Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation Intervention on Hope and Depressive Mood State of the Elderly Cognitive Rehabilitation in Elderly

Somayeh Namdari, Ahmad Nasiri, Vahid Nejati, Fatemeh Taheri, Fada Tolooee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i430304

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cognitive rehabilitation intervention on hope and depressive mood state of the elderly.

Methods: In this field trial, 70 retired elderly people were recruited via convenience sampling method and were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups (n=35 per group). The intervention group participated in 12 one-hour sessions of cognitive rehabilitation program, whereas the control group received no intervention. Data were collected using a demographics form, Geriatric Depression Scale (Yesavage, 1983), and Snyder et al.’s Hope Scale (1991).

Results: The mean depression score after intervention was significantly less in the intervention group than in the control group (P=0.004, t= 3.02). The mean hope score after intervention was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (p <0.001, t= 4.38).

Conclusion: Cognitive rehabilitation program can be a useful instrument for healthcare specialists to yield promising results. It can improve both the depressive mood and hope status in the elderly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Individual Medication Adherence among Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Multi-centered Study

Tengku Nur Izzati Tengku Abd Kadir, Farida Islahudin, Muhammad Zulhilmi Abdullah, Norkasihan Ibrahim, Pau Kiew Bing

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i430305

Aims: This study aims to identify differences in outcomes of assessing overall versus individual adherence and factors associated with adherence to medication therapy in chronic kidney disease patients.

Study Design:  This is a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Nephrology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Ministry of Health Hospitals between June 2018 and June 2019.

Methodology: We included 491 patients (243 men, 248 women); average age of 54.5 (±14.6) years with chronic kidney disease and prescribed at least one medication, using a validated questionnaire.

Results: Patients were prescribed an average of 7.0±2.4 medications. Majority were categorized as adherent (n=404, 82.3%) based on an overall assessment. In contrast, only 27.5% (n=135) were adherent when medications were assessed individually. Based on individual medication assessment, a multivariate logistic regression demonstrated patients aged >55 years were 2.3 times more likely to be adherent toward medicines (P=.001). Those with <3 comorbidities and <7 medications increased the odds of adherence by 2.1 (P=.002) and 2.2 (P=.001) times respectively. Having a drug knowledge score >80% increase the odds of adherence by 8.7 times compared to their counterparts (P<.01).

Conclusion: Potential strategies for targeted management should be developed in order to remove barriers towards medication adherence in chronic kidney disease patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation Development and Facial Skin Evaluation of Serum Containing Jellose from Tamarind Seeds

Thanaporn Amnuaikit, Suphatsa Khakhong, Pasarat Khongkow

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i430306

Jellose is a natural polysaccharide that is extracted from tamarind seed kernel. This natural polymer has many good properties to be a useful excipient for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. It can used as a thickening agent, suspending agent, viscosity enhancer, emulsifying agent and more. Recently, it was reported that jellose can inhibit tyrosinase enzyme and has antioxidant activity which makes this ingredient interesting to be utilized for skin lightening in cosmeceutical products. The aim of this study was to formulate a facial serum product containing jellose as one of active ingredients, evaluate the physicochemical properties and stability, and also obtain a clinical result of product with the help of volunteers. Two types of jellose serums were developed: oil in water formula; and oil-free formula. The stability of serum was studied under heating and cooling cycle tests for 6 cycles, and then placed in room temperature (30±1°C) for 3 months. Results showed that both types of serums had good stability. The physicochemical properties such as viscosity, pH, antioxidant activity and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition activity were evaluated to select the optimal formulation. The selected formulation was tested by applying it on the facial area of 35 healthy volunteers aged 35-75 years, and then analyzing with Skin Visual Analyzer at 15, 30 and 60 days. It was found that the jellose serum can reduce skin roughness, has an anti-wrinkle property, and brightened the skin significantly when regularly used for at least 30 days. During this study, none of the volunteers reported any kind of allergies and the overall satisfaction assessment of jellose serum was excellent. It was concluded that jellose can become a novel and potential ingredient in cosmeceuticals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Ratio of Geometric Isomers of Dibenzalacetone Spectroscopically

Orwa Houshia, Abdalla Walwil, Hanan Jumaa, Hisham Qrareya, Harbi Daraghmeh, Iqab Daraghmeh, Areej Owies, Abeer Qushtom

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i430307

The aim of this experiment is to estimate the relative ratio of geometric isomers of Dibenzalacetone that was prepared via the crossed-aldol condensation by reacting benzaldehyde with acetone. Dibenzalacetone was synthesized in the lab from benzaldehyde and acetone under basic conditions. The GC-MS was used to relate the molar mass of the product. Thin layer chromatography was used to visualize the relative RF factor for each isomer. Uv-Vis instrument showed three peaks that were assigned to each isomer. And the FT-IR was used for the assignment of the vibrational modes of each isomer. The relative ratio of trans-trans, Cis-trans, and Cis-Cis was 59.87%, 26.53%, and 13.60% respectively with the aid of FT-IR instruments peak assignments were made for the vibrational frequency of the functional groups. For organic laboratory setups and practices, the fragments from the MS spectrum of DBA can be explained based on cleaving or rearrangement in gas phase by mechanisms known as α-cleavage, β-cleavage, and Rearrangement migration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Profile, in vitro Antioxidant and Sun Protective Activities of Alhagi pseudalhagi and Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

Mohammad Humayoon Amini, Amina Ahmady, Aqa Mohammad Zhakfar, Mohammad Nasim Sediqi, Gulalai Babak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i430308

Background and Objectives: Alhagi pseudalhagi and Elaeagnus angustifolia are among the medicinal plants used traditionally in Afghanistan. The aim of present work was to study A. pseudalhagi herbs and E. angustifolia leaves for their preliminary phytochemical profile, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), in vitro antioxidant activity and sun protective factor (SPF).

Methods: Alhagi pseudalhagi herb crude extract (APCE) and E. angustifolia leaves crude extract (EACE) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Standard qualitative phytochemical tests were performed to detect various phytochemicals in the crude drugs. Both of APCE and EACE were purified as per previously described method to obtain A. pseudalhagi herb purified extract (APPE) and E. angustifolia leaves purified extract (EAPE). The TPC, TFC, and SPF of the extracts were determined, Following prescribed methods. To evaluate in vitro antioxidative potential of the extracts, DPPH radical scavenging assay method was performed. The experiments were performed in three replications.

Results: Carbohydrates, phenolics, flavonoids, sterols, tannins, and saponins were present in all tested extracts. The TPC of tested extracts ranged from 71.14 ± 2.10 to 203.76±2.07 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) / g dried extract, as recorded for APCE and EAPE, respectively. TFC values of 33.24±3.23 and 135.85 ±3.83 mg rutin equivalent (RUE) / g dried extract were found for EACE and EAPE, respectively. TFC values of 59.61±3.40 and 121.06±3.37 were recorded for APCE and APPE, respectively. DPPH radicals scavenging capacity and SPF of the tested extracts were positively correlated with their TPC and TFC. The EAPE and APPE produced IC50 value of 4.5 and 14.31, respectively. The higher SPF of 29.73 ± 0.31 was produced by EAPE, while APPE exhibited SPF of 17.83 ± 0.88, as calculated for 2mg/ml methanol solution of the extracts.

Conclusion: Based on present study, EAPE revealed higher TPC and TFC values and hence, showed potent in vitro antioxidant potential and higher SPF value, as compared with A. pseudalhagi herb extracts. Therefore, EAPE could be highly recommended to be used in development of herbal sunscreen formulations.