Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Intervention with Acupressure Therapy on Improving Overall Male Sexual Performance

Roohallah Bay, Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Ali Fathi-Ashtiani, Mohammad Hossein Zarghami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i330268

Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acupressure therapy on improving the overall male sexual performance.  Acupressure therapy is a therapeutic approach that assumes that throughout the body there are certain nerves that have a direct and close relationship with the tissues and organs and they can be stimulated.

 Method: This study was conducted in a semi-experimental and pre-test-post-test design with control group. The community of this research was from men living in Tehran who had been at least two years of their last permanent marriage and between the ages of 20 and 45 and living in Iran. In this study, the target points in reflexes and in other parts of the body were 2, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 28, 29, 33, 34. Measurement tool in this research was International index of erectile function.

Results: The findings of the study showed that the subjects in the acupressure group had an increase of 18.27% in the post-test and 18.6% in comparison with the pre-test in the overall sexual performance. The result of the study was that the intervention by acupressure therapy method had an impact on overall male sexual performance.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that interventions using acupressure therapy are effective in improving overall male sexual performance and it is possible to emphasize the need for more attention to psycho-physiological interventions, including the approach of acupressure therapy in the field of sexual issues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preserved Memory Function of Rats Following Fluorouracil Treatment

Ahmad H. Alhowail

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i330269

Chemotherapy is widely used to treat cancers, but can have undesirable secondary effects, such as cognitive impairment. Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is combined with other agents to treat different types of cancer, such as breast, prostate and brain cancer. 5-FU has been reported to pass the blood–brain barrier, but its effects on cognition are not yet well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 5-FU on memory function. 5-FU was injected intraperitoneally into rats. 5-FU did not impair memory function determined using the Y-maze and novel object recognition behavioral tests. Therefore, it is concluded that fluorouracil itself does not induce the memory impairment of chemobrain.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Activity of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam for the Treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections by Escherichia coli in the Era of Antibiotic Resistance “Rejuvenate the mystery”

Lubna Farooq, Shaikh Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Aitmaud Uddolah Khan, Akhtar Ali, Sehrish Mehmood, Humaira Arif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i330270

Background: Urinary tract infections are found to be commonest bacterial infections across the globe. Various studies have demonstrated high prevalence rate of UTIs in Pakistan. Multiple broad spectrum antibiotics are being used for the treatment of UTI but the resistance by the pathogen against these drugs is increasing worldwide. As the resistance in the organisms is increasing day by day, and it is now hall mark and matter of concern for clinicians to treat uropathogenic E. coli, so there is a pertinent need to explore new sensitive antibiotics or alternative options to manage the disease.

Aims: To determine the pathogen burden and susceptibility pattern of ceftolozane/tazobactam against MDR E. coli isolates from clinical specimens of urinary tract infections in Karachi.

Study Design:  It was an in-vitro clinical study.

Study Settings: The study was conducted in department of Pharmacology, Baqai Medical University and isolates were collected from Microbiology laboratory of Karachi.

Methodology: On the basis of identification methods, one hundred and fifty (150) strains of E. coli were isolated from 650 specimen of urine. Clinical isolates were identified by standard and specific microbiological methods. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method. Samples were processed as per procedures defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines 2018.

Results: Out of 150 isolates of E. coli, 95 (63.3%) were MDR E. coli. majority of the cases were obtained from age group 61-80 year (32.6%). Highest sensitivity was seen by ceftolozane/tazobactam (96%) followed by ceftriaxone (88%). Least sensitivity was observed with Imipenem (13.70%). However increased trend of resistance was seen among all empirical used drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effects of Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor) in Immunological Liver Injury in Rats

A. Alhaddad, H. Abdel Kawy, W. Ramadan, A. Abbas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i330271

One of the main reasons for the development of chronic liver disease is autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).  There is no clear etiological factor for AIH occurrence and no drug has been approved for its treatment. Vorinostat, a Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has been shown to reduce inflammation. Our aim was to explore the therapeutic potential of vorinostat in a rat model of AIH induced by Concanavalin A (Con A). The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; control group, con A (20 mg/kg/iv/wk) group, vorinostat (15 mg/kg/day p.o) group and Con A with vorinostat group. Blood and liver samples were collected at the end of the fourth and eighth weeks for biochemical and histopathological examinations. Results revealed that administration of Con A elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver enzymes, which were reduced to 52.8% and to 61.8% respectively on simultaneous administration of Vorinostat as compare to Con A group.  Furthermore, Vorinostat reduced fibrosis and diminished apoptosis as deduced by the decrease in the hepatic hydroxyproline content of the liver and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Relative gene expression analysis of interleukin 1b and transforming growth factor beta were significantly decreased in groups treated with vorinostat. Histopathological analysis showed that administration of vorinostat significantly restored the well organized structure of the liver, decreased initial inflammation produced by Con A, reduced liver fibrosis and mitigated hepatic stellate cell’s activities. In conclusion, administration of vorinostat in Con A model of autoimmune hepatitis, significantly decreased liver inflammation and fibrosis. So vorinostat might show a novel therapeutic approach for management of autoimmune hepatitis and its obstacles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Provision of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Community Pharmacies: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Structures and Processes in Jos, Nigeria

M. P. Dapar, B. N. Joseph, A. P. Damun, R. C. Okunlola, H. A. Ibrahim, S. G. Mohammed, M. P. Chingle, N. N. Wannang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i330272

Background: Community pharmacies are located close to the people, open long hours and weekends, making them ideal for provision of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, as a means of enhancing access and achieving universal coverage. However, structures (encompassing facilities and resources such as funds, private counselling space, number and qualification of staff) and processes (denoting actual activities undertaken such as: client screening, counselling, mechanisms for referral and collaboration with other healthcare professional) determine the suitability and capacity of community pharmacies to deliver quality SRH services. 

Objective: To assess the structures and processes of SRH services in community pharmacies in Jos, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of staff in 63 community pharmacies of Jos metropolis, Plateau state, Nigeria. Three hundred and ten copies of the questionnaire were distributed to consenting participants.  Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) ® version 21 was used to manage data. Results were presented as descriptive statistics for structures and processes of SRH in the study population.        

Results: A total of 296 completed questionnaires were retrieved. Eighty-two percent of respondents reported providing SRH services, which was mainly the sale of family planning (FP) products and counselling. Majority of these services 75%, were only offered on clients’ demand. SRH products sold were mainly oral contraceptive pills and the male condom. In terms of processes, about half (49.7%) of the respondents reported offering SRH services in collaboration with other health care providers, mainly in primary health care centres and private clinics. However, only a small proportion of the staff had any formal SRH specific training.     

Conclusion: The composition and qualification of mix of staff in community pharmacies presented some inherent weaknesses in their capacity to deliver quality and effective SRH services. This may impede the desired goal of promoting wider access and achieving universal coverage of SRH services.