Open Access Original Research Article

The Comparison of the Effect of Repetitive Doses of Succinylcholine and Thiopental Sodium on the Duration and Severity of Seizure in Electro Convulsive Therapy: Randomized Clinical Trial

Farhad Nanaei, Hadi Bahrami, Aziz Kassani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i530213

Background and Aim: Regarding the controversial results on the effects of anesthetics, especially thiopental sodium, on the duration and severity of seizure and the lack of adequate information on the use of doses of anesthetic and paralysing drugs during ECT, this study was designed to determine the effect of repetitive doses of succinylcholine and Thiopental sodium was administered on the duration and severity of seizure during ECT.

Materials and Methods: The present study was a one-blind randomized clinical trial on patients admitted to the psychiatric ward of Dezful Ganjavian Hospital. The research samples were selected after informed consent and entry criteria. Then, the samples were randomly assigned to two groups. In one group, succinylcholine dose was repeated (one third of the initial dose), and in the other group, the dose of thiopental sodium was repeated (one third of the initial dose). In all patients, seizure duration based on EEG monitoring and severity of seizure was determined by the psychiatrist based on the symptoms of the patient during seizure.

Results: There was a significant difference between the quality of seizure in the two treatment groups after the intervention. There was a strong and good seizure in the thiopental sodium group (p <0.0001). There was a significant difference between the variables of seizure status in comparison with the previous shock in the two treatment groups after the intervention (p <0.0001). The duration of seizure was higher in thiopental sodium treatment group, but no significant difference was observed (p = 0.82).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the duration and quality of seizure was better in patients requiring repetitive doses of hypnotic drugs (Thiopental Sodium), which was used to repeat the dose of muscle relaxant (succinylcholine).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors on the Development of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Imam Khomeini Hospital's, Ahvaz, Iran Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Masoud Dehdashtian, Mostafa Feghhi, Mohammad Reza Aramesh, Arash Malakian, Mohammad Reza Abbaspour, Seyed Mohammad Hassan Altayeb, Ali Khosrevi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i530214

Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) affects premature infants, and it is characterized by the development of vascular proliferation due to hyperoxia, down regulation of Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and death of endothelial cells. We hypothesized that inhibition of Phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme suppresses retinal vasoconstriction and prevent ROP.

Study Design: 109 newborns with respiratory distress syndrome treated with oxygen with early gestational age (GA) ≤30 weeks and birth weight (BW) ≤1500 g were randomized into two groups, 52 patients in sildenafil and 50 patients in placebo group were studied, Group sildenafil (as case group) and placebo Group (as control group), sildenafil was administered via nasogastric tube. Occurrence of ROP phase 1 as primary outcome and stage 2-5 ROP, duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy and duration of hospitalization as secondary outcomes were assessed.

Results: There was no differences between the two group in demographic characteristics. ROP phase 1 was seen in 11(22%) and 7(14%) of placebo and interventional group, respectively. Stage 3 ROP was not seen in any of the patients.

Conclusion: Sildenafil therapy did not affect ROP development in premature infants treated with oxygen. May be due to our exclusion criteria (BW less than 1000g) and this fact that there is a high incidence of ROP in extremely low birth weight neonates, we didn’t find any significant difference. More studies with larger population and expanded criteria are needed to find the effect of sildenafil on ROP.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Spiritual Health and Spiritual Intelligence of Midwives and Midwifery Students and Satisfaction of Clients with Vaginal Childbirth

Zahra Ghalaychi, Mahrohk Dolatian, Zohreh Mahmoodi, Nasrin Boromandnia, Rohollah Valizadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i530215

Background: Maternity is one of the most important events in women's lives, and satisfaction with it has a significant impact on the health of women and their relationship with their neonates. On the other hand, characteristics of midwives such as health and spiritual intelligence can affect the satisfaction of women.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the correlation between spiritual health and intelligence of the staff and midwifery students and the satisfaction of the patients with vaginal childbirth.

Methods and Materials: This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on 200 subjects including midwives and patients with vaginal childbirth. Stratified sampling was used as the sampling technique. Research instruments were a demographic questionnaire, Ellison’s and Paluotzian Spiritual Health Questionnaire, and King Spiritual Intelligence Questionnaire for the personnel and midwifery students, Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale, and a demographic questionnaire for patients. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 24, Pearson correlation and linear regression. A P value less than of 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: In this study, half of mothers were younger than 26 years of age and most of them were nulliparous with wanted pregnancy. Furthermore, half of personnel and students had moderate spiritual intelligence and about half had moderate spiritual health. The satisfaction of the patients had a positive correlation with spiritual health and spiritual intelligence. The lowest score was related to the flexibility component and the highest score was related to the component of stress tolerance.

Conclusion: Since the health and spiritual intelligence correlate with the satisfaction of patients with vaginal childbirth, it is suggested that spiritual characteristics be taken into account as a part of the selection process for midwifery students and staff.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) on Growth of Candida albicans

Reza Ghaffaripour, Mahtab Samsamipour, Zahra Eslamifar, Mostafa Madmoli

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i530216

Introduction and Aim: Candida albicans is the most common and pathogenic species of Candida genus, known to be the fourth most common cause of blood infections. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Olive leaf on growth of this yeast in vitro.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, fresh Olive leaf were collected from its natural habitat in Gotvand city and after washing the leaves were dried in a sterile environment. After verifying the plant species and receiving the herbarium code, the leaf of the plant was completely ground and the 80% hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was prepared by maceration method. Serial dilutions of extract were then prepared in RPMI 1640 medium from 256 to 1 mg/mL. Afterwards, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of this extract for fungus was achieved after 48 hours exposure of the extract to the yeast Suspension using micro broth dilution method and re-culturing on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium and colony counting.

Results: After counting the yeast colonies grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar and performing one-way ANOVA statistical analysis at the significance level less than 0.05, Although all concentrations of equal to or greater than 4 mg / mL of extract had a significant difference from positive control colonies count, according to the concepts of MIC and MFC, concentrations of 8 and 32 mg / mL were considered as them, respectively.

Conclusion: Olive seems to be a proper complementary drug in the treatment of Candida albicans. Needless to say, this requires extensive pharmacological studies and the evaluation of the possible toxicity of the derivatives and compounds of this plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship of New Isatin Analogues for Design New Compounds as Anti-breast Cancer

Soghra Khabnadideh, Razieh Sabet, Hasti Pour Naghz, Masoumeh Divar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i530217

Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of related death in woman across the world. Nowadays, there are many effective chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of breast cancer, however due to the high side effects of these drugs, there is still an urgent need to develop new drugs for battle the disease. Computational chemistry is unique method in drug discovery which reduce cost. In this study 105 molecules were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis to find the structure requirements for ligand binding. Then their structures were drowning in Hyperchem and also optimized, the structural invariants used in this study were those obtained from whole molecular structures: by both hyperchem and dragon. Four chemometrics method including MLR, FA-MLR, PCR and GA-PLS were employed to make connection between structural parameters and cytotoxic effects. GA-PLS showed Chemical, Topological, Randic molecular, Charge, 3D-Morse, Functional, Atom-centeredindices to be the most significant parameters on cytotoxic activity. The result of FA-MLR analysis revealed the effects of Chemical, Atom-centered, Galvez and Functional on the cytotoxic activity too. A comparison between the different statistical methods employed indicated that GA-PLS represented superior results and it could explain and predict 72% and 80% variances in the PIC50 data, respectively.