Open Access Short Research Article

The Concept of Synapse against Popular Opinion

Jyh-Woei Lin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i630284

Emulation of the operation process in the human brain was performed by Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The new comments of this study with the concept of progressive tense like an action to new Comparison ANN with Biological Neuron Network were stated against popular opinions. However, their opinions just pointed out the role of Synapse as the weights in the framework of ANN. In this paper, another concept was better suggested. The role of Synapse should be treated as the weights of ANN, which connect two neurons of two hidden different layers. There was a new proposed opinion in this study when an accurate ANN model was built with optimal weights. The role of Synapse should be both the converting the action potential into electrical energy and chemical energy and synaptic strengthening corresponding to long-term potentiation (LTP) in Biological Neuron Network. From the concept of pharmacology, the action of updating weights with optimal values after training more data, was similar as keeping a normal converting for LTP just using medicaments for resisting some ageing brain diseases e.g. Dementia. The new proposed opinion by comparing both Neural Networks should be reasonable in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Iterating Method to Calculate the Geometry of Range Modulation Wheel in Passive Proton Therapy

Zahra Sadat Tabatabaeian, Mahdi Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza Ghasemi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i630283

In the passive method of proton therapy, range modulation wheel is used to scatter the single energy proton beam. It rounds and scatters the single energy proton beam to the spectrum of particles that covers cancerous tissue by a change in penetration depth. Geant4 is a Monte Carlo simulation platform for studying particles behaviour in a matter. We simulated proton therapy nozzle with Geant4. Geometric properties of this nozzle have some effects on this beam absorption plot. Concerning the relation between penetration depth and proton particle energy, we have designed a range modulation wheel to have an approximately flat plot of absorption energy. An iterative algorithm programming helped us to calculate the weight and thickness of each sector of range modulation wheel. Flatness and practical range are calculated for resulting spread-out Bragg peak.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cancer Cytotoxic and Anti-HIV Potential of Triphala Herb Mixture on from Chae Son, Lampang, Thailand

Wilart Pompimon, Punchavee Sombutsiri, Wipanoot Baison, Phansuang Udomputtimekakul, Angkhana Chuajedton, Boonthawan Wingwon, Kanoknetr Suksen, Jitra Limthongkul, Chanita Naparswad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i630285

Introduction:  The objective of this study was to compare the stability properties of the two years for the quality of Tri-Pha-La Herbal Drink, Thai traditional and Ayurvedic medicine. This study aimed to compare the anticancer and anti-HIV efficacy of the solvent extracts and gallic acid of the three fruits. The research was done between A.D. 2017 to A.D. 2018.

Materials and Methods: In the present study, the cancer cell lines, KB, HT 29, MCF-7, A 549, CL and ASK treated with Triphala fruits extract at concentrations of 4 mg/mL for 72 h except  48 for P-388)  . The cytotoxic activity was expressed as 50% effective dose (ED50). In addition, anti-HIV activity of the all Triphala fruits solvent extracts was performed by anti-HIVs-1RT. The tested extracts were prescreened at 200 μg/mL and only those which were very active (≥70% inhibition) at this concentration were further determined for the dose, μM, that inhibited 50% HIV-1 RT activity (IC50). Moreover, anti-syncytium (MC99+1A2) was performed by the Triphala fruits extract. The results were expressed as the concentration that inhibited 50% formazan formation in uninfected cells (IC50). The therapeutic index (TI) was calculated using the equation: TI=IC50/EC50.

Results: The results were compared between years A.D. 2017/2018. Amongst six ethyl acetate and methanol extracts (A.D. 2017) showed less than 20 µg/mL cell viability in P-388 cell lines. However, the four ethyl acetate and methanol extracts (A.D. 2018) were also inhibited P-388 cell species. Furthermore, each gallic acid, isolated from three fruits Triphala (A.D.2017/2018) were also strongly inhibited to P-388 cell species. Anti-HIV-RT activity of the all Triphala fruits solvent extracts (A.D. 2017) except hexane extracts showed very active which is consistent with A.D. 2018.

 Conclusion: P. emblica-ethyl acetate extract (A.D. 2018) was the most promising anti-syncytium (MC99+1A2) among evaluated all three fruits Triphala extracts: it afforded the lowest EC ₅₀ 8.85 µM and therapeutic index 2.10. The results evidently showed the capacity of Triphala as potential chemopreventive and anticancer drug and immunity.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Fluorescence Spectroscopic Analysis of the Interaction of Glimepiride with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA)

Kanij Nahar Deepa, Sabia Nawsheen, Md. Abu Sufian, S. M. Ashraful Islam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i630286

Background: The significant study was made to investigate the interaction of an antidiabetic drug, glimepiride with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by fluorescence quenching method in two different temperatures (298K and 308K).

Methods: The study was carried out through fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Stern-Volmer equation determined the fluorescence quenching constant. The various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) was found out by Van’t Hoff equation.

Results: The data revealed that glimepiride interact with BSA and both tryptophan and tyrosine residues of BSA are responsible for interactions with glimepiride. BSA undergo static quenching in presence of glimepiride, a quencher. The hydrophobic forces participated in chief roles for BSA-glimepiride complexation and this was indicated by the values of thermodynamic parameters. The binding number (n) obtained was ≈1 pointed out that glimepiride and BSA has bound with 1:1 ratio.

Conclusions: Through fluorescence spectroscopic technique we revealed the nature of interaction of glimepiride with BSA, quenching mechanism for the interaction and associated thermodynamic parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retracted:Evaluation of the Antihyperglycemic Effect of N-butanol Leaves Extracts of Iraqi Fumaria parviflora in Alloxan-prompt Diabetic Rats

Enas Jawad Kadheem, Omar Hussein Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i630287

Objective: In this research, we evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of leaves of Fumaria parviflora (F. parviflora) and implied mechanisms by using in vivo models of hyperglycemia.

Materials and Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were applied for the research. Soxhlet ethanolic extract of leaves of F. parviflora (EFP ) was prepared. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were orally remedied with the extract (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day), metformin (200 mg/kg/day) for two weeks. Another animal received only extract, alloxan (diabetic control) or vehicle (control).

Results:  pretreatment effect of plant extract on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats Blood glucose levels in all extract pretreated groups was lower (p<0.05) when compared with the levels in rats that received alloxan alone, Rats that we are treated with plant extract had normal blood glucose levels that ranged for 73.00±1.5 to76.00±0.54 mg/dl at the beginning (first day) of experiment. Blood glucose levels in these animals declined during the period of extract administration, but the values obtained were not significant compared to control excluded those that were obtained on the 14th day, p < 0.05

Conclusion: Leaves of F. parviflora possess blood glucose-lowering effects  In Alloxan-Induced Diabetic  Rat, The findings of a study indicated that F. parviflora has a significant hypoglycemic effect on Alloxan-induced diabetic rats with no effects in blood glucose levels of normal rats.


Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 05th  November-2020. Related policy is available here: