Open Access Original Research Article

Obstructive Sialadenitis of Submandibular Gland Due to a Nail-like Fish Bone Foreign Body: A Rare Case Report

Rosa Mostafavi Tabatabaee, Majid Sanatkhani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i130225

Introduction: Foreign body-associated sialadenitis of submandibular gland is not often and scarce within the literature. In this study, a report of a piece of Nail-like fish bone foreign body entering the Wharton’s duct causing an acute sialadenitis is presented.

Foreign bodies must be explored and all suspected areas must be examined carefully for avoiding secondary problems and surgeries in the future.

Foreign bodies in the oral and maxillofacial region are often experienced after trauma and dental treatment.

Case Report : We describe a case of obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular gland caused by penetration of a fish bone in a 68-year-old man. He had swelling and spontaneous pain in the left submandibular region. The radiographic examination didn't show foreign body in the submandibular gland. Initially, we diagnosed obstructive sialadenitis in the left submandibular gland and the study suspect that salivary stone might be the cause of this swelling so compressing and milking of Wharton duct. The foreign body measured 1.3 cm *3 mm*2 mm and was a nail-like object. On pathological examination, the foreign body was found to be a fish bone (cartilage-like organic material).

Conclusion: This case demonstrated that precise and proper inspection and examination, milking and then paying attention to the secretion of salivary gland lead to proper diagnosis and after that suitable treatment, so this could reduce costly assessment and treatment, also lessen bewilderment of the patient.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Hospital Occupational Stress and Prevalence of Depression in Nurses Working in Ilam Hospitals

Alireza Roughani, Mehdi Fallah Bagher Shaidaei, Akram Rohani, Ali Delpishe, Zahra Sharifi, AmirAbbas Ahmadzadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i130226

Introduction: Long-term stress can also lead to mental disorders such as anxiety, depression and physical burnout. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hospital occupational stress and prevalence of depression among nurses working in Ilam hospitals.

Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study. The statistical population includes the staff of Imam Khomeini Hospital and martyr Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Ilam. The study was conducted using a census method. The criteria for entering the individuals were their willingness to participate in this study. The subjects were included in the study with complete satisfaction. Demographic questionnaires, standard questionnaires for occupational stress (HSI), and Beck Depression Inventory were used. Questionnaires were distributed to pre-trained individuals. The data was extracted and analyzed by SPSS software.

Results: The findings of this study showed that 31.8% of the samples had a degree of depression. In this study, the rate of depression in men is higher than that of women. According to the results, occupational stress and environmental stress in nursing women were more than men. There is a significant relationship between job stress and stress associated with life with depression (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, respectively).

Conclusion: The results of this study always emphasize the point that attention should be paid to stress and stressful occupation of nursing and to think about it and to take preventive measures. Because of the stress of the valve towards all mental illnesses In the event of manpower and the work of a community, it can cause many problems and costs for the individual and society and reduce the quality of the services provided by the nurses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Effective Operational Parameters on Removal of Amoxicillin from Synthetic Wastewater Using Electrocoagulation Process

Davoud Balarak, Kethineni Chandrika, Marzieh Attaolahi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i130227

In this study, efficiency of electrocoagulation (EC) process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of Amoxicillin (AMO) from synthetic solution has been studied and concluded. This experiment was conducted in a batch system with a volume of 1 L that had been equipped with four aluminum electrodes. The effect of operating parameters, such as voltage, time of reaction, initial AMO concentration, KCl concentration and pH on the AMO removal efficiency was investigated. In optimum condition (pH 7, voltage 60 V, electrolysis time 75 min, KCl concentration 3 g/L), electrocoagulation method was able to remove 98.8% of AMO antibiotics from synthetic solution.  In addition, it is found that an increase in the applied voltage the speed of the treatment significantly. However, simultaneous increase of electrode and energy consumption was observed. The method was found to be highly efficient and relatively fast compared to conventional existing techniques and also, it can be concluded that the electrocoagulation process has the potential to be utilized for the cost-effective removal of AMO from water and wastewater.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relaxant Activities of Extracts from Uvaria rufa Blume and Caesalpinia sappan L. on Excised Rat’s Prostate Strips

Wararut Buncharoen, Supap Saenphet, Kanokporn Saenphet

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i130228

Aims: To determine the relaxant activity of various extracts from the stems of Uraria rufa Blume and Caesalpinia sappan L. on rats’ prostate strips in vitro.

Study Design:  The relaxant efficacies of ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts from the stems of U. rufa (UEA and UEOH) and C. sappan (CEA and CEOH) were tested on isolated rats’ prostate tissue pre-contracted by adrenaline.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, between February and September 2018.

Methodology: A prostate strip was isolated, mounted in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution and induced to contract by adrenaline. The contracted strip was then exposed to each extract at 250 µg/mL for 30 minutes. The tension was recorded. Relaxant efficacies of various extracts were determined in prostate strips pre-contracted by adrenaline at 10 µM. All extracts were also determined for their bioactive components and the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids.

Results: The results showed that all of the extracts, as well as tamsulosin, a synthetic drug, exhibited relaxant effects (P < 0.001) on prostate smooth muscles. The UEA exhibited the most potency in relaxing the prostate smooth muscle with a maximal effect of 72.09 ± 2.15 %. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of the UEA, CEOH, UEOH and CEA were 140.23 ± 9.74, 226.35 ± 7.16, 235.35 ± 24.96 and 236.24 ± 5.05 µg/ml respectively, while tamsulosin was 86.83 ± 8.96 µg/ml. All extracts contained flavonoids, phenolics, sterols, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and reducing sugars. The highest contents of phenolics and flavonoids were found in CEOH and CEA respectively.

Conclusion: We concluded that the ethyl acetate from the stems of U. rufa was the most potent in relaxing the prostate smooth muscles, and it may be useful to relieve the urological symptoms caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Open Access Original Research Article

Method Development for 4-Hydroxy-2-Methyl-N- (5-Methyl-2-Thiazolyl)-2H-1,2-Benzothiazine-3-Carboxamide-1,1-Dioxide by Reverse Phase HPLC: New Analytical Technique

Husnul Maab, Hammad Yousaf, Syed Saeed ul Hassan, Umar Farooq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i130229

Purpose: In this study, development of a new analytical method for the evaluation of 4-Hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide (Meloxicam) by reverse phase HPLC was carried out. The basic aim of this research was to develop and validate a simple, precise, accurate and sensitive method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Meloxicam in pharmaceutical raw material and its dosage forms. The existing reported method (BP) for the analysis of Meloxicam is potentiometric method which is an old, lengthy and tedious method.

Methods: In the new method of reverse phase HPLC, C18 column was used while the mobile phase was acetonitrile and methanol (70:30). The flow rate of mobile phase was 0.6 ml/min and retention time was found to be 1.5min. Separately equal volume of standard solution and sample solutions in HPLC vials were injected in auto sampler compartment of HPLC in six replicates. Chromatogram and peak areas of Meloxicam in standard and sample solutions of different concentrations were recorded.

Results: This method was later validated in different ways by which the calibration curve proved to be linear with linearity coefficient of 0.999 over the range of 100 to 600ppm. The precision was equivalent to 0.0003%. The LOD and LOQ were 0.0003ug/ml and 0.001ug/ml respectively. The system also showed accuracy over the range of 95 to 99%.

Conclusion: Hence, this method proved to be an alternative to the existing reported method of potentiometric titration because the new method showed accuracy, reproducibility and sensitivity.