Open Access Short Research Article

Synergistic Effect of Acoustic and Vacuum Drying to Antioxidant Attributes of Cordyceps militaris

Minh Phuoc Nguyen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230399

Acoustic drying allows the utilization of lower temperatures than conventional methodology in the drying process. Vacuum drying is one of the most energy demanding processes. Water evaporation also takes place at lower temperatures under vacuum and hence the product processing temperature can be significantly lower, offering higher product quality. Cordyceps militaris is a well-known entamophagus fungus with wonderful health benefits such as adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, anti-oxidant, anti-aging, neuroprotective, nootropic, immunomodulatory, anti-cancer and hepatoprotective role by its phytochemical constituents. This study focused on the synergistic effects of acoustic and vacuum drying on antioxidant properties of Cordyceps militaris. We noticed that acoustic drying at power 800 W in frequency 40kHz combined with vacuum drying at pressure -0.8 bar were suitable for dehydration of this valuable material. From this approach, a combination of acoustic and vacuum drying created a synergistic effect consuming less energy than single drying method because it can be performed at low temperature while maintaining the product quality and wholesomeness. Moisture content is partly removed by acoustic drying and further dehydration in a vacuum dryer to reduce moisture to a stable level.

Open Access Short Research Article

Degradation of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Capacity of Noni (Morinda Citrifolia L.) Pulp Tea during Drying and Roasting Treatment

Minh Phuoc Nguyen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230401

Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit is highly evaluated as an important herb with a good source of natural antioxidant against various ailments as well as maintain overall good health. It’s normally disposed due to unpleasant aroma from the ripened fruit. There is limited literature mentioned to the decomposition of this valuable fruit during thermal processing. Hence this reseach aimed to evaluate the possible degradation of total phenolic (mg GAE/100 g), total flavonoid (mg QE/100 g), DPPH radical-scavenging ability (mM TE/100 g), FRAP ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (mM TE/100 g) in raw, dried and roasted noni pulp tea. The highest contents of functional constituents and antioxidant capacity were noticed in the raw sample; meanwhile decreased dramatically in the roasted one. However, degradation of noni flavonol glycosides during roasting could produce aglycone metabolites, which in turn, may lead to increased bioavailability. Owing to degradation of phytochemical and antioxidant ability by harsh thermal treatment, it’s necessary to be careful in drying and roasting to limit detrimental effect in herbal noni tea production.

Open Access Short Research Article

Formulation and Characterization of Poly Sulfoxyamine Grafted Chitosan Coated Contact Lens

Rahul Laxman Jadhav, Sonali Gulab Sonwalkar, Manisha Vyankatrao Patil, Siraj N. Shaikh, Santosh N. Belhekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230403

Aim: The aim this research work is to formulate and characterize Poly Sulfoxyamine Grafted Chitosan Coated contact Lens.

Methodology: Poly Sulfoxyamine Grafted Chitosan was used for coating the Lens & converting it in to Antimicrobial Lenses. Poly Sulfoxyamine Grafted Chitosan was performed in the presence of pyridine and further treatment with ammonia during reaction of Thionyl chloride & chitosan. The UV light interference, visible light transmission and antimicrobial evaluation were studied.

Results: The results indicate that Contact lenses prepared with Modified Poly Sulfoxyamine Grafted Chitosan absorbed some UV radiation & does not interfere with visible region. Due to the antimicrobial activity of modified Chitosan, the growth and transmission of micro organisms are reduces in coated Lens as compared to uncoated Lens.

Conclusion: On basis of the results we concluded that Modified Poly Sulfoxyamine Grafted Chitosan might be used as coating material or material for making contact Lenses which will be less susceptible for microbial contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mircowave-Assisted Extraction of Phytochemical Constituents in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Minh Phuoc Nguyen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230397

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is natural source of valuable components such as phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Anthocyanin is normally used in the food technology to replace synthetic pigments as well as medicinal properties due to antioxidants. Microwave irradiation is a feasible green solvent extraction method receiving great attention as it utilizes solvent at elevated temperature and controlled pressure conditions. Microwave extraction emerges as a promising inexpensive, simple and efficient technique. In our research, various variable like microwave power (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 W), microwave frequency (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 GHz), the microwave irradiation duration (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 min), liquid to solid ratio (water: material, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, 6:1), extraction temperature (50, 55, 60, 65, 70°C), number of extraction cycles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) influencing to the microwave-assisted extraction of phytochemicals in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx were thoroughly examined. Total total phenolic (mg GAE/ 100 g), total flavonoid (mg GE/ 100 g), anthocyanin (mg/100 g) were key indicators to define the optimal variable. Our results revealed that microwave power at 80 W, frequency 40 GHz, duration 15 min, liquid to solid ratio 4:1, temperature 55°C, 4 cycles of extraction were appropriate for extraction of phytochemical components inside roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Roasting to Total Phenolic, Flavonoid and Antioxidant Activities in Root, Bark and Leaf of Polyscias fruticosa

Minh Phuoc Nguyen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230398

Polyscias fruticosa belongs to Araliaceae family widely cultivated in Vietnam. It is a medical plant highly valued recently owing to its diversified therapeutic functions. It’s exploited in all parts including root, bark and leaf for medicinal purposes. In the herbal tea production, the final step is normally ended with the roasting in order to improve its flavor and aroma. There’s a concern about the detrimental effect of thermal roasting to the stability of phytochemical constituents. In this research, we attempted to evaluate the reduction of total phenolic (mg GAE/100 g), total flavonoid (mg QE/100 g), DPPH radical-scavenging ability (mM TE/100 g), FRAP ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (mM TE/100 g) in root, bark and leaf of Polyscias fruticosa under different roasting conditions. All samples were steamed in vapor for 30 seconds before being dried by convective dryer at 45°C for 6 hours to final moisture content around 12%. Then these samples would be roasted in different conditions (125/15; 130/12, 135/9, 140/6, 145/3, °C/minutes). Our results revealed that roasting at 135/9°C/minutes was appropriate to preserve the most phytochemical constituents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoalbuminemia and Central Venous Catheter as Risk Factors for Multidrug-resistant Healthcare-associated Pneumonia in an Intensive Care Setting

Ignatius Leon Guang Woei, Farida Islahudin, Norazlah Bahari, Tong Ji Sen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230400

The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a threat to global health particularly in the area of healthcare-associate pneumonia (HCAP) where there is high rate of mortality. In general, guidelines should serve as a framework that needs to be complemented by local antibiogram data due to multiple factors influencing the development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) HCAP. Failure to administer prompt and appropriate empirical therapy would often result in a high mortality rate. Based on these concerns, the aim of the study was to evaluate the appropriate empirical use of antibiotic and risk factors of MDR HCAP based on local pathogen resistant pattern. This was a retrospective analysis on HCAP in critical care of a tertiary-care hospital with data from January 2016 to December 2018. Patients diagnosed with HCAP: hospital-associated pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), with positive bacterial cultures were included into the study. Of the 269 patients and isolates included, 160 (59.5%) had MDR strains. The top causative pathogens isolated were Acinetobacter baumannii (n=104, 38.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=66, 24.5%), Klebsiella spp (n==55, 20.4%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=16, 5.9%). The incidence of inappropriate empirical antibiotic was significantly higher in patients with MDR HCAP (n=135, 84.4%) compared to those with non-MDR HCAP (n=34, 31.2%) (p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly higher in patients receiving inappropriate empirical therapy (n = 118, 72.4%) compared to those receiving appropriate empirical antibiotic (n = 36, 54.5%) (P = 0.009). The independent risk factors for MDR HCAP identified in this study were hypoalbuminemia (odds ratio [OR] 3.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08 – 10.87, p = 0.036) and indwelling central venous catheter (OR 5.65, 95% CI 1.13 – 28.18, p = 0.035). This work serves as a basis for a center-specific guideline to improve antibiotic use among HCAP patients in intensive care setting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Partial Purification and Characterization of Albain 1, a Triterpene with Antimicrobial Activity, from the Wood Extract of Avicennia alba Blume

Moumita Choudhury, Kalishankar Mukherjee, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Amit Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230402

Secondary metabolites of plants are important resources for development of new drugs. Mangrove plants are very well known sources of wide variety of secondary metabolites. Many of these secondary metabolites from mangroves have been found to possess significant biological activities where human health is concerned. Avicennia alba Blume is one such mangrove plant with reports of having many such secondary metabolites of clinical and commercial interests.

Aim: To evaluate antimicrobial activity potential of A. alba wood extract and to isolate new bioactive constituent(s) responsible for such biological activity.

Methodology: Preliminary screenings of antimicrobial activities in different organic solvent extracts of A. alba wood tissue were done by TLC-bioautography method and phytochemical nature of the antimicrobial constituent(s) in the extracts have been studied. One compound exhibiting significant antimicrobial activity, named as Albain 1, has been isolated. MIC value has been determined for Albain 1. The purity and structure of Albain 1 have been determined by HPLC, 1H NMR, FTIR and HRMS etc. analysis.

Results: 1H NMR, FTIR and HRMS analysis have found out that the isolated compound Albain 1 is a triterpene and the molecular formula is C30H48O4. It has exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus pumilas (MIC 125 μg / ml).

Conclusion: The observed antimicrobial activity of the isolated fraction of A. alba offer great potentials in pharmaceutical industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation Thermoreversible Gel of Antifungal Agent for Treatment of Vaginal Infection

Manisha V. Patil, Rahul L. Jadhav, Siraj N. Shaikh, Santosh N. Belhekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230404

Aims: The aim this research work is to formulate and evaluate thermoreversible gel of antifungal agent Clotrimazole for treatment of vaginal infection.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biopharmaceutics, Government College of Pharmacy, Karad, Maharashtra, India, between June 2009 and July 2010.

Methodology: Different Formulations of thermoreversible gel of antifungal agent Clotrimazole were prepared by using various concentrations of ethanol, PEG 400, sodium dodecyl sulphate, polycarbophil and pluronic F 127 and pluronic F 68. The gel formulations were subjected for evaluation on the basis of rheological behaviour, mucoadhesive behaviour, in-vitro performance.

Results: The results indicate that Polymers such as polycarbophil, PEG- 400 in various concentrations to prepare formulations were found to release drug for period over 12 hrs. Without getting dislodged. The formulations have satisfactory rheological behavior and their diffusion profile is comparable to the marketed gel formulation. Significant difference was observed in the rheological behavior of formulations. Gel strength, spreadability, mucoadhesive strength of formulation B and C were desirable. Drug diffusion of formulation B and C were 95.2% release after 11 hrs 98.5% release after 11 hrs, respectively which was good as compared to marketed formulation showing drug diffusion of 102.2% after 10 hrs.

Conclusion: On basis of the results we concluded that developed thermoreversible gel of Clotrimazole will be better alternative to conventional dosage form Clotrimazole & will improve patient compliance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diabetics’ Views Concerning the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicines: A Qualitative Study

Saud M. Alsanad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-72
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230406

Introduction: Diabetics have been known as potential to consume herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) to control their diabetes. HDS are taken widely despite limited scientific evidence of their safety and efficacy.

Methods: This qualitative study aimed to shed light on diabetic patients’ experiences and perceptions of HDS to identify any perceived benefit or harm.

Results: The findings provided two main themes concerning patients’ experiences of HDS use: Perceived beneficial experiences and perceived harm experiences. Most patients indicated experiencing benefits from HDS use.

Conclusion: It is essential to understand patients’ perceptions and appreciate their experiences in order to support them when choosing appropriate CAM treatments and avoid any harm resulting from their lack of knowledge or erroneous notions about such treatments. Many more pre-clinical and clinical studies are needed to examine the efficacy and safety of popular HDS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activities of Phycocyanin: A Bioactive Compound from Spirulina platensis

Gamal A. Gabr, Salwa M. El-Sayed, Mohamed S. Hikal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 73-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i230407

Background and Objectives: The cyanobacterium Spirulina also called blue green algae is a class of gram negative bacteria which possesses wide range of bioactive colored components as Phycocyanin, carotenoids and chlorophyll. Spirulina is one of the microalgae containing nutrients that have been used as a functional food in addition to therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical composition of Spirulina platensis biomass and its ethanolic and aqueous extracts, as well as, evaluate the antioxidant activities of the biomass, ethanolic, aqueous and the purified Phycocyanin.

Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of Spirulina platensis were determined, as well as the antioxidant activity of extracts, Phycocyanin, Phycocyanopeptide and Phycocyanobilin using (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity.

Results: Results show that biomass has higher total proteins (49.72±0.508%), total carbohydrates (10.3±0.330%), moisture content (7.5±0.685%), lipids (7.2±0.105%) and Minerals (6.9±0.130%). In biomass, the total phenols (51.20±0.25 µg/mL) and flavonoids (97.73±1.858 µg/mL) were high compared to the ethanolic (49.48±0.130 and 69.07±1.814 µg/mL) and aqueous (15.27±0.639 and 4.67±0.611 µg/mL) extracts respectively. In the phenolic compounds, pyrogallol was identified as the major compound in biomass and aqueous extract (63.85 and 12.33%) respectively, E-vanillic acid in ethanolic (18.20 %), whereas, hespirdin (3.517 and1.639%) were major flavonoids found in aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively. The DPPH scavenging activity was found higher in ethanolic extract compared to aqueous while in bioactive, the order of antioxidant activity was Phycocyanin > Phycocyanobilin > Phycocyanopeptide.

Conclusions: The study data regarding to Spirulina nutritional value, makes Spirulina an excellent choice when formulating diets and combating malnutrition. Furthermore, it is a strong antioxidant and could be used as alternative treatments as anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory agent.