Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Delayed Scanning of Photostimulable Phosphor Plates on Inter-proximal Caries Detection

Ehsan Tavakoli, Jale Shafiei Sabet, Mahjube Entezarghaem, Fatemeh Nadaf, Elahe Shafiei Rad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i230196

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different scan delays and different kVps on the diagnostic accuracy of inter-proximal caries detection in photostimulable phosphor plates (PSPs).

Materials and Methods: 45 non-cavitated extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed using the DIGORA® PSPs (Soredex Corporation, Helsinki, Finland). The plates were exposed at 60 kVp and 70 kVp were scanned immediately, 10 min, 30 min, 1h, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h after exposure. In between the exposure and the scan period, the plates were stored in light-tight boxes. The true presence of caries was determined by sectioning the teeth mesiodistally. The accuracy was expressed as the area under ROC curve (AZ). The AZs were compared using SPSS version17 software and repeated measurement test. Kappa was used to measure inter and intra observer agreement.

Results: There was no significant difference between caries detection AZs of the images that were scanned immediately and within 30 min after exposure at 60 kVp and 70 kVp (P >0.05). The immediately scanned AZ at 60 kVp was significantly higher than the AZs with 6 h, 24 h and 48 h scan delays (P <0.05). the immediately scanned AZ at 70Kvp was significantly higher than the AZs of 1 h, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h (P <0.05).

Conclusions: PSP scanning should not be delayed higher than 30 min in order to have an accurate proximal caries detection. Longer delays may cause loss of quality of images.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey on the Prevalence of Intravenous Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and H2-antagonists in Internal Medicine Ward

Ebrahim Fallahzade, Arian Aliabadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i230197

Background: Anti-acids drugs are commonly used for stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP). Some inpatients receiving acid suppression therapy without risk factors for nosocomial upper gastrointestinal bleeding and this inappropriate usage increase time, costs and avoidable side effects such as hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of stress ulcer prophylactic drugs use, the number of properly indicated administrations and prescription prevalence of intravenous use of proton pump inhibitors (PIPs) and H2-antagonists in preventing nosocomial gastrointestinal bleeding and pneumonia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 280 patients in two different time zone before and after implementing of guidelines for SUP usage on the medical service in January and March of 2014(pre-intervention period) and January and march of 2015 (post-intervention period). Indicated anti-acid therapy for stress ulcer prophylaxis was defined according to the 1999 American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) guidelines for the use of SUP. The Patient’s data such as kind of stress ulcer prophylaxis drug, ICU admission and the indication of prophylaxis pre and post-intervention were collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using the Pearson Chi-square test and unpaired t-test.

Results: There was no significant change in the administration of stress ulcer prophylaxis drugs in general, but anti-acid medications misused decreased from 63.6% to 55.2% after intervention.

Conclusion: The use of anti-acids without proper indication had 11.4% fall. The IV administration had a dramatic decrease as opposed to PO anti-acids use, which had a significant effect on hospital financial costs. In the end, there was no significant change detected in the total use of SUP (stress ulcer prophylaxis).

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Mindfulness, Death Anxiety and Defensive Mechanisms in Addicted and Nonaddicted People

Toba Pourmand

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i230199

The purpose of this study was to compare mental health, death anxiety and defense mechanisms in addicted and nonaddicted people. The research method is descriptive of comparative causal type. The statistical population of the study consisted of all addicts and nonaddicted people in Zahedan city. The sample consisted of 200 people (100 addicted men and 100 non-addicted men) who were volunteers for non-addicts who were volunteers. The tool used in this research was a questionnaire of 39 items of mind-consciousness [1], a questionnaire of 40 items of defense mechanisms [2], Templar death anxiety inventory (1970). The statistical method used in descriptive and inferential level was used to analyze the variance analysis of variables and independent t-test. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the components of mindfulness, such as action with mindfulness, lack of judgment, and observation in addicted and non addicted people, as the mean of action component with mindfulness and lack of judgment in lower addicted people From non-addicted And the average component of observation in addicts is higher than non-addict. Also, there is a meaningful difference in the concept of death anxiety in addicted and non-addicted people. The mean of death anxiety in addicted people is higher than non-addicted people. Also, the average of psychosocial defense mechanisms in addicted people is higher than non-addicts, and there is no difference in the mechanisms of growth and non-growth in addicted and non-addicted people.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on the Relationship between Quality of life and Happiness among Children and Adolescents under the Supervision of Welfare Organization of Ahwaz in 2017

Maryam Khormehr, Azam Honarmandpour, Mohammad Adineh, Azam Jahangirimehr, Elham Abdolahi Shahvali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i230201

Background: Childhood and adolescence is one of the most important, most sensitive and also most decisive periods of human life. Events during this period, for children and adolescents under the supervision of the welfare organisation, can lead to behavioural-cognitive and emotional problems and face the natural process of transition from this period with serious challenges. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between quality of life and happiness among children and adolescents under the supervision of welfare organisation of Ahwaz in 2015.

Methodology: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 75 children and adolescents aged 8-18, under the supervision of the welfare organisation, using the available sampling method. The data collection tool was a demographic information questionnaire, the Kidscreen quality of life and the Oxford happiness. The collected data were analysed using SPSS software version 20 and independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman and Chi-square tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The results showed that there was a significant and direct correlation between quality of life and happiness in children and adolescents under the supervision of the welfare (P <0.001 and r = 0.656). All aspects of the quality of life in the group who did not show happiness reported to be lower.

Conclusion: The quality of life of children and adolescents under the supervision of welfare is related to their happiness. The effect of the use of pharmaceutical supplements/drugs and its relationship with the happiness of children should be studied in future.

Open Access Review Article

Pregnant Women's Health Literacy Promotion Strategies: A Review

Parisa Farzi Karamolahi, Zahra Bostani Khalesi, Mryam Niknami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i230198

Background: Given the importance maternal health literacy (MHL) level in pregnancy outcome and maternal-child health, Investigating MHL promotion strategies is essential. To this end, the present study aimed to identify and report those interventions that conducted for improving MHL.

Methods: A scoping literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, Social Science Research Network, CINAHL, Psych INFO, Magiran, Iran Medex, Iran Doc, SID and Google Scholar. This review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram. Eligible studies were identified from English and Persian databases, published between 1990 and 2018. Studies were screened independently by two researchers who performed the data extraction.

Results: On the basis of the studies’s intervention technique, 2 major health themes emerged:

Group-based interventions (Antenatal classes, Small group teaching, The centering pregnancy model, Web-based discussion forums) and individual -based interventions (Counseling intervention, Web-based educations, The workbook and booklet, Multimedia approaches, Graphics-based tool, A theory-based training program).

Conclusion: This review provides insights into existing strategies for MHL promotion. Health policy leaders and health system planners, should support the uptake of these approaches into usual prenatal care.