Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Performance Regarding Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Southwest of Iran

Atefe Khanpaye, Ahmad Abdoullahi, Banafsheh Riahipour, Maede Mohebifar, Razie Mahmoodi, Shokofe Shirmardi, Mostafa Madmoli

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i430207

Background and Aim: It seems that measuring the level of knowledge and attitude towards gestational diabetes mellitus is essential. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and performance of gestational diabetes among women referring to health centers Masjed-Soleyman in 2018.

Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 142 women referred to health centers in Masjed-Soleyman in Iran were evaluated by convenience sampling method. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire entitled "Assessing the level of knowledge, attitude and performance of mothers from gestational diabetes mellitus". Data analysis with spss-20 software using T-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient was done.

Results: In this study, 142 women with an average age of 38.88 ± 16.91 were studied. Of these, 47.9% were diploma, 31.7% higher than diploma and 20.4% were illiterate. The mean score of knowledge, attitude and performance of these individuals were 19.14 ± 8.94, 20.77 ± 5.71, and 8. 21. ± 3.21 that indicating good knowledge and performance and average attitude about gestational diabetes. Female employees had significantly higher knowledge, attitude and performance than others (p <0.05), But there was no significant relationship between the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice, number of abortions, education, gestational age and information source (p <0.05).

Conclusion: The results showed that knowledge, attitude and performance in these people are at an acceptable level, but not yet ideal. It is suggested that online education programs should be developed for pregnant women with a special focus on gestational diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Honey Saffron Syrup on Labor Progression in Nulliparous Women

Sheno Ghaderi, Farzaneh Zaheri, Bijan Nouri, Roonak Shahoei

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i430208

Background: Labor duration is one of the factors affecting the pregnancy outcome. Objective of the present study is to determine the effect of honey saffron syrup on the labor progression in nulliparous women.

Methods: The nulliparous women with inclusion criteria were randomly divided into three equal groups. For first group, the saffron syrup prepared with honey and for second group, saffron syrup prepared with sugar and in the control group the placebo were orally administered every two hours. Collected data were analyzed using Fisher’s test, ANOVA with Fisher’s post hos test and Repeated measure statistical method with p <0.05 as significant.

Results: The mean of labor duration in the two intervention groups was significantly shorter than the control group (p=0.000). The duration of the first stage of labor in the honey saffron syrup group was significantly shorter than the sugar saffron syrup group (p=0.016).

Conclusion: Administration of saffron syrup with honey shortened the time of first, second and third stage of labor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Group Counseling on the Identity Crisis of Middle-aged Women as Health Promotion Behavior

Marzieh Ebrahimi, Samira Barjasteh, Nasim Tolooyi Kashtiban

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i430209

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of group counseling on the identity crisis of middle-aged women referred to outskirt health centers of Urmia, Iran in 2018.

Methods: This randomized, pre-test and post-test control study was conducted on 90 middle-aged women registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT). A researcher visited selected health centers of Urmia randomly divided into three groups according to their social, economic and cultural status (26 health centers at high level, 19 health centers at average level, and 20 health centers at low level). The subjects were those who referred to the family health unit for receiving health care. The demographic characteristics questionnaire (such as age, marital status, number of children, educational level, body mass index, employment status and economic situation, which was designed by the researcher), and middle aged Identity Crisis Questionnaire (ICQ) including aimlessness, futility, hopelessness, lack of self-confidence, worthlessness, dissatisfaction with life, anxiety, sadness, aggression and anger subscales. The intervention (counseling group) was conducted for six weeks held weekly and each session for 60-90 minutes. Independent t-test, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were performed and analyzed through SPSS software. A P value less than of 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Mean age of women in the intervention group (50. 93 ± 5.38 years) and in the control group (50.55 ± 6.23 years) was 50 years. Also, in the intervention and control groups, the mean number of children was 2.43 ± 1.47 and 2.44 ± 1.49, respectively. In this study, the two groups were homogeneous regarding BMI, education level, husband's education level, economic status, marital status, occupation and dwelling situation (P> 0.05). Mean score of identity crisis and its ten dimensions before and after the intervention in the two groups were significantly different (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in any of the dimensions of identity crisis in the control group (P>0.05).

Conclusion: According to the results, the use of group counseling intervention has been able to improve the identity crisis of middle-aged women in the most dimensions of identity crisis including aimlessness, futility, hopelessness, lack of self-confidence, worthless, dissatisfaction with life and anxiety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Factors Affecting the First Birth in the Family's' Fertility in Hamedan Province

Alireza Soltanian, Saeedeh Davar, Maasoumeh Mahdi Akhgar, Hussein Mahjub, Manoochehr Karami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i430210

Background: The role of fertility as the most important determinant of demographic fluctuations has given more importance to its studies compared with other demographic phenomena. In this context, different indexes are used to measure fertility patterns where the index of the first birth after marriage has received much attention.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional (descriptive-analytic) study in which the fertility data of women are converted into a fictitious cohort and investigated. In this study, married woman in the age group of 15 to 49 years in 500 families in Hamedan were selected. In this study, a researcher-made questionnaire was used that included information related to the number of live births (fertility) and factors related to it (i.e. date of marriage, age, the first pregnancy, number of unwanted pregnancies, average interval between children, and the use of contraceptives). Univariate and multivariate survival analysis was carried out for the interval between marriage and the first birth. In the univariate section, using Kaplan-Meir method and log-rank test, survival functions of the interval between the first births after marriage in different predictive variables were compared.

Result: Mean age of mothers at the first birth was 22.04±4.357 years and mean number of live births was 2.18±0.904. The first marriage age of women, parental education, women’s employment, the use of contraceptives, and the number of live births were at a significance level of 5%.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that parental education, women’s employment, and use of contraceptives play important roles in population growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Polyethylene Glycol Powder and Polyethylene Glycol 40% Syrup in Treatment of Chronic Idiopathic Constipation in Pediatrics

Karam-Ali Kasiri, Kiavash Fekri, Hojjat Rouhi-Boroujeni, Masoud Lotfizadeh, Nabiallah Asadpour, Hamid Mohammadi, Niloufar Kasiri, Fatemeh Deris, Sadra Ansaripour, Mostafa Madmoli

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i430211

Introduction: Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints in children that can lead to many complications. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of polyethylene glycol powder and polyethylene glycol 40% syrup to treat constipation.

Materials and Methods: This study was a nonrandomized semi-experimental clinical trial. The current study was conducted on 80 patients with constipation, referring to Imam Ali (PBUH) Clinic, Shahrekord randomly assigned to two groups of 40 each. Subjects were children under 15 years old with functional constipation selected by simple sampling since 2015. Group 1 was treated with polyethylene glycol powder and Group 2 was treated with polyethylene glycol 40% syrup for two months. During the treatment, the patients were examined five times with 2-week intervals and their symptoms consisting of defecation frequency, stool consistency, painful defecation, bloody defecation, and stool incontinence were registered in a checklist. Data were analyzed using SPSS24.

Results: The comparison of patients’ total status before and after intervention shows that two groups were assessed in the weak level in the polyethylene glycol powder group 28(0.70%) cases and syrup group 36(0.90%), while after intervention, polyethylene glycol powder group was assessed in the high level 35(87.5%) cases and syrup group 37(92%) cases and most of patients after intervention promoted from weak and intermediate level before intervention to High level.

Conclusion: The findings indicated similar efficacy and treatment response of the PEG powder and syrup. However, the PEG syrup can be used instead of its powder because of pleasant taste and ease of use.