Open Access Short Research Article

In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extract of Senna italica (Caesalpiniaceae) on Three-stages of Haemonchus contortus

Gilbert Yongwa, Belga François Ngnodandi François Ngnoda, Dieudonné Ndjonka, Pierre Saotoing

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330411

A phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelminthic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Senna italica on Haemonchus contortus were conducted. Polyphenol, tannin and flavonoid contents were determined by using gallic acid and rutin. egg hatching inhibition test was carried out on fresh eggs; larval mortality test was conducted on infective larvae (L3) and adult worm mortality test was conducted. Eggs, larvae and adults worms were incubated in aqueous and ethanolic extract of S. italica at different concentrations (0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7 and 1 mg/mL). All extracts of plants showed an effect on all stages of H. contortus with high efficiency variations depending on the dose used. The inhibition of eggs hatching rate increased from 8.67±1.53% to 65.67±1.15% and from 24.67±1.53% to 80±1.73% respectively for aqueous and ethanolic extract of S. italic. The larval mortality rate increased from 12.22±2.34% to 56.67±4.9% after 24 h and from 45.28±4.11% to 91.25±3.73% after 48 h for aqueous extract and from 30.07±2.84% to 70.83±6.31% after 24 h and from 48.79±3.73% to 96.25±4.79% after 48 h for ethanolic extract. After 24 h of exposure to aqueous and ethanolic extract of S. italica, the adult mortality rate varies from 55.56±9.62% to 83.33±9.62% for aqueous extract and from 61.11±9.62% to 88.89±9.62%.These in vitro results confirm the use of S. italica in traditional medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterisation of Escherichia coli Recovered from Wild Animals Kept at Bikaner Zoo for Their Antibiotic Resistance

Sophia Zaidi, Kritika Gahlot, Diwakar ., Femina Anjum, A. K. Kataria

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330408

In the present study, a total of 41 E. coli isolates obtained from Boselaphus tragocamelus (5), Antelope cervicapra (18) and Gazella gazelle (18) maintained at Bikaner (Rajasthan) zoo were subjected to antibiogram determination against 15 antibiotics belonging to four different classes and were also genotyped for detecting presence of blaTEM, sul-2, strA and aadA genes. Antibiogram study revealed highest efficacy of ciprofloxacin (90.2%) followed by nalidixic acid (75.6%) and chloramphenicol (68.4%) and high resistance to β lactam, Sulfamethoxazole and Aminoglycoside antibiotics. The overall presence of blaTEM, sul-2, strA and aadA genes was detected in 95.12%, 80.48%, 60.97% and 87.8% in isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemo-typing of Three Egyptian Rosemary Oil for Their Chemical Composition and Anti-oxidant Activity

Menna I. Elshorbagy, Marwa Elsbaey, Hany N. Baraka, Mohamed Farid Lahloub

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330409

Aims: To study the chemical composition of volatile oil samples from different place in Egypt (Mansoura, Gamsa and Assuit) and study their antioxidant activity determined by DPPH assay.

Study Design: Hydro distillation of volatile oil samples and their GC/MS analysis and determination of their antioxidant activity by DPPH assay.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of pharmacy, Mansoura university, Egypt, between June 2015 and November 2017.  

Methodology: The essential oil was isolated by hydro-distillation for 5 h using a Clevenger-type all-glass apparatus according to the standard procedure of the European pharmacopeia and volatile oils analysis was performed by GC and GC-MS. GC analysis was carried out using Focus-DSQ-ӀI GC/MS instrument (Thermo Scientific, MA, USA) equipped with TR-5 fused silica column (30 m × 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 µm).

Results: The yield of the essential oils of three rosemary plants growing in Mansoura (RM), Gamsa (RG) and Assiut (RA) were 0.20% v/w, 0.32% v/w and 0.24% v/w, respectively. Their chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS, RM and RG were found to be α-pinene dominated chemotypes, 32.4% and 29.6%, respectively, meanwhile RA was camphor dominated chemotype (17.2%). Furthermore, their antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH assay. Their IC50 values of essential oils of RM, RG and RA were 8.66 ± 0.7, 8.18 ± 0.5 and 9.74 ± 0.2, respectively.

Conclusion: The GC/MS spectral data revealed the considerable difference between the chemical composition of essential oil constituents of RM, RG and RA which lead to different chemotypes. The present results also demonstrate that REO obtained from different areas in Egypt exhibited free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay due to the synergistic effect between their constituents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemotherapeutic Interaction of Vernonia amygdalina (Delile) Leaf Extract with Artesunate and Amodiaquine in Murine Malaria Model

Esthinsheen Osirim, Oluwole I. Adeyemi, Sharon I. Igbinoba, Cyprian O. Onyeji

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330410

Aim of the Study: Conventional antimalarial drugs are used concurrently with herbal remedies in malarial endemic developing countries. Vernonia amygdalina is one of such popular herbs used in the treatment of malaria. This study aimed at investigating the antimalarial chemotherapeutic interaction of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) when combined with Amodiaquine (AQ) and/or Artesunate (AS) in a murine Plasmodium berghei malaria model.

Methodology: Various doses of aqueous VA leaf extract (100-500 mg/kg/day), AQ (2-10 mg/kg/day) and AS (0.8-4 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to P berghei.-infected Swiss albino mice to determine their sub-therapeutic doses. These doses were subsequently used to investigate the chemotherapeutic interactions of VA with AQ and/or AS in both early and established malaria infection test models. The survival of animals with established infections that received different drug/herb treatments were determined using their mean survival time (days) and Kaplan-Meier survival curves (percentage). Using GraphPad Instat (version 3.10) and PrismR (version 5.01) the data obtained were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The sub-therapeutic doses of VA, AQ and AS were found to be 100 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg and 2.4 mg/kg, respectively. The chemosuppressive effect of AQ or AS was significantly increased (p< 0.05) when administered in combination with the VA extract. Similarly, combination of VA extract with AQ or AS resulted in significant (P < .05) parasite clearance when compared to the effects of the herb or the conventional drugs administered separately. The mean survival period of animals with established infection was also significantly enhanced by the VA alone or with AQ (or AS) compared to placebo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Public Attitude and Perception about Analgesic and their Side Effects

Maria Abdul Ghafoor Raja, Shuaa Saad Al-Shammari, Nawaf Al-Otaibi, Muhammad Wahab Amjad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330412

Introduction: Analgesics are substances which work in various ways to relieve different types of pain experienced in the body. Non-prescription over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are widely used by patients to control pain and fever.

Study Objective: To evaluate of knowledge, attitudes and practices about analgesic and their side effects.

Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted during a period of three months from September to December 2017 in Rafha and Riyadh - Saudi Arabia on a random sample of 237 Saudi people, the data was collected by using a self-administered questionnaire in the Arabic language. Statistical analysis was done by using MS EXCEL using descriptive statistics and chi-square test.

Results: A total of 237 participants out of 260 consented to be interviewed and completed the questionnaire with a response rate (91%). Their ages ranged between 18 years and 54 years with a mean (28) and standard deviation (7.9). Majority of participants were females (92%) and about two thirds (66%) were highly educated. A quarter of study participants (25%) do not read leaflet of analgesic before use. About one-fifth of respondents (20%) reported that they cannot stop taking analgesic even if the pain is mild. 12% and 36% of respondents always and sometimes, respectively, use more than one type of analgesic for pain relief. 10% of respondents reported the occurrence of side effects from analgesic. The respondents use analgesic mainly for headache (43%) and toothache (25%). The chronic disease for which participants take analgesic were mainly arthritis (39%) and migraine (30%).

About three-quarters of respondents (74%) were aware that the use of analgesic is accompanied by side effects. The respondents believed that the reasons for analgesic misuse are that analgesic easily obtained without a medical prescription (40%) and there is no educational or awareness program regarding analgesic use (33%). Majority of participants believed that there is no sufficient awareness about analgesic. The source of information about analgesic for participants is physician (24%). Panadol analgesic is the most commonly used analgesic (48%) reported by participants.

Results showed that there is a significant statistical difference between male and female regard analgesic use (P=0.048) and between different level of educations and analgesic use (P=0.334).

Also, there is a highly significant statistical difference between male and female regard reading the leaflet before taking analgesic (P=0.0001) and between the educational level of participants regarding reading the leaflet before analgesic use (P=0.0008).

Conclusion: The over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic drugs are commonly used and many patients are unaware of their side effects. The findings of this study showed that people's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding analgesic use is poor. Also, it is important to improve people's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding analgesic use to reduce the misconceptions and misguided expectations contributing to inappropriate analgesic use. Therefore, health professional practice should play a major role in people's awareness of the appropriate use of OTC analgesic drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey Electrocoagulation Process in Removal of Norfloxacin Antibiotic from Aqueous Solutions

Davoud Balarak, Mahdethe Dashtizadeh, Raphael Shadai Oguike, Kethineni Chandrika

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330413

Pharmaceutical compounds have been recognized as a hazardous class of organic pollutants due to their long term effects towards the aquatic environment. The present work studies the efficiency of electrogalation (EC) process in removal Norfloxacin (NFX) from aqueous solutions by aluminum electrodes. This study experimentally was run in a batch electrochemical reactor (1.5 L glass beaker) and six electrodes which installed in parallel. In each of test, 1 L of wastewater added to the test reactor, then effect of four parameters including the voltage 10-60 V (current density: 1,2,3 and 4 mA/cm2), reaction time (5-60 min) initial concentration of NFX and the pH of wastewater (pH=3-9) on process performance were investigated. Results of this study showed that the efficiency of the system could be promoted by increasing the contact time, initial pH of the solution, and the applied voltage. However, the efficiency of EC process has decreased, when higher level of NFX ions was presented in the aqueous phase. The optimal conditions for Norfloxacin removal were: pH 7, initial NFX concentration 25 mg/L, voltage 60 V and reaction time 45 min and the highest removal rate was under these conditions 98.4%. The results of this study indicate that EC process could be applied for the removal of NFX from aqueous solution with a high efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medication Errors Identification Rates by Healthcare Students

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Nehad J. Ahmed, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330414

Introduction: Medication errors caused devastating consequences affecting both the healthcare system and the patient’s trust. Junior doctors, pharmacists, and nurses are prone to make these mistakes. Thus, this study served a purpose to evaluate the pharmacological knowledge of the healthcare students (HCSs) i.e. pharmacy, medical, and nursing studentsthrough detecting errors in the prescriptions, as this will reflect their performance once they come in real practice.

Methodology: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted using a validated research tool consisting ofdemographics attributes (gender, race, duration of pre-university and age) as well as three prescriptions. The research tool was distributed to final year HCSs. Demographic data of the respondents were required to investigate the contributing factors in medication errors’ identification. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by using SPSS ver. 22.

Results: 197 students responded to this study. Findings show that pharmacy students yield high percentages compared to medical and nursing students in identifying errors in the prescriptions. 91.1% of pharmacy students were successful in recognizing the errors in prescription 1, 55.0% in prescription 2 whereas 96.2% in prescription 3. There wasa significantassociation betweenthe age of the respondents and their ability in identifying the errors (p=0.012). No significant relationship was observed between race, gender and duration of pre-university in identifying the mistakes in the prescriptions (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Pharmacy students had the highest percentage ofmedication error identification rates probably in light of the pharmacy curriculum focuses mainly on pharmacology and therapeutic monitoring. This study portrays the importance of additional clinical training in undergraduate programs to enhance student’s pharmacological knowledge and their attitude towards patient safety practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prioritizing Medication Management Criteria of National Hospital Accreditation Standards Using FDANP Model

Fatemeh Izadpanah, Maryam Shiehmorteza, Amirissa Rahimpour, Mandana Moradi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330415

Introduction: Accreditation is an evaluating tool of health care systems especially in hospitals: Iran’s Ministry of Health emphasizes its importance. We attempted this descriptive study to classify medication management criteria of hospital accreditation standards using a hybrid approach of fuzzy DEMATEL based on ANP (FDANP).

Methods: This study included all Iran’s hospitals. Nine medication management criteria and their sub-criteria were evaluated. AHP questionnaire was used for data collection.

Results: The following were demonstrated to be effective: The standards of safe storage of drugs and medical equipment, and providing practical procedure for reporting and controlling medication errors. The other factors were affected by them: Continuous monitoring of drugs and medical equipment utilization was the most affected and not independent factors/standards.

Conclusion: Focus should be made on effective standards and their related measures, not on standards affected by other factors/standards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictors of Job and Workplace Satisfaction among Community Pharmacists

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Fahad I. Al-Saikhan, Nehad J. Ahmed, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330416

Aims: This study aimed to assess the current levels of job and workplace satisfaction among community pharmacists (CPs) and to explore the factors that can affect their job and workplace satisfaction.

Methods: A self-administered research tool (questionnaire) was developed based on previously published literature. After its reliability and validity measurements, the questionnaire was distributed to the target population and data was collected. Data were entered into Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) ver. 22.0 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multiple regression analysis. The level of significance (α) was set at 0.05.

Results: CPs reported high satisfaction (76.7%) concerning their jobs. Only 23.3% of them were not satisfied with their current job. Univariate analysis showed that job and workplace satisfaction among CPs was not significantly associated with gender, age, length of service, position and salary. However, the univariate analysis demonstrated a significant difference between practice settings and job and workplace satisfaction with p = 0.013. Among the respondents, those who worked in the chain pharmacies (83.7%) expressed greater job and workplace satisfaction, which is 16% higher than those working in independent pharmacies (67.6%). Therefore, practice setting was shown as the predictor of job and workplace satisfaction among CPs by using multiple regression analysis.

Conclusion: Overall, CPswere relatively satisfied with their current job. Our results had reinforced previous studies that reported that practice settings can affect pharmacists’ job and workplace satisfaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Side Effects, Drug Interaction among Patients Taking Statin in Turaif, Saudi Arabia

Maria Abdul Ghafoor Raja, Gharam Hamdan Alrawili, Nawaf Al-Otaibi, Muhammad Wahab Amjad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330417

Background: Statins perceived to have favorable safety profile. Although many people on statin therapy do well but no drug is without potential for side effects. Awareness about risks as well as benefits of drugs is needed particularly drugs which are used on wide scale like statins because even uncommon side effects can have significant health impact. 

Objectives of the Study: To determine side effects occurrence among Saudi patients taking statins and to evaluate drug-drug interactions in Saudi patients taking statins.

Methodology: Self administered cross sectional study conducted during a period of four months from October 2018 to January 2019 in Turaif general hospital, Saudi Arabia on random sample of 500 Saudi patients out of which 330 participants were included in the study which were taking different types of statins medication using self-administered questionnaire in Arabic language specially designed for the research purpose after obtaining verbal consent and the data analyzed by SPSS program.

Results: A total of 330 patients; 128 (39%) females and 202 (61%) males—participated in the study. The majority 165 (50%) were in the age-group of 50 – 59 years. Simvastatin was the most commonly used statin among study participants 136 (41%) followed by rosuvastatin 114 (35%). Among the participants, there were some patients who take drugs which have drug interactions with statins; there were 64 (19%) take Amlodipine with simvastatin, 13 (4%) and 6 (2%) take esomeprazole and ompeprazole respectively with statins. Only 9 (3%) reported that they were advised by pharmacist to avoid grape fruit. Majority of participants 309 (94%) reported neck pain, difficulty in walking, frequently fatigue after starting on statin. Also majority of participants 320 (97%) suffer from muscle pain after starting statins medications.

Conclusion: The percentage of statin related side effects in this study population is high especially myopathy. Also some patients in this study taking medications that have drug interaction with statins, Counseling to patient regarding statin therapy appear to be insufficient. So, this study indicate that there's a need for more efforts from the physicians and pharmacist to avoid prescribing or dispensing medication that have drug-drug interaction with statins and provide counseling to patients regarding their statin therapy.