Open Access Original Research Article

Potentiation of Cisplatin Activity in Colorectal Cancer Cells by Lovastatin

Sameer E. Alharthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i130191

Cisplatin (CIS) is an anticancer drugs used in the treatment of several solid tumors with nephrotoxicity as its main toxic effect. The current study was directed to assess the role of hypolipidemic drug (lovastatin) on sensitization of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT -116) to the action of CIS.

This study assessed the action of lovastatin on sensitization of colorectal cancer cells to cisplatin by examining cisplatin cytotoxicity, cisplatin cellular uptake and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in presence and absence of Lovastatin 10 and 30 ug/ml. Lovastatin treatment at dose level of 10 and 30 µg/ml potentiated the cytocidal effect of cisplatin against the growth of HCT-116 cells with IC50 7.3 and 5.4 µg/ml, respectively compare to 18 µg/ml after treatment with cisplatin alone.

Moreover, lovastatin increased the uptake of cisplatin into colorectal cancer cells with marked inhibition of P-glycoprotein pump.

On conclusion Lovastatin treatment increases the antiproliferative activity of cisplatin against the growth of colorectal cancer cells due to inhibition the activity P-glycoprotein pump with marked increase in its cellular uptake.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Methionine-based P-toluenesulphonamoyl Carboxamide Derivatives as Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Agents: Design, Synthesis and Molecular Docking

Melford Chuka Egbujor, Uchechukwu Chris Okoro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i130192

Aim: The reported emergence of drug resistant microbes and the prevalence of oxidative stress related diseases prompted the need for the development of new antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. The synthesis of methione-based sulphonamoyl carboxamides bearing aniline, pyridine and pyrimidine pharmacophores is reported.

Place and duration: Department of Industrial Chemistry, Renaissance University, Ugbawka, Enugu, 2018. 

Methodology: The p-toluenesulphonyl chloride reaction with methionine gave compound 3a which was acylated to afford compound 3b. Further chlorination and aminolysis of compound 3b gave the carboxamide (3c). Nickel catalysed reaction of the carboxamide with aryl/heteroaryl halides afforded compounds 3d-f in excellent yields. Characterization of compounds was done using H1-NMR, C13-NMR, FTIR and elemental analysis. Their antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and molecular docking were determined.

Results: Compounds 3a and 3e had the best antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 0.6 – 0.9mg/ml and the highest antioxidant percentage inhibition (93.53% and 93.28% at 200µg/ml respectively) comparable with ascorbic acid (96.83% at 200µg/ml) and also the best IC50 values of 1.031 and 1.051µg/ml.

The molecular docking study, revealed that compounds 3a (TPSA = 83.47 Å2) could permeate blood-brain barriers. Compound 3e (-11.14 kcal/mol) had a better in silico antibacterial activity than penicillin (-10.89 kcal/mol) while compound 3a (-14.90kcal/mol) had a better antioxidant activity than α-tocopherol (-14.82 kcal/mol).

Conclusion: All the synthesized compounds were confirmed to be likely drugs and potential antimicrobial and antioxidant, agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Work Environment Conditions and Its Effect on the Moral Sensitivity of Nurses Working in Health-Education Centers of Rasht

Samaneh Usef Shoeibi, Fariba Asgari Bezayeh, Mitra Sedghi Sabet, Atefeh Ghanbari Khanghah, Ehsan Kazemnezhad Leyli

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i130193

Introduction: The scope of nursing care is abundant in cases requiring moral decisions, and awareness of the underlying reasons for choosing a decision is an inseparable part of the daily work of nurses. On the other hand, work environment is also an important part of the organization environment which can affects both employees and their productivity.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and work environment conditions on nurses working in health-education centers of city of Rasht.

Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, 354 nurses were selected and investigated through stratified random sampling from seven health-education centers from Rasht in 2015. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of three sections; the first section included personal-social information, the second part included the lutzen's sensitivity questionnaire, and the third part included the severinsen work environment questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and descriptive statistics such as linear regression, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the data.

Results: The results of this study showed that nurses, in terms of moral sensitivity, were in a moderate position and their point views on the work environment conditions were in an inappropriate situation. Also, the work environment conditions including communication with the boss and colleagues, stress and work engagement had the highest relationship with moral sensitivity.

Conclusion: Considering that most of the individuals had an unfavorable work environment conditions were had a moderate moral sensitivity, more attention of managers to the relevant factors is necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of Subjective Skills of Physical Examination of Children by Nurses and Related Factors in Children's Therapeutic Education Center in Rasht, Iran

Seyedeh Soghra Mirhoseini, Yasaman Yaghoubi, Mahshid Mirzaei, Ehsan Kazamnajad Lili

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i130194

Background and Aim: Since mental skills of nurses are effective on the quality of their activities, this research was conducted with the aim of determining the mental skills of physical examinations of children by nurses and related agents at the Children's Medical Education Center in Rasht.

Methods: The current cross sectional study was performed on 127 female nurses working in pediatric wards of the 17th Shahrivar hospital in Rasht in 2018 by enumeration sampling method. A valid and reliable questionnaire comprised of two sections of demographic information and information for physical examination of children was used. Data were analyzed by SPSS software v.21. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The highest number of nurses (71.7%) had a moderate mental skills. There were a significant relationship between the mean of mental skills with the service ward (p <0.001), interest in the current service ward (p = 0.031), and the history of retraining related to health status assessment (p = 0.034). While, there were not a significant relationship between the mean of mental skills with age (p = 0.847), total score at graduation date (p = 0.052), marital status (p = 0.812), number of children (p = 0.501), educational status (p = 0.797), employment status (p = 0.505), classification of clinical experience (p = 0.644), classification of work experience in the current ward (p = 0.127), shift work (p = 0.443), the degree of interest in the current field and job (p = 0.439).

Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the nurses had moderate mental skills, which the mean of mental skills were related to the total score at the date of graduation, the name of the service ward, the level of interest in the current ward and the history of retraining related to health status assessment. Therefore, considering the factors affecting the mental skills, this skill can be increased, which should be considered in future researches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protecting Effect of Vitamin E against Chromosomal Damage Induced by an Extremely Low-frequency Electromagnetic Field in Murine Bone Marrow Erythrocytes

Elahe Vadaye Kheiry, Farhang Haddad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v28i130195

Living organisms including human are exposed to an electromagnetic field from natural and industrial sources. Genotoxic effects of electromagnetic fields have been reported by several studies. Vitamin E is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that plays an important role in maintaining the integrity and function of cell membranes, nervous system, and reproductive system, among others, by functioning as a defence against oxidative damage. In this research, the protective effects of vitamin E against the chromosomal damage induced by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELEM) on bone marrow erythrocytes of adult male BALB/c mouse have been studied. Adult male BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with vitamin E, with the dose of 200 mg/kg for 8 days and then exposed to ELEM with the intensity of 50Hz for 4 hours for 4 consecutive days. The mice were dissected and micronucleus assay was performed on the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of their bone marrow. Results show that ELEM could increase the chromosomal damage judged by the higher frequency of MN compared to control. Results also revealed that the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) had substantially decreased (p<0.00 1) in vitamin E- treated mice compared to untreated. Data suggest the protecting effect of vitamin E in bone marrow cells of Balb/C mice against the ELEM.