Open Access Case Study

Case Report: The Effect of Pentazocine Abuse in a Female Sickle Cell Disease Patient in Calabar, South-south, Nigeria

Akaba Kingsley, Essien Ofonime, Bassey O. Bassey, Onyeulor Eberechi, Edidiong Ekang, Edakabasi Akaba, Dike Adaobi, Omini Godwin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i530247

Background: Pentazocine is a synthetic opioid analgesic with mixed receptor activities. It acts as a partial agonist at the µ-receptor as well as being a kappa agonist. Its analgesic effect is estimated to be about 25-50% greater than that of morphine. Pentazocine acts has a short onset of action which occur about 10-20 minutes after administration and could last 2-4hours.

Aim: The study was aimed at further awakening the consciousness of this growing menace among people living with sickle cell disease as well as proffering solutions to curtail this increasing peril.  

Presentation of Case: A 36 years old Nigerian female with three years history of excessive use of parenteral pentazocine on account of sickle cell bone pain crisis. She commenced self-administration after exposure by a private hospital on account of bone pain crisis where other analgesic fails to give her the necessary relieve. Hence, the beginning of her dependency.  She started with two ampules daily and later increased to 20 ampules on the account of this, patient was said to have developed cutaneous and musculoskeletal complication. A diagnosis of pentazocine addiction in a SCD patient was made, she was admitted and jointly managed by a Psychiatrist, Phychologist, Haematologist and Plastic Surgeon. We hereby advocate for effective legislation, orientation and reorientation of health workers and the society at large about the risks and complication of parenteral pentazocine abuse. This menace can possibly be curtailed if oral formulation is made available and less addictive medications are used.  

Conclusion: Analgesics that are less addictive should be administered after examining the nature of pain before furtherance to stronger analgesic which could predispose to addiction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of a High Dose of Vitamin C along with Thiamine in Critically-ill Patients with Septic Shock: A Preliminary Study

Hasanali Karimpour, Alireza Bahrami, Shila Amini, Mansour Rezaei, Javad Amini-Saman, Foroud Shahbazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i530248

Septic shock may occur in critically ill patients and despite antimicrobial treatment, it is associated with a high mortality rate. It is reasonable to look for new treatment modalities that might improve outcome. This is a randomized, double-blind control trial aiming at critically-ill septic patients in a tertiary hospital. Patients with quick sofa score of 2 and with organ dysfunction were included in this study. The intervention group received high doses of vitamin C at a dose of 50 mg/kg/four times daily along with thiamine at a dose of 200 mg/ twice daily) and the control group received normal saline for four days. The dose of vasopressors, procalcitonin and lactate clearance, and mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score were examined in the two groups. Patients were followed for 28 days. One hundred patients were allocated into two equal groups, and there was no difference between the two groups regarding baseline characteristics. Mean lactate concentration, SOFA score, days of antimicrobial therapy, and mortality at 28 days were similar between them. However, the mean procalcitonin concentration, and mean vasopressor treatment hours were significantly lower in the intervention group (p<0.05). Although Days of ICU stay were lower in the intervention group, It did not reach statistical significance. The results of this study showed that treatment with high dose vitamin C Reduces the vasopressor requirement without any effects on other parameters. Further studies with larger sample size are required for more generalizable results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Designing a New Ergonomic Student Backpack

Mahsa Mansoorian, Mohammad Sadegh Ghasemi, Naser Dehghan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i530249

Introduction: A Backpack is an essential tool for anyone, such as students who have to carry their daily necessities and supplies for long hours.

Aims: Studies have shown that inappropriate backpack types not only cause injuries to the musculoskeletal system but also cause the poor distribution of force and excessive pressure on the feet and thus discomfort for people.

Methods: In order to improve the comfort of backpack users and reduce the pressure on the foot, 18- to 25-year-old female students with normal body mass were selected for the study. The backpack was designed and made according to the Schoone-Harmsen method and ergonomic criteria. The sample was compared with current and existing backpacks in the market in terms of design and ergonomic features.

Results: The results showed that the new backpack using a medical belt based on ergonomic features with appropriate features provides a greater sense of comfort for users and it is improved compared to existing backpacks which are available in the Iranian market and designs based on previous studies.

Conclusion: For designing a backpack for people with different anthropometric sizes, a  more accurate assessment of the larger sample, particularly measurements on the lumbar region and back, is required. It is recommended to evaluate the results in a larger sample and its effect on the dimples of Venus. However, the results had a positive evaluation at this stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Ellagic Acid on Paraoxanase - 1 Activity and DNA Damage in Acute Exercise

Ersan Kara, Funda Karabağ Çoban, Mustafa Akıl, Recep Liman, İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i530250

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between exhaustive and intensive exercise with changes in paraoxonase-1 enzyme activity, oxidative DNA damage and the role of ellagic acid against possible damage.

The study was carried out on 32 male and adult Spraque - Dawley rats at the Experimental Animal Research and Research Center of Afyon Kocatepe University. The experimental animals were equally divided into four groups. Swimming exercises were performed as acute exercises for once and experimental animals are made to swim in groups including two rats following the completion of the study and before the decapitation.

At the end of the experiment, obtained blood samples; Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-HydroxyGuanine (8-OhdG) levels were measured to determine DNA damage and DNA damage was assessed by Comet Assay method.

As a result, PON-1 levels in rats with intense swimming training were found to be significantly lower (p <0.05) than the control group. MDA and (8-OhdG) levels were significantly higher in the swimming group than in the control group (p <0.05). As to the DNA damage determination by COMET analysis, DNA damage was observed in the swimming groups according to the control groups. When the ellagic acid groups were compared with the swimming groups, there was a significant increase in PON-1 levels, and the levels of MDA and (8-OhdG) were significantly lower than the swimming groups. The DNA damage was also found to be low in these groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological Screening for CNS Depression, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.) Barks in Different Solvent Fraction

Mst. Shirajum Munira, Syeda Naureen Ahmed, Md. Siddiqul Islam, Md. Shariful Islam, Mst. Luthfun Nesa, Md. Humayun Kabir, Celia Vargas de la Cruz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i530251

Aims: Bark of different fractions of Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.) (Sonneratiaceae) were screened for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS activities.

Study Design: For the purpose of these experiments the extracts were subjected to an in-vivo study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in August 2014 in the Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Methodology: Ethanolic (ETF), ethyl acetate (EAF), chloroform(CLF) and pet ether (PTF) fractions of bark of  S. caseolaris were used to evaluate the analgesic activity using Acetic acid induced writhing and Formalin test. The same fractions were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model. The CNS depressant activity was evaluated by Hole cross method. Two doses of 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg were used.

Results: The different fractions produced significant (p<0.05) writhing inhibition at both doses and reduced the number of linking induced by formalin. Among these fractions the most potent activity was found in ETF about 79.40% (300 mg/kg) that was almost similar to standard Diclofenac-Na 82.78% (10 mg/kg), then EAF 74.59% followed by CLF 59.03% and PTF 52.45% at dose 300 mg/kg).

In formalin-induced paw licking model, all fractions of S. caseolaris showed superior result in the late phase compare to the early phase .The same fractions of extracts caused significant (p<0.05) inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. A statistically significant (p<0.05) locomotor activity was also observed.

Conclusion: Our result revealed that all the extractives of S. caseolaris have noticeable analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS depressant activities.