Open Access Original Research Article

Severity of Asthma and Serum Vitamin D Levels in Asthmatic Children

Nasrin Bazargan, Zeinab Nazari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i130257

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency has been rediscovered as a public health problem worldwide. It has been postulated that vitamin D deficiency explains a portion of the asthma epidemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum vitamin D levels in children with asthma as compared with the non-asthmatic population and to investigate the association of serum vitamin D levels with the severity of asthma.

Materials and Methods: We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) levels in 50 children with mild intermittent to moderate persistent asthma at the time of enrollment and 50 age- and sex-matched non-asthmatic children in a case-control study. The independent sample t-test, c2 test, and spearman correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data.

Results: Vitamin D level was 13.6 ± 1.1 ng/ml and 19.2 ± 1.8 ng/ml in asthmatic and                       non-asthmatic individuals, respectively. The mean (±SD) levels of serum vitamin D were  statistically significant between asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals. Females had lower          levels of vitamin D than males. Asthma severity was inversely associated with serum vitamin D level.

Conclusion: Findings of the present study demonstrate the significance of vitamin D in asthma. Sufficient doses of vitamin D should be administered to pregnant mothers and the babies monitored for symptoms of wheezing or asthma during childhood. Clinical trials are needed to definitively answer questions about the role of vitamin D in asthma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Toxicological Effects of Selected Popular Antidiabetic Drugs in Type II Diabetes Mellitus within Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria

Ogunlana Olubanke Olujoke, Oyebanji Olufisayo Grace, Ogunlana Oluseyi Ebenezer, Adekeye Bosede Temitope, Adeyemi Alaba Oladipupo, Titilope M. Dokunmu, Oluwakemi Anuoluwapo Rotimi, Solomon Oladapo Rotimi, E. Okwumabua Ogi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i130259

Aim: The complications associated with diabetes and the new trend of using combination therapy in the management of the disease gave birth to this work, aimed at assessing the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of selected popularly used antidiabetic medications in type 2 diabetic patients within Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Study Design: The participants, diabetic (n=195) and non-diabetic (n=30) were divided into the following groups based on their medications: 1 (Non Diabetic control), 2 (Metformin), 3 (Glimepiride), 4 (Glibenclamide), 5 (Metformin and Glimepiride), 6 (Meformin and Glibenclamide), 7 (Metformin, Glimepiride and Glibenclamide) and 8 (Diabetic Dietary control).

Methodology: Serum protein expression profiling, liver and kidney function parameters were assessed in participant’s blood using Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and standard laboratory methods respectively.

Results: Glyceamic control within the diabetic groups was 29.23%. Urea concentration was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in groups 5 and 7 compared with groups 1 and 8 while the serum creatinine levels in the different groups showed no significant difference. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 5 compared with groups 1 and 8. A low molecular weight protein likely to be Leptin (molecular weight 18 kDa) was over-expressed in all the diabetic groups.

Conclusion: This study shows that use of multiple rather than single drugs caused significant functional changes in the liver and kidney. The control of diabetes may best be carried out with dietary control and lifestyle modification as well as good therapeutic drug monitoring for safe assessment of baseline organ function.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on the Illness Perception in Dialysis Patients

Shiler Karimi, Fardin Moradimanesh, Parviz Asgari, Saieed Bakhtiyarpour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i130260

One of the proposed psychological treatments in hemodialysis patients is acceptance and commitment therapy. The acceptance and commitment therapy focuses on psychological flexibility and this occurs when a person consciously accepts his or her thoughts and feelings and shows a behavior consistent with his or her personal values. As chronic kidney failure causes many psychological problems for patients, which can affect their various aspects of life and significantly reduce their quality of life and as acceptance and commitment therapy has provided promising results in helping patients with severe and chronic conditions to cope with their psychological, physical, social, family and economic problems and given the important role of the variable of illness perception in this regard, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on illness perception of patients. The statistical population of this study included hemodialysis patients in the dialysis ward of Bouali Marivan Hospital from 22-11-2018 to 22/11/2012. The number of subjects in each of the experimental and control groups was 15. The experimental group received acceptance and commitment therapy at 8 sessions and the control group received no therapy. The data were collected using Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R). Data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics and covariance analysis. The results of the study showed that acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) was effective on illness perception, consequences of the illness perception, illness personal control perception, illness treatment control perception, concern and emotional responses perception in dialysis patients. However, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) did not affect the illness timeline perception, identity of the illness perception and the illness recognition in dialysis patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Effect of Dry Garlic Powder on the Nickel Chloride-induced Somatic and Germinal Cell Damages in Male Mice

Syed Imam Rabbani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i130261

Background: Nickel is commonly used in industry, utensils and also present in cigarette. Over-exposure of nickel is known to cause several health complications including somatic and germinal cell injuries. Garlic (Allium sativum) being a spice has several pharmacological properties. However, its role on the nickel chloride induced somatic and reproductive cells damages are poorly studied in the literature.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of garlic powder on nickel chloride induced somatic and germinal cell damages in male mice.

Methods: Dried garlic clove powder is used in this study in three doses via., 50. 100 and 150 mg/kg, per oral (p.o) for 4-weeks against the nickel chloride [(10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p)] induced somatic and germinal damages. Somatic cells damages were studied using peripheral micronucleus test and germinal cell damages by sperm count and sperm shape abnormalities in male mice. Further, the in-vitro hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of the garlic was evaluated. Ascorbic acid was tested as a standard drug. The data of the results were analyzed by One-way Anova and Tukey as post hoc test.

Results: The result indicated that nickel chloride enhanced significantly (p<0.001) both somatic and germinal cell damages compared to control animals. The administration of garlic powder at 150 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) minimized the frequency of micronuclei in the erythrocytes and reduced the spermatozoa anomalies compared to the nickel chloride group. The garlic powder also exhibited significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity.

Conclusion: The data indicated that garlic powder at 150 mg/kg reduced the cellular damaging effects of nickel chloride on somatic and germinal cells and the mechanism could be related to the free radical scavenging activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation, in vitro and Bioavailability Assessments of Ranitidine Rectal Suppositories

Khaled Shalaby, Ahmed M. Samy, Alaa Kassem, Mohamed F. Ibrahim, Nabil K. Alruwaili, Hazim M. Ali, Mohammed Elmowafy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i130262

The objective of the current work was to develop and evaluate suppository dosage form in order to improve ranitidine bioavailability as a substitute to the oral administration. Suppocire (different grades), Witepsol W25 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as suppository bases and prepared by molding method. The prepared formulations were examined for hardness, disintegration time, melting point, content uniformity, drug release, stability and bioavailability. The hardness ranged from 3.82 to 12.53 kg and disintegration time from 13.32 to 28.22 min. The melting points of fatty bases had values from 33.94 to 36.82±0.36ºC while PEG based suppositories melting points were directly proportional chain length. Higher content uniformity was observed in PEG based suppositories due to easy incorporation of RT into water soluble base. Release was affected by hydroxyl value and molecular weight (in cases of fatty and PEG bases respectively). All formulations were relatively stable after 12 months. In vivo studies of all formulations exhibited double peak phenomena. PEG based formula (S8) showed significant higher Cmax (10.05±1 μg/ml) and AUC0-12 (58.313±3.9 µg.h/mL) than fatty bases and oral solution. In conclusion, rectal administration of S8 could be prepared as an alternative to the oral dosage form to improve bioavailability and overcome the first-pass metabolism.