The inappropriate outpatients prescribing of cefuroximeleads to the development of bacterial resistance.

Aim: This study was conducted to demonstrate the prescribing pattern of cefuroxime in the outpatient setting in Alkharj.

Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted to know the prescribing pattern of cefuroxime. The data were collected from electronic prescriptions in a public hospital in Alkharj in 2018. The data were collected and analyzed using Excel software and represented as frequencies and percentages.

Results: In 2018, there were 316 prescriptions containing cefuroxime. The majority of the patient was males (56.01%). The majority of cefuroxime prescriptions include tablet dosage form (81.96%). About 62.03% of the outpatient prescriptions were prescribed by the emergency department.

Conclusion: Cephalosporin group (including cefuroxime) was one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotic groups to treat several infections. A high percentage of antibiotic prescriptions were prescribed inappropriately. It is important to increase the awareness about the wise use of antibiotics and to start the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Fibraurea tinctoria Leaves Extract in Experimental Rats or Animals

Fahad I. Al-Saikhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830474

The activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Fibraurea tinctoria leaves and anti-inflammatory was investigated. We utilized rats for which oedema was induced by carrageenan.  The extract of Fibraurea tinctoria leaves was administered orally at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. Paw oedema was significantly minimized using all prepared doses of the extract administered. The 400 mg/kg dose producing the highest oedema reduction. The Percent Inhibition with hydroalcoholic extract of Fibraurea tinctoria and Indomethacin were 67.6% and 68.49% respectively. We concluded that this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Fibraurea tinctoria leaves. I believe the results justify the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of wounds and inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption Properties of Thermally Treated Rice Husk for Removal of Sulfamethazine Antibiotic from Pharmaceutical Wastewater

Davoud Balarak, Fatemeh Bandani, Zaccheus Shehu, Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830475

Equilibrium sorption of the Thermally Treated Rice Husk (TTRH) for Sulfamethazine (SMT) adsorption was studied. The Physico-chemical properties of the modified rice husk were determined. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms. Of the three adsorption isotherm, the R2 value of Langmuir isotherm model was the highest. Also compared to other isotherms the AARE coefficient for the Langmuir isotherm is low, which indicates favorable sorption. The maximum monolayer coverage (qm) from Langmuir isotherm model was determined to be 19.11 mg/g, the separation factor indicating a favorable sorption experiment is 0.446. Also from Freundlich Isotherm model, the sorption intensity (n) which indicates favorable sorption and the correlation value are 1.84 and 3.79 respectively. The mean free energy was estimated from Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm model to be 9.18 KJ/mol which clearly proved that the adsorption experiment followed a physical process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bhringraj Derived Phytochemicals against Pneumonia

Debajani Tripathy, Chandana Adhikari, Mukundjee Pandey, Dipankar Bhattacharayay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830523

Phytochemicals from Bhringaraj plant extract are traditionally used to cure Pneumonia. It is caused by Klebsiella pneumonia. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that glutamic acid can effectively deactivate the dehydrogenase enzyme, thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bixa orellana Derived Phytochemicals against Entamoeba histolytica Causing Dysentery

Sonali Parida, Jogesh Kumar Nayak, Anindita Jena, Arsia Tabish, Archita Sahoo, Ananya Pani, Rukmini Mishra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 97-100
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830524

Phytochemicals from Bixa orellana plant extract are traditionally used to cure Dysentery. It is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that benzoin acid can effectively deactivate the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bixa orellana L. Derived Phytochemicals against Alcohol Dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli

Sonali Parida, Anindita Jena, Jogesh Kumar Nayak, Sonali Dash, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 101-104
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830525

Phytochemicals from Bixa orellana L. plant extract are traditionally used to cure Jaundice. It is caused by Escherichia coli. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of         -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that benzoic acid can effectively deactivate the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vaccinium corymbosum L. Derived Phytochemicals against Diarrhea

Diptiprajnya Sahoo, Minati Nayak, Anindita Jena, Dipankar Bhattacharyay, Mukundjee Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 105-108
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830526

Phytochemicals from Vaccinium corymbosum L. plant extract are traditionally used to cure diarrhea. It is caused by Escherichia coli.  Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that cafferic acid can effectively deactivate the shikimate dehydrogenase thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. Derived Phytochemicals against Skin Disease

Diptiprajnya Sahoo, Chinmayee Naik, Ashwini Kumar Mahanti, Mukundjee Pandey, Gyanranjan Mahalik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 109-112
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830527

Phytochemicals from Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr plant extract are traditionally used to cure skin disease. It is caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that P-cymene can effectively deactivate the shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebt. Derived Phytochemicals Used in the Treatment of Diarrhea

Chinmayee Naik, Krutanjali Rout, Mukundjee Pandey, Ipsita Priyadarsini Samal, Shibani Sahoo, Abhinash Mohapatra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 113-116
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830528

Phytochemicals from Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebt. plant extract are traditionally used to cure diarrhea. It is caused by Escherichia coli. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that p-cymene can effectively deactivate the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Buddleja asiatica Lour. Derived Phytochemicals against Staphylococcus aureus Causing Skin Diseases

Sasmita Patra, Sarthak Siddhant Mishra, Manaranjan Behera, Ruchi Samparna Sahoo, Swetanginee Gouda, Sushree Susmita Palei, Gyanranjan Mahalik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-120
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830529

Phytochemicals from Buddleja asiatica plant extract are traditionally used to cure skin diseases. It is caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that lignoceric acid can effectively deactivate the L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trigonella foenum-graecum Derived Phytochemicals against Tuberculosis

Bidyashree Tripathy, Elina Sahoo, Sidhartha Ray, Soumya Jal, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 121-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830530

Phytochemicals from Trigonella foenum-graecum plant extract are traditionally used to cure Tuberculosis. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that this plant extract can effectively deactivate the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pavonia odorata Derived Phytochemicals against Entamoeba histolytica Causing Dysentery

Jogesh Kumar Nayak, Suraj Kumar Sahu, Sitaram Swain, Dipankar Bhattacharyay, Mukundjee Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-128
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830531

Phytochemicals from Pavonia odorata plant extract are traditionally used to cure Dysentery. It is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that palmitic acid can effectively deactivate the Alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Beet Root Derived Phytochemicals against Escherichia coli Causing Diarrhea

Upendra Kumar Nayak, Smruti Ranjan Behera, Saswati Behera, Dipankar Bhattacharyay, Mukundjee Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 129-132
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830532

Phytochemicals from Beet Root (Beta vulgaris) plant extract are traditionally used to cure Diarrhea. It is caused by Escherichia coli. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that caffeic acid can effectively deactivate the Shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Michelia champaca L. Derived Phytochemicals against Peptidase Do of Bordetella pertussis Causing Cough

Sanjeeb Kumar Dash, Sidhartha Ray, Smruti Ranjan Behera, Soumya Jal, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 133-135
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830533

Phytochemicals from Michelia champaca L. plant extract are traditionally used to cure cough.  Cough can be caused by many reasons. Caugh can be caused by the infection of Bordetella pertussis. The objective of the study is to identify the phytochemical of Michelia champaca capable of curing cough. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that magnoflorine can effectively deactivate the peptidase Do enzyme which will interrupt the life cycle of the microorganism and inhibit the multiplication.

Open Access Review Article

Optimizing the Use of Hydroxychloroquine in the Management of COVID-19 Given Its Pharmacological Profile

Ahmed S. Ali, Mahran S. Abdel-Rahman, Riyadh S. Almalikil, Abir S. Mohamed, Khalid A. Alfaifi, Abdelbabgi El. Fadil, Nagla A. El-Shitany, Huda M. Alkreathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830468

After the global pandemic of the new coronavirus, its rapid spread and many victims, it is necessary to find an effective vaccine or drugs to overcome it. Most specialists consider that repositioning some medications is the best, fastest and most reliable option for treating patients with the new coronavirus without delay. One of these drugs was an old antimalarial drug, hydroxychloroquine. The current review aimed to explore its potential mechanism, as well as its pharmacokinetics and toxicity, in an attempt to suggest a treatment protocol for its use in treating the COVID-19 virus effectively and safely. This study reviewed the published references on the popular search engines as well as the reference books regarding the pharmacological effects of HCQ. The results of this study suggested the following practical guidelines to optimize HCQ efficacy and safety in the management of COVID-19. HQC should be used as early as possible, i.e., once the viral infection is confirmed or suspected. A loading dose is recommended to be given in 3-4 divided doses to minimize cardiac toxicity. Maintenance daily dose (divided into two doses), should be continued until complete remission. Precautions, drug-interaction, contraindications, variable metabolic pathways in the particular population should be considered. This study suggests more clinical trials regarding the use of HCQ in the management of early identified COVID-19 patients under close medical observation to minimize HCQ cardiac toxicity.