Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Pennyroyal, Cinnamon and Rhubarb on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus: An In-vitro Study

Zohreh Gheisari, Leila Kalani, Mansoor Khaledi, Ali Nouri, Yaser Eshaghi Milasi, Nahal Hossainy, Ali Soleymani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i630218

Background: Medicinal plants have been used for many different purposes in the past. These plants may produce antimicrobial metabolites that affect the natural growth of microorganisms. The aim of this research was to study the antibacterial properties of rhubarb, cinnamon and pennyroyal on Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of pennyroyal, cinnamon and rhubarb on Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae was investigated after their collection and extraction process. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of this extract on bacteria were also measured.

Results: The MIC of hydro alcoholic extract of pennyroyal was above 400 mg/ml for both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Also the MBC has been reported 400 and 500 mg/dL, respectively. The MIC of cinnamon extract for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were reported 250 and higher and 500 and higher, respectively. Also, the MBC was reported 500 and 600 mg/ml, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae was resistant to rhubarb plant extract, and the MIC and the MBC for Staphylococcus aureus were reported 200 mg/ml and higher and 400 mg/ml and higher, respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the hydro alcoholic extract of cinnamon, pennyroyal and rhubarb has anti bacterial effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Potential of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Caesalpinia benthamiana (Caesalpinaceae) Root on Some Organisms Implicated in Oral Infections

Felix Oluwasola Olorunmola, Oladokun Layiwola Oladeji, Ayodeji Oluwabunmi Oriola, Simeon Kolawole Adesina

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i630219

This study investigated the activities of ethanol root extract of Caesalpinia benthamiana (Baill) Herend. and Zarucchi. (Caesalpiniaceae) against some microbial isolates implicated in oral infections and determined the killing rate of the most active fraction. It also investigated the phytochemical properties of the root extract. This was with a view to providing scientific basis for the use of the root in the treatment of oral infections.

The plant root was collected from the wild, washed, air-dried, ground to powder and macerated using ethanol and water at ratio 7:3 (v/v) with constant shaking for 72 hours in a mechanical shaker.  The filtrate was concentrated in-vacuo at 50°C using a rotary evaporator and freeze dried.  The crude extract was screened for phytochemical and antimicrobial properties. The extract was further partitioned into fractions using different organic solvents in order of their polarity. The antimicrobial potential of the different fractions was determined using agar-well diffusion and agar dilution method respectively.  Time-kill-assay of the most active fraction was carried out on each of the organisms namely, Staphylococcus aureus (NCIB 8588) clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, S. pyogenes, S. salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The values obtained were subjected to inferential statistical analysis.

Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, saponins, phenolics and phenolic glycosides and anthraquinones. The root extract showed appreciable activity against all the test organisms, with the ethyl acetate fraction demonstrating highest activity and lowest MIC (0.16 mg/mL) compared with the crude extract and the other fractions. The activity was also time and concentration dependent. At triple the MIC all cells of respective organisms were killed at 5 minutes as was the case with all the standard antibiotics and anti-fungi used as positive control. 

It was concluded that C. benthamiana ethanol root extract was highly active against oral isolates with its ethyl acetate fraction being the most effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation on Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Mersad Amery, Saeed Yazdani Ashtiani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i630221

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic and sometimes disabling functional disorder of the gastrointestinal system and its treatment remains as health problem. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the Effect of multispecies probiotic supplementation, as a novel and Controversial therapeutic method on Irritable bowel syndrome.

Materials and Methods: In this randomized double blind Placebo-controlled clinical trial, 60 patients with IBS were enrolled. The patients were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in intervention group received two 500 mg probiotic capsules (Familact®) and in control group, received two 500 mg placebo capsules daily for 30 consecutive days. The symptoms and quality of life were measured and compared at the beginning and just after the end of study for each case.

Results: Results showed the mean score of Abdominal pain after 1 month of treatment in the probiotic group was significantly lower than the control group (1.76 ± 2.04 vs. 2.88 ± 2.25, P=0.049, respectively). While, other symptoms and quality of life did not change significantly (P>0.05). Furthermore, defecation habit and global symptoms improvement was similar after intervention in both groups and we did not observe significant differences in these items (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed the beneficial effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation in controlling IBS patients’ abdominal pain. thus it can be prescribed as a therapeutic option in addition to standard therapy and significantly lead to better control of this symptom in the short term.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Incidence of Complications and Their Causes after Stapedotomy in Patients with Otosclerosis

Mohamad Mohseni, Ahmad Daneshi, Ali Mohamad Asghari, Saleh Mohebi, Sara Moradi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i630222

Introduction: In order to treat the symptoms of otosclerosis, various surgical and medical treatments are suggested. Surgical treatments are the choice. This study aimed to determine the incidence of vertigo and its cause in Iran, and the present study focused on this issue.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study carried out on patients with otosclerosis undergoing stapedotomy referred to Rasoul Akram hospital, Tehran during 2017-18. The patients aged below 18 or those who had a history of vertigo were excluded. Diapasonic and audiometric tests were carried out. The follow-ups included the time of admission (the day after surgery) for the presence of vertigo using visual analogue scale and diapasonic tests, one week after surgery using visual analogue scale and diapasonic tests, and one month after surgery using visual analogue scale and audiometry. The data were imported to SPSS v.22 software and analyzed.

Results: The surgical complications that occurred after stapedotomy for patients in this center were as follows: 12.1%of subjects had vertigo one day after surgery, 8.6% had vertigo one week later, and 1.7% had vertigo one month later, thus, the frequency of vertigo was reduced overtime. Meanwhile, 91.4% of the patients had a better sense of hearing and only 1.7% suffered from tympanic membrane perforation. In 8.6% of subjects, there was a disturbance in the taste. Tinnitus was only observed in 5.2% of the surgical patients in this center. Among women, vertigo was higher one day and one week after surgery. Logistic regression showed that age is significant predictor of dizziness one day after surgery (OR: 1.37, P=0.03).

Conclusion: According to the results, the frequency of vertigo was decreased overtime. In this study, it was found that the complications of stapedotomy surgery were less than other surgical methods, but those who were older had significantly higher vertigo a week and one day after surgery indicating effective role of age on postoperative complications. Those who underwent surgery by tympanomeatal method had a better vertigo one day and one week after surgery.

Open Access Review Article

The Medicinal Role of Centella asiatica and Its Applications in the Dahi: A Research Review

Rajni Kant, Prem Prakash Srivastav, Ashis Kumar Datta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i630220

Thankuni, scientifically known as Centella asiatica is a ground creeper and whole plant is used for medicinal purpose. The leaf juice is used as a good health tonic and also gives relief from hypertension, CNS and gastrointestinal diseases. Thankuni extract is incorporated with dahi to improve the medicinal value. These properties have been ascribing to the active principles viz., Asiatic acid, Asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and madecassocide. These are pentacyclic triterpenes, found to display venous insufficiency, various vein and wound healing properties.