Open Access Short Communication

Variation of Heavy Metal Content of Market Variants of Ayurvedic Formulation - Lack of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

Vikas Gupta, Renu Bansal, Amit Lather, Parveen Bansal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 401-406
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3332

Aim: The present study was conducted to estimate the heavy metal content in samples of Kutazghan Vati (a pill), from three different manufacturers to know about the quality control measures being followed by manufacturers for GMP. The study will also provide a platform for regulatory authorities to tighten the noose and upgrade the industry about high heavy metal levels in relation to international regulations.
Methodology: Three variants of Kutajghan Vati coded as A, B, and C manufactured by different leading manufacturers was procured from local market. Heavy metals analysis was done according to AOAC (1995) for non volatile heavy metals.
Results: Cadmium content of two variants A and C was within permissible limits where as cadmium content of variant B was 2.98 ppm about ten times higher than the permissible limits of 0.3 ppm set up by WHO and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The lead content of variant A was 36.33 ppm that was about four times against the permissible value set up by WHO. Despite very low detection limits, mercury and arsenic were not detectable in all the three variants depicting that the formulation were free from these heavy metals.
Conclusions: Despite same guidelines issued by same regulatory authorities for production of ayurvedic formulations for permissible limits of heavy metal content, three different manufacturers marketed the same formulation with different heavy metal content which reflects that industry seems to be negligent for maintaining proper quality control. This study suggests that periodic estimation of heavy metals is highly essential for single drugs, raw drugs as well as finished products for quality assurance and safer use of herbal drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Fluconazole Topical Gels

Aml Mekkawy, M. Fathy, Sohair El-Shanawany

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 293-313
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/2775

Aims: Topical drug delivery of fluconazole, an antifungal drug, in gel form was formulated to avoid the side effect of the oral route.
Study Design: In this study I prepare different formulation from different polymers and select the best formulation to undergo further antifungal and stability studies.
Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Assiut University, between May 2010 and July 2011.
Methodology: Different polymers; Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, Sodium alginate, Carbopol 934P, Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, Pluronic F-127 and hydroxypropyl cellulose, were used. The compatibility of fluconazole and different gelling polymer was assessed through differential scanning calorimetry and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The influence of polymer type and concentration on fluconazole release from the prepared gels were studied. The prepared gel formulations were evaluated for pH, drug content, rheology, spreadability and in vitro drug release
Results: The rheological behavior of all the prepared gels showed a pseudoplastic flow (shear thinning) which is a good characteristic in the pharmaceutical gels. With the increase of the polymer concentration in the formulation, viscosity increased and in vitro release of fluconazole decreased. Among all the prepared formulations, 0.5% Carbopol 934P gel showed desired properties and exhibited the best fluconazole in vitro release that reaches 77% over a 3-hr period. This gel showed a good inhibition to the fungal growth against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophyte using cup plate method and also, showed good stability.
Conclusion: 0.5% Carbopol 934P / Fluconazole gel is a promising dosage form for the treatment of superficial fungal infections and could be used for further clinical studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Renal Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs in Albino Rats

J. S. Aprioku, F. I. Uche

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 314-325
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/2799

Aims: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitors used widely and frequently as analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatory agents. This study investigated the comparative effects of aspirin (ASA), ibuprofen (IBF) and diclofenac sodium (DCF) on kidney function in albino rats, using biochemical parameters as indices.
Study Design: Different groups of animals were to be treated with the test drugs and vehicle. Thereafter, the serum levels of biochemical markers of kidney function obtained in the experimental animals will be compared with those of the control animals.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between June 2012 and November 2012.
Methodology: Animals were divided into 7 groups (n=5) and administered daily with ASA (50, 100mg/kg), IBF (20, 40mg/kg), DCF (2, 4mg/kg) and vehicle by oral gavage for 28 days. Blood samples were collected and the serum levels of urea, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST) and total protein were measured using standard methods.
Results: The results showed that ASA, IBU and DCF caused significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent increases in serum levels of urea (39.79, 47.58 and 73.89%, respectively), creatinine (104.29, 128.00 and 133.57%, respectively) and AST (63.74, 24.18 and 32.97%, respectively) without significant (P > 0.05) effect on total protein, compared to the control.
Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that long administration of the NSAIDs will cause adverse renal effects in a rank order of DCF > IBU > ASA, which may be partly due to their inhibitory effects on prostaglandins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Characterization of Glyceryl Monostearate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Prepared by High Shear Homogenization

A. R. Gardouh, Shadeed Gad, Hassan M. Ghonaim, Mamdouh M. Ghorab

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 326-346
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/2770

Aims: The aim of this study was to explore the practicability of preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles of Glyceryl monostearate containing Dibenzoyl peroxide, Erythromycin base, and Triamcinolone acetonide as model drugs. The physicochemical properties of the prepared formulae like particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, yield content and in-vitro drug release behavior were also measured.
Methodology: Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with three model lipophilic drugs were prepared by high shear hot homogenization method. The model drugs used are Dibenzoyl peroxide, Erythromycin base, and Triamcinolone acetonide. Glyceryl monostearate was used as lipid core; Tween 20 and Tween 80 were employed as surfactants and lecithin as co-surfactant. Many formulation parameters were controlled to obtain high quality nanoparticles. The prepared solid lipid nanoparticles were evaluated by different standard physical and imaging methods. The efficiency of drug release form prepared formulae was studied using in vitro technique with utilize of dialysis bag technique. The stability of prepared formulae was studied by thermal procedures and infrared spectroscopy.
Results: The mean particle diameter measured by laser diffraction technique was (194.6±5.03 to 406.6±15.2 nm) for Dibenzoyl peroxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles, (220±6.2 to 328.34±2.5) nm for Erythromycin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and (227.3±2.5 to 480.6±24) nm for Triamcinolone acetonide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency and drug loading capacity, determined with ultraviolet spectroscopy, were 80.5±9.45% and 0.805±0.093%, for Dibenzoyl peroxide, 96±11.5 and 0.96±0.012 for Triamcinolone acetonide and 94.6±14.9 and 0.946±0.012 for Erythromycin base respectively. It was found that model drugs showed significant faster release patterns when compared with commercially available formulations and pure drugs (pË‚0.05). Thermal analysis of prepared solid lipid nanoparticles gave indication of solubilization of drugs within lipid matrix. Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the absence of new bands for loaded solid lipid nanoparticles indicating no interaction between drugs and lipid matrix and being only dissolved in it. Electron microscope of scanning and transmission techniques indicated sphere form of prepared solid lipid nanoparticles with smooth surface with size below 100 nm.
Conclusions: Solid lipid nanoparticles with small particle size have high encapsulation efficiency, and relatively high loading capacity for Dibenzoyl peroxide, Erythromycin base, and Triamcinolone acetonide as model drugs can be obtained by this method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicians' Knowledge and Perception of Antimicrobial Resistance: A Survey in Khartoum State Hospital Settings

Salah I. Kheder

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 347-362
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/2117

Aims: To assess physicians' knowledge and perception regarding antimicrobial resistance and current antibiotic practices at the three main hospitals at Khartoum State-Sudan.
Study Design: A cross- sectional survey.
Place and Duration of Study: Physicians from the three main Khartoum state teaching hospitals (Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North) had been surveyed between October 2011 and March 2012.
Methodology: A total of 350 Physicians identified from different departmental specialties were interviewed using a 40 item, self-administered questionnaire.
Results: Of physicians surveyed 38.0% considered antibiotic resistance were very important in their hospitals, 41.7% nationally and 44.3% globally. The majority of respondents (47.5%) perceived the problem of antibiotic resistance as sever problem in their hospitals. Factors identified as important in producing resistance include, widespread antibiotic use (54.3%), poor access to local antibiograms (47.4%), inappropriate course duration (46.3%), and inappropriate empiric choice (44.9%).The respondents were less likely to perceive patient's demand and role of pharmaceutical companies' promotion of antibiotics as very important factors (19.1% and 18.3% respectively).The intervention considered very useful by the largest percentage of physicians was "educational programs" (45.7%) followed by "updating about local antibiotic resistance pattern" (37.4%) and "access to current antibiogram" (35.2%). Antibiotic restriction programs were regarded as less helpful. Knowledge of resistance organisms and resistance-prone antibiotics was poor.
Conclusion: Although physicians were aware of the antibiotic resistance, their perceptions about its importance, its causes and potential solutions are often contradictory and variable. These contradictory perspectives present challenges that must be overcome if we are to successfully address the mounting problem of antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of New RP-UPLC Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Mycophenolate in Tablet Dosage Form

P. Raja Abhilash, K. Vasanth Kumar, V. Sateesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 363-373
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/2286

Aim: To develop and validate a novel and rapid reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method for the estimation of mycophenolate in tablet formulations.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of pharmaceutical analysis, S. R. College of Pharmacy ananthasagar, between February 2012 and June 2012.
Methodology: Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Symmetry C18 (4.6x100mm, 3.5µm, Make: XBridge) column using an isocratic method with mobile phase composed of Potassium di-hydrogen phosphate: Acetonitrile in the ratio 35:65 v/v). The flow rate was 0.2 ml/min, temperature of the column was maintained at ambient and detection was made at 228 nm. The run time was as short as 1.2 min. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness.
Results: The developed method was linear for mycophenolate from 10-50μg/ml and the linear regression obtained was > 0.999. Precision, evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays had relative standard deviation (R.S.D) values within 1.5%. Recovery data were in the range 99.1-102.0% with R.S.D. values < 1.5%.
Conclusion: The method is precise, accurate, linear, robust and fast. The short retention time of 0.613 min allows the analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time and, therefore, should be cost-effective for routine analysis in the pharmaceutical industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

16α-Hydroxycholic Acid: In Vivo Microbial Transformation Product of Cholic Acid

Samira Al-Awadhi, Sosamma Oommen, Mohammad Afzal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 374-390
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3194

Aims: This study describes the transformation of cholic acid to hydroxylated cholic acid metabolites that could not be easily synthesized.
Study Design: The transformation was catalyzed by thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus comb. nov., isolated from oil contaminated soil in Kuwait. Cholic acid, as the sole source of carbon, was added to G. stearothermophilus cells in phosphate buffer pH 7 and shaken at 65ºC for 5 days.
Methodology: The cholic acid transformation products were extracted with ethyl acetate, purified on preparative TLC plates and their molecular structures were established from their spectral data.
Results: The bacterium could selectively oxidize hydroxyl-groups at C3 and C7 while leaving the C12-hydroxyl-group unoxidized, in cholic acid. Five commonly found metabolites of cholic acid and a novel transformation product, 16α-hydroxycholic acid, were identified.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that G. stearothermophilus can hydroxylate/oxidize a steroid nucleus at various ring positions, and has a unique ability for hydroxylation at C16α in cholic acid.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms (Fabaceae) in Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Animal Models

I. Igbe, G. O. Inarumen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 391-400
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/2922

Aims: To investigate the effect of the leaf extract of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms (Leguminosae) in acute and chronic Inflammatory animal models.
Study Design: Extraction and anti-inflammatory evaluation.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin.
Methodology: The anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous leaf extract of B. eurycoma Harm (Leguminosae) was evaluated using the carrageenan- and dextran-induced rat paw edema, xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced arthritis inflammation test.
Results: In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, B. eurycoma at 100 mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) inhibited paw edema within four hours (1–4 h) The extract also produced significant inhibitory effects (P<0.05) at 200 mg/kg (1h and 4 h) and 400 mg/kg (2 h). B. eurycoma (100 mg/kg) produced a significant (P<0.01) inhibition of paw edema induced by dextran from 0 h and 4th h and at the 5th h (P<0.05) The extract (100 mg/kg) produced a significant inhibition (41.84 %, p<0.05) in the xylene induced ear edema model but in chronic inflammation (formalin induced arthritis) did not show any significant anti-inflammatory activity after seven (7) days. Oral acute toxicity assays did not show any mortality at 8 g/kg of the plant extract.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of B. eurycoma possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity on acute inflammation but no effect on chronic inflammation, thus supporting the usage of the plant in traditional medicine treatment of inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Phytochemistry of 100 Plants in Chennai, India

N. K. Udaya Prakash, S. Bhuvaneswari, A. Balamurugan, B. Radhika, R. Bhagya, N. Sripriya, L. Prameela, S. Sarojini, R. Vigneshwari, M. Chandran, S. Arokiyaraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 407-419
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3201

Aims: Knowledge on the plant phytochemistry provides a fundamental use of plants as a reservoir of chemical agents. Hence, the study on the presence of Phytochemicals in the aqueous extract of 100 different plant species belonging to 44 families collected from Chennai, India was detected.
Place and Duration: Plants distributed in the Chennai district of Tamil Nadu state in India were studied. The study was conducted during the period of November 2012 to January 2013.
Methods: Leaves of around 100 plant species belonging to different habit like trees, shrubs, herbs and creepers or climbers from Chennai and its surround districts of India were collected. The aqueous extract of air dried, pulverized leaf samples of collected plants were examined for the presence of Tannins, Phlobatannins, Saponins, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Cardiac glycosides and Steroids using the standard techniques proposed by Evans (1996). The presence of individual secondary metabolites was calculated in percentage and their prevalence in different plant habit was studied.
Results: Around 29%, 20%, 23%, 48%, 22%, 30% and 44% of plants showed the presence of Tannins, Phlobatannins, Saponins, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Cardiac glycosides and Steroids in that order. Further, the presence of secondary metabolites according to the plant habit like, tree, shrub, herb and creeper or climber was detected.
Conclusion: It was evident that the presence of Tannin, Phlobatannin, Flavonoids and Cardiac glycosides are found prevalent in trees, Steroids in herbs and Terpenoids in shrubs. However, further study on this aspect is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Combined Time and pH- Dependent Oral Colonic Targeted Prednisolone Microspheres

Fahima M. Hashem, Dalia S. Shaker, Mohamed Nasr, Reem Ragaey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 420-434
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3195

Aims: to enhance the anti-inflammatory effect as well as oral absorption of prednisolone (PR), through formulation of colonic targeted microspheres prepared from a blend of time and pH- dependent polymers and loaded with PR.
Study Design: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Combined Time and pH- Dependent Oral Colonic Targeted Prednisolone Microspheres.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt between June 2011 and October 2012.
Methodology: Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method using different ethyl cellulose (EC) and Eudragit® S-100 (ES100) ratios with 0.5 and 1% w/v span® 80 as emulsifier. The microspheres were evaluated for surface morphology, particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency % and in vitro drug release at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The anti-inflammatory activity of selected formula was compared to that of conventional PR tablets.
Results: A decrease in drug entrapment efficiency % was obtained with increasing both polymers and surfactant concentrations. Based on drug release results, the formula of 1: 1: 0.16 w/w/w, EC: ES100: PR ratio with 1% w/v span® 80 was selected for further histopathological evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity in colitis induced-rats. Histopathological study showed undefined tissue necrosis after treatment with the selected microspheres; however, diffused necrosis was observed in rats treated with the commercial tablets. In vivo absorption study showed that values of Cmax and AUC0-24 of both formulations were insignificantly different. However, the occurrence of Cmax of microspheres was significantly delayed in comparison to free drug (9.17 to 2.67hr) (P<.001).
Conclusion: This study has supplied us with brightening results concerning the therapeutic efficacy of a blend of time and pH- dependent polymers colonic targeted microspheres.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability Indicating Simultaneous Equation Method for Determination of Domperidone and (S)-Esomeprazole Magnesium in Capsule Dosage Form Using UV-Spectrophotometer

Sunil Singh, Jyoti Rai, Inamullah ., Nisha Choudhary, Hemendra Gautam, Surabhi Sharma, Ajit Kumar Yadav, Vipin Kumar Agrawal, Shashank Chaturvedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 435-445
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3197

Aims: Stability indicating simultaneous equation method for determination of Domperidone and Esomeprazole Magnesium in capsule dosage form using UV-Spectrophotometry.
Study Design: A new simultaneous equation method was developed and validated for the determination of esomeprazole magnesium and domperidone in capsule dosage form.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Invertis Institute of Pharmacy, Invertis University, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh during July 2012 to June 2013.
Methodology: Simultaneous equation method was performed for estimation of dosage form and degradants.
Results: The maximum wavelength (λmax) was found to be 299 nm for esomeprazole magnesium and 287 nm for domperidone. The linearity range was found to be 1-6 µg ml-1 (r2= 0.998) and 5-30 µg ml-1 (r2= 0.999) for esomeprazole magnesium and domperidone, respectively. The value of limit of detection and limit of quantification was 0.116 and 0.386 µgml-1 for esomeprazole magnesium and 0.657 and 2.18 µgml-1 for domperidone, respectively. Forced degradations were carried out under acid, base, thermal, photolytic and oxidative stress conditions. The method was satisfactorily validated as per the ICH guideline.
Conclusion: This study shows that the proposed spectrophotometric method is useful for the routine determination of esomeprazole magnesium and domperidone in its combined pharmaceutical dosage form.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Silico Analysis of Indoles Against 1KE8 Inhibitors Using Autodock

V. A. Arun Kumar, Keshav Mohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 446-453
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3310

1KE8 is known as a potential target for anti-cancer medication. Indoles are biologically active nitrogen heterocyclics known for broad spectrum activities. Modification of Indole ring system with selected structural descriptors has offered a high degree of stereo specificity and diversity in activity to the moiety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Consumer Attitudes, Intentions and Brand Loyal Behavior on the OTC Drugs in Bangladesh

Mohammad Shohel, Tasnuva Islam, Md. Mamun Al-Amin, Asiful Islam, M. Mahfuzur Rahman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 454-464
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3717

Aims: To investigate the consumers’ attitudes and intentions to exhibit brand loyal behavior of Bangladeshi consumer on over the counter (OTC) drugs.
Study Design: A cross- sectional survey.
Place and Duration of Study: Consumers from the five major hospitals (Dhaka, Bangladesh) had been surveyed between January 2012 and June 2012.
Methodology: The study was conducted among 100 OTC consumers in Bangladesh. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys and personal interviews.
Results: The experimental data suggest that direct experience with the product, price range and brand reliance are important determinants of repetitive purchase behavior on OTC drugs. Cost sensitivity had a vital effect on intention to further purchase (r = .02, p =0.05). Moreover, earlier experience with the brand was critical in determining trustworthiness, beliefs, price sensitivity and purchase behavior. The behaviors of OTC consumers are influenced by a different set of factors. Previous experience and price sensitivity is dependent (Chi square = 31.603; p = 0.01. Furthermore, medical experience and buying an OTC product is dependent and the result were also found significant (Chi square = 32.292; p = 0.01).
Conclusion: Present study shows that branding and prior experience remains the major influences to buy an OTC drug in Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana on Hematological Parameters in Male Wistar Albino Rats

Onome M. Iniaghe, Omoruyi Egharevba, Emmanuel B. Oyewo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 465-471
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/2601

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha wilkesiana on hematological parameters in male wistar rats.
Study Design: In_vivo.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences,
Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Nigeria, between August 2011 and October 2011.
Methodology: Thirty two male wistar rats of average body weights 167.50g were grouped into four (I-IV), of eight rats each. Group I received distilled water (control), while constituted doses of 2500, 5000 and 10000 mg/kg body weight of the extract were administered once daily for 14 days to animals in group II, III and IV respectively. The effect of administration of this extract on hematological parameters was evaluated.
Results: Results showed that the extract did not exhibit any significant effect (P>0.05) on packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocytes, platelets, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate at all the administered doses of the extract. There was a significant reduction in mean corpuscular volume at all doses of the administered extract when compared with the control.
Conclusion: The extract may be considered relatively hematotoxic at a dose of 2500 mg/kg due to its potentials to cause the formation of microcytic RBC’s.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Determination of Hyoscine N- Butyl Bromide and Paracetamol by RP-TLC Spectrodensitometric Method

Nouruddin W. Ali, Mohammed Gamal, Mohammed Abdelkawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 472-484
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3522

Aims: A simple RP-TLC Spectrodensitometric method was developed for determination of Hyoscine N-Butyl Bromide (HBB) and Paracetamol (PAR) either in bulk powder or in their pharmaceutical preparation.
Study Design: Validation study.
Methodology: In this method, HBB and PAR were separated on RP-18 W/ UV254 TLC plates using developing mobile phase consisting of methanol: citrate buffer (pH=1.5): triflouroacetic acid (70:30:0.1, by volume) at room temperature. Experimental conditions such as band size, slit width, different developing systems and scanning wavelength were carefully studied and the optimum conditions were selected. The obtained bands were then scanned at 210 nm. The two drugs were satisfactorily resolved with RF 0.60 ± 0.02 for HBB and 0.81 ± 0.02 for PAR. The validation of spectrodensitometric method was done regarding linearity, accuracy, precision, and specificity.
Results: Linearity of the proposed methods was evaluated and it was found to lie within the concentration range of 2.0-12.0 µ for HBB and 2.0-14.0 µ for PAR.
Conclusion: The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of HBB and PAR in pure form and in their different pharmaceutical formulations. The method proved to be specific, accurate and selective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing Quality of Life and Medication Adherence Through Patient Education and Counseling among HIV/AIDS Patients in Resource Limited Settings – Pre and Post Interventional Pilot Trial

E. Vigneshwaran, Y. Padmanabha Reddy, N. Devanna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 485-495
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/2949

Aims: The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of patient education and counseling by pharmacist on quality of life and medication adherence on patients living with HIV/AIDS in rural settings.
Study Design: It is a single group (without control group) pre- post interventional pilot trial
Place and Duration of Study: Convenient samples of 54 patients of either sex, with ART medications for a minimum of 3 months and between the age group of 18 – 65 were included in the study. It was conducted by visiting the patients directly at their homes in rural setup for the period of six months.
Methodology: The recruited patients were educated and counseled individually by a trained pharmacist through previously prepared and validated Telugu version of patient information leaflet with pictograms and cartoons suitable for both illiterate and literate patients developed by pharmacist. Patient’s quality of life, level of knowledge and adherence to the medications were considered as outcome measures, After providing educational intervention and counseling, patients were followed after the minimum interval of 90 days and then the outcome parameters were evaluated. Paired‘t’ test was used to generate the results.
Results: Our study results have show that there was an significant improvement of knowledge about disease and medications. We also observed a significant improvement in Quality of life. The total mean score of quality of life at baseline was 53.28 ± 16.85 and during the follow up Visit it was 64.75± 8.84 and there was significant difference between the pre counseling data and post counseling data. Patient medication adherence was maintained at the same level of 80.09 %, 81.01% before and after providing patient education and counseling respectively
Conclusion: Patient education and counseling is an important aspect to improve quality of life of patients living with HIV/AIDS in a resource limited settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Regulated Effects of Capsicum frutescens Supplemented Diet (C.F.S.D) on Fasting Blood Glucose Level, Biochemical Parameters and Body Weight in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

Ojieh E. Anthony, Adegor C. Ese, Ewhre O. Lawrence

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 496-507
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3256

Aim of the Study: This study investigates the effects of Capsicum frutescens supplemented diet (C.F.S.D) on fasting blood glucose level, biochemical parameters and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats.
Experimental Design: 130 – 150g healthy forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups as following; Group 1 served as a normal control and received normal feed-. Group 2 (Diabetic control) received normal feed-. Group 3 (Diabetic test 1) received normal feed + 1g Capsicum frutescens.-. Group 4 (Diabetic test 2) received normal feed + 2g Capsicum frutescens.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka and the feeding lasted for three weeks. At the end of the experiments, the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected and then the serum was further subjected to biochemical analysis using biochemical analyzer (Reflotron Plus).
Results: AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, Creatinine, Uric acid, total cholesterol and fasting blood sugar level in serum were increased however the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) of serum was decreased in diabetic control (group 2), compared with non-diabetic control (group 1). The administered Capsicum frutescens in the diet at 1g and 2g doses significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose level as well as the serum level of AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, Creatinine, Uric acid, total cholesterol, compared with diabetic control. Serum HDL was also significantly increased when compared with diabetic control P<0.05. Decrease in body weight in diabetic control group and increased in body weight of 1gand 2g Capsicum frutescens supplemented diet groups were also observed.
Conclusion: The observed improvement in the biochemical parameters, blood glucose levels and body weight of alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats by 1g and 2g Capsicum frutescens supplemented diet suggests Capsicum frutescens to possess, cardio-protective and anti-diabetic properties.
Recommendation: The incorporation of Capsicum frutescens as spice in the diet of individuals who are diabetic, hypertensive and obese, is worthy of recommendation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Sodium CMC and HPMC on the Physical Characteristics of Ofloxacin Floating Matrix Tablets

Nagiat T. Hwisa, Babu Rao Chandu, Prakash Katakam, Varun Dasari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 508-522
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3949

Aims: Sustained release floating drug delivery systems or gastro retentive drug delivery systems enables prolonged and continuous input of drug to the upper part of gastrointestinal tract and improves the bioavailability of medication. A new strategy is proposed for the development of floating drug delivery systems of Fluoroquinolone antibiotic, Ofloxacin, a potent moiety for treating UTI’s.
Methodology: Various rate retarding polymers like HPMC K4M, HPMC 5 cps and swelling agent as Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose in different proportions were tried and optimized to achieve the drug release for 8 hr. All the formulations were evaluated for floating properties, swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. The in vitro drug release was found to be matrix diffusion controlled. Optimized formulation was subjected to intermediate stability studies at various combinations of temperature and humidity according to ICH guidelines.
Results: Lower hardness and higher thickness decreased the floating lag time and increased floating duration. Based on drug release studies, formulation F5 was optimized as the best formulation because it released about 89.27 ±2.6% of the drug at the end of 8 hr while other formulations released not more than 80 ±2.2%. This may be due to high NaCMC content which might have caused excessive channeling, thereby giving a burst release. Optimized formulation F5 was found to follow zero order kinetics with r2 value of 0.993.
Conclusion: In conclusion we have been proved that HPMC K4M has retarded the drug release, while HPMC 5cps has facilitated high buoyancy time for the tablets. NaCMC has influenced as channeling agent. Formulation F5 was optimized for its long buoyancy time, prolonged duration of drug release, zero order and diffusion controlled drug release kinetics which can assure 100% bioavailability.