Open Access Systematic Review Article

Evaluation of the Effects of Atomoxetine on Human Organs: A Systematic Review

Hossein Karballaei Mirzahosseini, Mohammad Ghenaat Pisheh Sanani, Yasaman Mousavi Azad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i330301

Atomoxetine is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. It is used to treat ADHD syndrome through increasing norepinephrine concentration in the synapses and consequently overstimulation of adrenergic receptors. Though, in recent years several reports have been published on the adverse effects and complications of atomoxetine overuse. As a result, this study is conducted to assess the effects of atomoxetine on different human organs. This is a review article in which 54 relevant papers have been evaluated- these studies were found through searching in valid electronic and library databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Medline, and Embase to assess treatment protocols, effectiveness, and adverse effects of atomoxetine. Clinical and experimental studies have proved the side effects and complications of high-dose atomoxetine on weight loss, urinary system complications, cardiovascular issues, liver disorders, behavioural and nervous system problems. Results of the evaluated studies suggest that many patients arbitrarily use high-dose atomoxetine for long-term which may lead to irreversible problems and complications. Consequently, avoiding high-dose atomoxetine is suggested especially in pregnant women and patients with liver disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Mediation Role of Psychological Hardiness between Emotional Self-regulation and Stress Management in Breast Cancer Patients

Mahshid Shah Abadi, Masoud Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad Amin Hashemipour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i330299

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in both developed and developing countries. It may cause several problems regarding physical, psychological, and social aspects. Cognitive emotion self-regulation is key factor in coping with these issues. This study is aimed to assess the mediating role of psychological hardiness between emotional self-regulation and stress management in breast cancer patients.

Method: Current study is a cross-sectional study. Study society included women with breast cancer referring to shiraz governmental hospitals including Namazi, Shahid Faghihi and Bualisina Hospitals from which 120 individuals fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. This investigation is a descriptive-correlation study in which three questionnaires (psychological hardiness, emotional self-regulation and stress management) were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using statistical methods such as Pearson correlation coefficient and regression using SPSS ver. 24 software.

Results: Mean age of participants was 45 years in this study (81.7%). Results of regression test revealed a significant relationship between cognitive emotional self-regulation with stress management and cognitive hardiness (P<0.001). Regression results showed that cognitive emotional self-regulation explains 17% and 15% of all changes in cognitive hardiness and stress management.

Conclusion: Results of this study showed that emotional regulation (disorder in emotional regulation) can directly affect stress management ability. Moreover, increased emotional regulation disorder, reduced psychologic hardiness. Thus, emotional self-regulation can affect quality of life of these patients and improve their ability to cope with cancer-derived challenges.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Abstinence Time on Semen Parameters among Male Patients Referring to Urology Clinic

Farshad Sheybaee Moghaddam, Hojjat Hosseini, Sassan Mohammadi, Mozhdeh Amirahmadi, Mehrshad Salar Hosseini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i330300

Introduction: Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common disorders in sexual intercourses among men and may occur for any man in any period of his life. PE results in some mental disorders such as anxiety, depression and marital disaffection and can have psychological impacts. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of the abstinence time on the semen analysis parameters among men.

Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on a statistical population including 100 male patients referring to the urology clinic in Ali-Ibn-Abitaleb Hospital. Once included in the study, these individuals are divided into three groups with short-term abstinence (less than 2 days), mid-term abstinence (2-9 days), and long-term abstinence (more than 9 days). The patients, depending on the group to which they belonged, were asked to deliver their semen at the specified time to the laboratory in less than an hour. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in SPSS-22 software.

Findings: The results of Pearson correlation and Spearman tests indicated a direct positive relationship between the abstinence time and the total number of sperms in the seminal fluid, concentration of the sperms in the seminal fluid, volume of the seminal fluid, sperm DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species in the seminal fluid, and pH of the seminal fluid.accordingly, the longer the abstinence time, the more the occurrence of these disorders. Also, the correlation test results showed that the abstinence time had an inverse relationship with motility and morphology of the sperms in the seminal fluid; accordingly, with elongation of the abstinence time, the motility (mobility) and morphology of the sperms in the seminal fluid were reduced.

Conclusion: The researchers in the present work concluded the presence of a relationship between the abstinence time and the quality of the sperm parameters. Results of the present study showed that the abstinence time is significantly associated with the total sperm count, sperm concentration seminal fluid volume and pH.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Dopamine and Serotonin on Yawning Behavior in the Rat Model of Social Isolation

Maryam Talebian, Gholamhassan Vaezi, Hooman Shajiee, Vida Hojjati, Shahram Sharafi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i330302

A sample of 80 Male rats (21-day post weaning) were chosen, and were put for 6 weeks in separate cages with black plastic buffers. Eight rats were put in one group of 8 rats in a single cage (the control group) and the rest were put in individual cages: one male rat in each cage. In group 1 or the control group (social conditions) 8 rats were put in one cage. They received saline carrier and their yawning behavior was recorded for 60 minutes. Group 2 (n=8; in separate cages) (social isolation conditions) received no treatment with serotonin and dopamine agonist and antagonist and were kept in separate cages with one rat in each cage. Their yawning behavior was also recorded for 60 minutes. Group 3 (n=8; in separate cages) included the rats that received Apomorphine (dopamine agonist) at a dose of 0.08 mg/kg via subcutaneous injection (SC), and their yawning behavior was recorded for 60 minutes. Rats in group 4 (n=8; in separate cages) received serotonin agonist (m-CPP) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg via subcutaneous injection, and their yawning behavior was recorded for 60 minutes. Group 5 (n=8; in separate cages) included rats that received Serotonin Antagonist (Mianserin) at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg via subcutaneous injection, and their yawning behavior was recorded for 60 minutes. Group 6 (n=8; in separate cages) included rats receiving dopamine antagonist (haloperidol) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg via Intraperitoneal (IP) injection, and their yawning behavior was recorded for 60 minutes. Group 7 (n=8; in separate cages) included rats receiving Serotonin antagonist (Mianserin) at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg via subcutaneous injection 15 minutes before injection of apomorphine (dopamine agonist) and their yawning behavior was recorded for 60 minutes. Rats in group 8 (n=8; in separate cages) received dopamine antagonist (haloperidol) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection (IP) 15 minutes before the injection of serotonin agonist (m-ccp), and their yawning behavior was recorded for 60 minutes. Rats in group 9 (n=8; in separate cages) received Apomorphine (dopamine agonist) at a dose of 0.08 mg/kg and Serotonin agonist (m-CPP) injected subcutaneously (SC) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg and their yawning behavior was recorded for 60 minutes. Group 10 (n=8; in separate cages) included rats that received dopamine antagonists (haloperidol) at 0.1 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection (IP) and antagonist serotonin (Mianserin) at 0.2 mg/kg injected subcutaneously and their yawning belabor was recorded for 60 minutes. Dopamine agonist (apomorphine) and serotonin antagonist (Mianserin) induce yawning in the social conditions and injection of haloperidol (dopamine antagonist) before serotonin agonist (m-ccp) reduces yawning in social conditions. Yawning is different in social conditions and social isolation conditions. Using Meta-Chlorophenylpiperazineserotonin (serotonin agonist), Mianserin (serotonin antagonist), apomorphine (dopamine agonist), haloperidol (dopamine antagonist) the role of serotonin and dopamine in yawning, fear, erection etc. can be investigated as a model for human studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Capsella bursa-pastoris Extract on Heavy Menstrual Bleeding and Quality of Life in Patients with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

Atieh Sadat Danesh, Faraz Mojab, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Soodabeh Bioos, Zahra Siaghati, Fatemeh Nojavan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i330303

Objectives: Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (HMB) is the most important problems of Uterine Leiomyoma (UL). This study aimed to assess the effect of the extract of the Capsella bursa-pastoris (CBP) on the control of HMB and quality of life in patients with uterine leiomyoma.

Design: In a double-blind randomized, clinical trial 54 women with uterine leiomyoma were randomly assigned to the intervention/control groups by block randomization.

Setting: Gynecology outpatient clinics.

Intervention: The intervention group received 350 mg of alcoholic extract of Capsella bursa-pastoris and the control group received placebo twice daily for three months.

Main Outcome Measures: Amount of bleeding by Pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC), quality of life by menstrual quality of life questionnaires (MQ) and bleeding duration by calendar were evaluated.

Results: The mean of PBAC decreased from 464.00± 283.61 at baseline to 323.82±207.66 in the intervention group and decreased from 445.92±362.64 to 214.36±137.68 in control group in the third month. The improvement trend was significant in the two groups, but there was no significant difference between groups. The mean of bleeding duration and menstrual quality of life showed improvement in patients of two groups without significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusion: Despite the effectiveness of CBP in the intervention group in decreasing of PBAC score and menstrual bleeding duration and improvement of menstrual quality of life in patients who suffered from UL, it did not show a significant effect compared to the control group. Future studies with a larger sample size in one specific type of UL suggested.