Open Access Minireview Article

The Emergent Business of Internet Pharmacies: Convenience, Risks, Regulatory Policies and Future

Zaffar Ahmed Shaikh, Muhammad Hanif Buzdar, Muhammad Ramzan Pahore, Ibrar Hussain Mirani, Masood Noor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i530311

Healthcare is a core issue for all individuals, societies and states. There are continuous and aggressive efforts everywhere to improve healthcare conditions for people. With the rise of the World Wide Web, every sphere of life has gone through a huge revolution and so has the field of medicine. As people get more and more access to the internet, the trend to search for information related to health has also gone high. According to web data, almost 4.5% of all internet search is related to healthcare. 72% of the US and 71% of the European internet users have searched for information related to health during the past year. This is overwhelming. Mobile phone devices have further pushed this trend to new heights. But the point of caution is that internet users have started to get self-diagnosis online. Not only that, but the tendency to order medicine online has also gone up. ‘Pharmaceuticals’ is a huge part of the medicine industry. Just like any other business going online during the recent decades, the pharmacies have also gone online and against any apprehensions, they have met an overwhelming success there. There is an ever-growing number of online customers for internet pharmacies. The convenience of home delivery is always alluring and comparatively, the economical cost is an added benefit. But along this success came some serious issues forcing the authorities to enact regulations. This paper expounds on the historical development of internet pharmacies, their rapid growth during recent times, their advantages, concerns and regulatory actions to keep them under control. It also contains a bit of advice to the customers to avoid monetary and physical harm from illegal pharmacies online.

Open Access Minireview Article

Pharmacoinformatics: Development through History and Its Role in Pharmaceutical Industry

Zaffar Ahmed Shaikh, Ali Orangzeb Panhwar, Kamlesh Kumar, Irfan Ahmed Solangi, Abida Parveen Panhwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i530312

Medicine has displayed miraculous developments during the past century or so. Credit goes to the emergence of scientific research methods. Research on the disease, its causes, effects, precaution, and especially cure has revolutionized the world. Man has been liberated from epidemics and other deadly diseases. All this would not have been possible, had there not been research and development in medication simultaneously. The pharmaceutical industry is an integral part of the medical field. A real boost was given to all kinds of research with the invention of the computer. Data saving, processing, and analysis were never easier. This paper aims at highlighting the great role and importance of Pharmacoinformatics in drug discovery. It also elucidates how drug discovery is done. A portion of it also targets how this science has evolved over time. The particular purpose is to trace the transformations that came with the introduction of Information Technology in this field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in a University Hospital in Al-Kharj City

Nehad J. Ahmed, Mohd F. Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i530310

Introduction: Antibiotics are medications that are used to kill a bacterium which causes different infections. The misuse of these medications has contributed to the development of bacterial resistance. In order to predict the efficacy of the antimicrobial drugs and to guide antimicrobial therapy, antibiogram should be used.

Objective: This study aims to explore the Antibiotic resistance patterns in a university hospital in AL-kharj city.

Methods: Data from a university hospital in Al-Kharj city were used to assess the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility rates for different types of bacteria. We included all bacterial and fungal cultures in the last 2 years.

Results: The most common bacterium was E. coli and the most common fungus pathogen was Candida albicans. There was a low resistance rate to gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem and amikacin for the studied bacteria pathogens and high resistance rate for some antibiotics such as erythromycin, tetracycline and ampicillin.

Conclusion: The physicians should follow the treatment guidelines and they should know the susceptibility rate of different bacteria to prescribe antibiotics appropriately.

Open Access Original Research Article

QSAR, Docking Study of Isatin Analogues as Anti-bacterial Agents for Design New Compounds

Razieh Sabet, Isar Jafroudi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i530314

Computational chemistry is unique method in drug discovery which reduce cost. In this study 86 molecules containing isatin core were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis and docking study to find the structure requirements for ligand binding. The structures were sketched and optimized in Hyperchem. The structural invariants used in this study were those obtained from whole molecular structures: by both hyperchem and dragon software (16 types of descriptors). Four chemometrics methods including MLR, FA-MLR, PCR and GA-PLS were employed to make connection between structural parameters and anticancer effects. MLR analysis explained the positive effect of the number of urea derivatives, thio urea, amide, thioamide, hydrazone, thiocarbohydrazone, nBnz with the halogen substitution on 5 position of isatin ring on the antimicrobial activity. It also shows nArCN, nPyridines have negative effects on the antimicrobial activity of studied compound.

The FA-MLR describes the effect of 3D-MORSE and Galvez Topological charge descriptors and on antimicrobial activity of the studied compounds. The quality of PCRA equation is better than those derived from FA-MLR. A comparison between the different statistical methods employed revealed that GA-PLS represented superior results and it could explain and predict 73% and 68% of variances in the –LogMIC data, respectively. Comparison between QSAR and docking analysis revealed that by decreasing in number of ring and lipophilicity (also Logp) for design of new compounds can have better activity. Substitutions such as urea, thiourea, thiocarbohydrazone, benzhydrazide as on isatin ring, can cause better interaction with receptor.

Open Access Review Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Patient Education on the Quality of Life Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy: A Review Article

Shahin Pashaie, Fatemeh Estebsari, Mahsa Matbouei, Malihe Nasiri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i530309

Background: Currently, cancer is a major problem of human societies. Different methods are used for cancer treatment including radiotherapy. Radiotherapy affects patients in different ways and makes changes to the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to assess the effect of education on the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

Methods: This is a review article with key words including “Education”, “Quality of life”, “Patients”, “Cancer”, and “Radiotherapy” in some Data bases such as Medline, Scopus, Science direct and Ovid during 2000 to 2019.

Results: Of the 928 original articles, six papers were selected based on the main criteria, such as English and Persian language, articles of clinical relevance, and articles after 2000. In this study, articles were based on clinical trials on women and men patients with different cancers. Results of this study proved that education is the major component in improving these patients’ quality of life. 

Conclusion: Radiotherapy, alone or in combination with other therapeutic methods, is among main treatments of cancer patients. Despite its beneficial effects, it is associated with some side effects reducing the quality of life of these patients. Physical and mental complications were equally involved in reducing their quality of life. Based on this finding, it is suggested that the use of educational methods and training and rehabilitation programs can influence the quality of cancer patients treated with various methods, especially radiation therapy.