Open Access Original Research Article

Chromatographic Behaviour of Antibiotics on Thin Layers of Zeolite

Adham Raeisi, Mostafa Ramezani, Hossein Ravazadeh, Mahdi A. Taher

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i430273

Introduction: Antibiotics analysis is performed by many methods such as spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, polarography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. This analysis doesn't require derivatization but requires expensive equipment and extensive preparation. When more than one antibiotic is present in a formulation, interactions may occur between the drugs that must be separated before measurement. Thin-layer chromatography is a useful technique for identifying antibiotics because of the low cost, high speed, and low servicing. Silica gel adsorbents have often been used as adsorbents in all thin-layer chromatography studies. In this study, zeolite was used as an adsorbent in thin- layer chromatography with high selectivity.

Materials and Methods: The chromatographic behaviour of amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefalexin, and penicillin was studied for the first time on a thin layer of zeolite with mobile, organic, and organic- organic phases.

Discussion: The best separation of ceftriaxone from amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefixolin, cefalexin, and penicillin on a thin layer of zeolite using methanol as the mobile phase. The distance and rise time are 12 cm and 110 minutes, respectively.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that using the current method, the selectivity of one antibiotic from other components as well as two-component andthree-component adsorption was obtained. Quantitative identification of antibiotics was also performed in multicomponent mixtures after selection of appropriate isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effectiveness of Education in Internship Phase from the Medical University Student´s Viewpoint

Ramin Pazoki, Arash Tabaraee, Elham Saffarieh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i430274

Introduction: Today, the socio-economic development of countries is due to the university's modernization program, which requires the proper training of a specialized human resource, the student, in which education plays a key role. Among the educational programs of a country, medical education is expensive, because of the nature of this field. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the opinions of medical students about the effectiveness of medical education course for use and policy making of educational authorities.

Methods: In this method, from 220 questionnaires, each containing 44 questions, with 6 domains, including achieving goals, curriculum and content, organization and planning, interactions, professor evaluation and support services, designed based on Kirk Patrick's 4-level model was used, and the community of medical students and interns between January 2016 and November 2018 was selected by the full-scale method. Each question contained a 5-point Likert scale of numerical responses including 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 for referring to undesirable, poor, average, good and excellent. Students' opinions were analyzed by SPSS software. Also, the overall reliability of the questionnaire was calculated and reported by Cronbach's alpha for each domain.

Results: In this study, 118 female and 67 male students were recruited from interns. Findings of this study indicated that the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.956. The mean and standard deviation of the study was 3.01±0.57, for female students 3.04±0.58, for male students 2.95±0.56. In the meanwhile, the achievement of targets and evaluation of professor domains with mean and standard deviation of 3.19±0.67 and 3.21±0.64, respectively, has better result than the overall mean of the study, and curriculum & educational content domains with a mean of 2.94±0.63, organization and planning with a mean of 2.84±0.75, interactions with a mean of 2.95±0.83 and support services with a mean of 2.78±0.75, results was poorer than the overall mean of the study.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that clinical education in the field of medicine in the mentioned period on students, has moderate effectiveness and the students' point of view, this training is also more effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Probiotics, Metformin and Their Combination Therapy in Ameliorating Dyslipidemia Associated With PCOS

Urooj Zafar, Jahan Ara Hassan, Kauser Ismail, Shanza Agha, Zahida Memon, Shaheen Bhatty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i430275

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder affecting women of the child-bearing age. Alteration in lipid profile is one of the troublesome features faced by PCOS patients that need to be treated.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Probiotics, Metformin and their Combination therapy on lipid profile in women suffering from PCOS.

Study Design: Single-Centered Randomized Controlled Trial.

Setting: Gynecological clinic of Karachi at Tertiary care Hospital from December 2018 to May 2019.

Patients and Methods: Total 78 PCOS patients of age between 18 to 40 years were involved in this trial rendering to Rotterdam criteria. After taking written and informed consent they were randomly allocated to three groups and were received: Metformin 500 mg BD (n = 26), Probiotic Capsule 180 mg BD (n = 26) and Combination of Metformin 500 mg BD / Probiotic Capsule 180 mg OD for 12-weeks. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and after 12-weeks of intervention along with the body weight. In the end, pre versus post therapy and comparison of different group’s results were analyzed.  

Results: Metformin and Met/Pro Combination groups resulted in a significant reduction in Total Cholesterol (TC) as compared to Probiotic group. Fall in Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were noteworthy after Probiotics and Met/Pro treatment. Serum TG concentrations were significantly reduced in all the groups. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were slightly elevated after Probiotics treatment, which was not statistically significant but Metformin and Met/Pro group increases it to the significant value. No substantial change was found in the Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol VLDL-C levels in any of the three groups.

Conclusion: Overall, Probiotics treatment in PCOS women for 12 weeks exhibited noteworthy changes in TG, and LDL-C levels. Metformin markedly improve Cholesterol, TG and HDL-C. However, Met/Pro improved all the lipid changes to the significant value except for VLDL-C.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing the Efficacy of Topical Metformin and Placebo in the Treatment of Melasma: A Randomized, Double-blind, Clinical Trial

Mohammad Ali Mapar, Ali Asghar Hemmati, Ghazal Namdari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i430276

Introduction: Generally affecting women, melasma is the acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, and researches are still ongoing to find an effective, fast, and low-side-effect drug treating this disease. The present study is aimed at comparing the efficacy of topical metformin and placebo in the treatment of melasma.

Methods: Sixty patients with melasma were treated in placebo and topical metformin recipient groups in a double-blind clinical trial. In addition to the demographic and laboratory findings of patients before and after the intervention, the MASI Score of patients in weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the study and then one month after the study were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software.

Results: The mean age of the studied patients was 35.25 ± 7.11 years. No significant difference was observed between the phenotypes (P= .49) and the type of melasma (P= .63) in the two groups. The mean MASI score of patients at the time of being included in the study in the placebo group was 10.47 ± 3.08; and in the metformin group, it was 11.93 ± 4.64 (P = .16). Compared to the beginning of the study, the MASI scores were significantly decreased in both groups of placebo (P = .00) and metformin (P = .00) one month after the end of the study; nevertheless, no statistically significant difference was observed between the MASI Scores of two groups in any of the study periods (P > .05).

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that metformin cream significantly declines the patients’ MASI score and does not have any effect on patients’ laboratory markers. Of course, no significant difference was observed between the MASI scores of the patients receiving metformin and the placebo group; however, the MASI score decrease trend continued until the 12th week; while in the placebo group, no significant decrease was seen after eight weeks.

Open Access Review Article

Prevalence Study of Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis and Evaluating Mutual Connection between Injury and Viral Infections: Clinical Analysis and Brief Review

Ali Yeghaneh, Mehdi Moghtadaei, Amir Sobhani Eraghi, Mani Mahdavi, Babak Otoukesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i430280

Avascular necrosis (AVN) could remain with negligible clinical symptoms, but it would get worsen over the time if it’s left untreated and at the most cases will require surgical treatment. Prevalence of femoral head AVN is almost 0.45% among HIV patients which is approximately 45 times more than the rest of Society. AVN occurs 0.088%-1.33% annually among HIV victims. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a bone deteriorating plight. At this study, the clinical prevalence of it has been analyzed among a group of 180 patients at Rasool-e-Akram Hospital (Iran, between 2008 and 2016). Patients were including 121 men and 59 women. Analysis results showed that the prevalence of HCV, HBV, and HIV was 1.7%, 1.1%, and 1.1% respectively. It was found that 63% of patients was currently using immunosuppressive drugs. 17% had a history of drug abuse among which 3.3% were using IV drugs. It was concluded that femoral head AVN is more common among hepatitis and HIV patients.