Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Anxiolytic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Root of Valeriana officinalis with Buspirone in Mature Male Mice

Atefe Gordan, Elham Taheri, Jafar Saeidi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i230230

Background: Anxiety is the most common psychiatric disorder which can be cured by herbal and chemical medicine. Herbal medicine and complementary medicine are widely used among people suffering from anxiety disorder. Valeriana officinalis known to cause anxiolytic and sedative effects to have a special place in traditional Chinese, Indian and Iranian medicine.

Aims: This study aims to compare the anxiolytic effect of aqueous extract of root of V. officinalis root with Buspirone in mature male mice.

Study Design: Study was conducted in the Islamic Azad University of Mashhad to an animal room of the Faculty of Basic Sciences, Azad University of Nishabur, under standard conditions. This experimental study has been demonstrated by control and experimental groups. The sample consisted of 30 mature male mice assigned into five groups of six: group A receiving distilled water (control group), group B, group C and group D receiving 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg aqueous extract of V. officinalis, respectively, and group E receiving 30 mg/kg buspirone orally in drinking water. Anxiolytic effects were evaluated 10 days after receiving by using maze. One-way ANOVA and T-test were analyzed by using SPSS 19 software package.

Results and Discussion: The results show that the aqueous extract of V. officinalis root causes a significant increase in the number of arrivals and elapsed time in open arms compared to Buspirone. Medicinal plants currently form an important part of traditional medicine in many countries and they have a special place in new therapeutic approaches. ANOVA and T-test results showed a significant (P<0.05) relationship between the anxiolytic effect of aqueous extract of V. officinalis root and Buspirone in mice.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that V. officinalis are more effective in reducing anxiety compared to buspirone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Some Nano Particles on Antibiotic-resistant Bacterial Pathogens from the Air of Operation Theatre

Nazish Mazhar Ali, Saiqa Andleeb, Abdullah Mazhar, Bushra Mazhar, Sehar Zahid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i230231

The current research work was carried out to find the antibacterial activity of some nano particles against bacterial pathogens isolated from the air of operation theatre of Mayo hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Three pathogenic bacterial strains were isolated, namely A1, A2, A3. Molecular characterisation, optimum growth conditions and antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates were checked. The antibiotics used in this study were Amoxycillin, Cefepime and Ampicillin. Nano particles were used in methanolic solutions (mg/ml). Nano particles included ferric oxide, Zinc oxide and Silver Oxide. Results showed A3 was resistant to all antibiotics. Other strains showed sensitivity and resistance to these three antibiotics. All nano particles showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacterial isolates. Maximum zone of inhibition of 1 cm was formed when used Ferric oxide against the A1 bacterial pathogen. Optimum temperature was 37°C while the optimum pH was 7.  These bacterial pathogens were identified by ribotyping as Staphylococcus aureus (A1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (A2) and Streptococcus pyogenes (A3).

Open Access Original Research Article

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria Resistant to Methicillin in Raw Milk

Farnush Kazemi, Shila Safaeian, Roxana Moogouei

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i230232

The presence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (particularly methicillin-resistant strains) in food of animal origin is considered as a severe threat to human health due to numerous clinical complications. This study tended to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in samples of raw milk distributed in Tehran using antibiotic susceptibility testing methods. In the present study, 100 raw milk samples were taken from the centres of production and purchase of milk and its products in Tehran; the samples were evaluated by culture in terms of infection with coagulase-positive S. aureus. Finally, antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates was studied using disk diffusion agar. The average colony count was estimated. Raw milk cultures were estimated at 2×105-4×105 cfu/ml. Based on the results of culture, 36 samples of raw milk tested were icnfected with positive-coagulase S. aureus. The highest susceptibility was observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin (100%) and the highest resistance was observed to penicillin, tobramycin, oxacillin and ceftazidime. The results showed the prevalence of infection of raw milk with S. aureus. Moreover, prevalence of S. aureus resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, more importantly, methicillin resistant, was significant in the tested samples. Therefore, adherence to and control of sanitation in different stages of production, supply and consumption of milk can prevent human infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Therapeutic Outcomes of Reconstruction of Pressure Ulcer Injuries by Flap Coatings in Patients Admitted to Taleghani Hospital in Kermanshah during 2015-2016

Shokofeh Mortazavi, Gholam Reza Amirian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i230233

Objective: Pressure ulcers, following cancer and heart disease, are considered as the third most costly health problem. In addition to high cost of treatments, considerable time is spent on care for patients. This study tends to evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of reconstruction of pressure ulcer injuries by flap coatings.

Methods: This study is prospective; 85 patients with pressure ulcer who referred to Taleghani Hospital in Kermanshah during 2015-2016 for treatment by muscular coating flaps were followed up 1 week and 3 months after discharge. A questionnaire based on main objectives of the project including demographic information, treatment complications, treatment outcome, reconstruction, number of flaps to assess the success of flap coating in patients was completed for each patient. Considering the 95% confidence level and the 9% accuracy, treatment success rate was 76%, with a minimum sample size of 85 in each group. Reconstruction was done again if the treatment was unsuccessful. Data was analyzed by SPSS software version 22.

Results: The success rate of pressure ulcer reconstruction by coating flaps significantly increased after 1 week and 3 months (P<0.05, 50.6% and 90.5%, respectively). The success rate of pressure ulcer reconstruction by coating flaps significantly increased after 1 week and 3 months in terms of age, gender, and BMI (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The success of pressure ulcer reconstruction increased by coating flaps after 3 months. Therefore, it is suggested that further studies be developed in the future. Second, this study did not have control group. Therefore, it is recommended to consider this in future studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Recombinant S1 Protein Expressed in Pichia pastoris in Chicken & Using for Detection Titer Antibodies against Avian Infectious Bronchitis by ELISA

Mahdi Ahmadi, Khosrow Aghayipour, Arash Ghalyanchi Langroudi, Hossein Godarzi, Masood Hashemzadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i230234

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute, extremely contagious upper respiratory disease in chickens. The objective of this study was expressed and using of recombinant S1 Protein serotype 793/B expressed in pichia pastoris in order to serodiagnosis against avian infectious bronchitis antibody. The complete S1 gene (1623bp) was cloned in PTZ57 plasmid and transferred to E. coli (Escherichia coli)-XL1blue bacterium. Next cloned to pPICZB vectors and transferred to p. pastoris(Km71H). Produced protein were visualized by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) PAGE gel that was about with 62KDa. Finally, the S1 recombinant protein was used to coat 96 well plate to recognize antibodies in sera against live Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV 4/91). As a result, this recombinant S1 protein Antigen can be used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for recognizing antibody titer against IBV. This recombinant protein was evaluated by Elisa, using a panel of field sera for known IBV titer That in the commercial kits, the optical gain of positive control is 0/741 ± 0/007 and the negative control is 0/167 ± 0/002, next the average Optical Density (OD) in the three farms were 2.585, 2.001, 1.657, resulting to the S/P ratio of was 4.212, 2.886, 2.484, respectively. The results of our effort for positive control and the negative control are 0/9 ± 0/010, 0/067 ± 0/008 respectively. The mean Optical Density of sera in 3 Flocks were showed 3.390, 2.737, 2.921, and the ratio of S/P 4. 01, 3.242 and 3.46. These results showed that our outcomes are neared to Biochek kit. The results also showed that recombinant protein S1 was able to identify different kinds of infectious bronchitis virus serotypes in poultry. It can be used for commercial ELISA kit.