Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Bacterial Meningitis after Craniotomy in Shahid Bahonar Hospital of Kerman in 2016

Mehdi Ahmadinejad, Yalda Bilesteh, Maryam Ahmadipour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i530180

Objective: Postoperative infections of the central nervous system are common complications of neurological surgeries, which can lead to bad consequences for the patient and increase the cost of treatment. Incorrect diagnosis or treatment of meningitis after craniotomy can lead to irrecoverable disabilities. Therefore, this study tends to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of bacterial meningitis after craniotomy in Shahid Bahonar Hospital of Kerman.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional, analytical, descriptive study. The statistical population was 146 patients who underwent craniotomy in Shahid Bahonar Hospital of Kerman during 2016. To find out the relationship between each risk factor and meningitis, multivariate logistic regression was used. Data was analysed by SPSS software version 16. For comparison of percentages between two groups, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used. In order to compare quantitative variables between the two groups, independent t-test was used; if the data was nonparametric, U-Mann-Whitney test was used.

Results: Of 77 patients, who underwent elective surgery, 5 cases (6.5%) developed bacterial meningitis; of patents that underwent emergency surgery, 8 cases (11.6%) developed bacterial meningitis. Two of 43 female patients (4.7%) and 11 of 103 male patients (10.7%) developed bacterial meningitis of patients with underlying disease, 4 (5.6%) patients developed bacterial meningitis and 9 (12%) of other patients developed bacterial meningitis. There were 4 cases of cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Of 146 patients, 13 cases (8.9%) developed bacterial meningitis, of which 5 had positive bacterial CSF culture; one case of Acinetobacter baumannii, one case of Staphylococcus Epidermidis ,one case of Streptococcus pyogenes, one case of Staphylococcus aureus and one case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  were reported.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that prevalence of bacterial meningitis increases with the increase in the number of received blood units, the presence of associated infection, the increase in duration of stay in hospital and ICU, the increase in duration of mechanical ventilation and repeated craniotomy and lower GCS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthropometric Parameters in Asthmatic Children and the Relationship of Childhood Asthma with Height, Weight and Body Mass Index

Nasrin Bazargan, Shokouh Hamidifar, Ali Khalouei, Gholamreza Sedighi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i530181

Background: Asthma as a chronic disease may affect the growth process. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropometric indices in 2-18 years old children with asthma and compare them with the control group.

Patients and Methods: In a case-control study, 150 asthmatic children with age of 2-18 years as case group and 300 age- and sex-matched healthy children as control group were randomly included. The height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of both group measured by the standard method and Z score was calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS, chi-square and analysis of variance.

Results: Totally, 290 boys (64.4%) and 160 girls (35.6%) with mean age of 6.58±2.82 years were evaluated. Case group had significantly lower height compared to the healthy control group (117.00±0.17 cm vs. 121.00±0.15 cm respectively, P=0.025). No significant differences were detected in weight (23.13±9.75 kg vs. 24.62±10.36 kg, P=0.145) and BMI (16.32±3.10 kg/m2 vs. 16.28±3.16 kg/m2, P=0.900) between case and control groups, respectively. There were no significant relationships between normal and abnormal Z scores of height, weight and BMI in case and control group (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Despite 4 cm difference between the age of two groups, no differences in height, weight ad BMI between two groups may be due to good control of the disease in the case group or lack of significant growth related effect of asthma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Emergency Nurses’ Knowledge and Performance about Hospital Triage

Asghar Sherafat, Ali Akbar Vaezi, Mohammadreza Vafaeenasab, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Hossein Tavangar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i530182

Background and Objectives: By knowing the level of knowledge of triage nurses, we will be capable of making the right decision about allocating suitable resources for enriching the quality of the emergency department. So, the objective of our study is to evaluate triage knowledge and performance of emergency nurses in Yazd province of Iran.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The sampling was performed from all nurses responsible for triage in emergency departments of 8 educational hospitals of Yazd University of Medical Sciences were included for our sampling in the study. Data collection was done using a questionnaire whose validity and reliability have already been approved. After evaluating all the questionnaires, 84 of them were completed, and others were excluded from the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using the SPSS version 22 software.

Results: According to statistical analysis results, there was no significant relationship between the knowledge score, performance and total score with demographic characteristics. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between educational courses, work experience and work shift with knowledge, performance and total score. Although female nurses’ scores in knowledge and performance areas was higher than male scores, the differences were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The level of knowledge of the nurses employed in the emergency departments of Shahid Sadoughi University of medical sciences in Yazd is moderate in terms of triage. However, the performance of nurses working in the emergency departments of the aforementioned centers is higher than average. It is concluded that there is an immediate need to reconsider nurses triage education and improve the triage knowledge and performance among nurses.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Association between Placental Location in the First Trimester and Fetal Sex

Fariba Mirbolouk, Maryam Mohammadi, Ehsan Kazemnejad Leili, Seyedeh Fatemeh Dalil Heirati

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i530183

Background: Because advance knowledge of fetal sex can satisfy parental curiosity and allay anxiety, attempts at its determination prior to birth have a long history. There may also be reason to determine fetal sex when sex-specific genetic disorders are suspected. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational sac (GS) location and fetal sex.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 751 pregnant women. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed during 7-8 weeks of gestation for prenatal care and assessment of pregnancy sac and GS location. Age, parity, gravidity and GS location were recorded. Abdominal ultrasound was performed at 16-20 weeks of gestation to determine fetal health and sex and finally data was analyzed and compared to sex of the fetus after birth using SPSS software version 21.

Results: There was a significant relationship between GS location and fetal sex (P<0.0001). However, pregnancy outcomes (male or female) and GS location (anterior or posterior) were not significant correlated (P= 0.290). There was, on the other hand, a significant relationship between outcomes and GS location (right or left) (P<0.0001).

Conclusion: Maybe GS location could be considered as a helpful method for earlier fetal sex determination.

Open Access Original Research Article

QSAR and Docking Study of Isatin Analogues as Cytotoxic Agents

Razieh Sabet, Soghra Khabnadideh, Dara Fathi, Leila Emami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i530184

Computational chemistry is a unique method in the drug discovery process?? Explain Why?. In this study 109 molecules containing the isatin backbone were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis to find the structure requirements for ligand binding. The structures were sketched and optimized in Hyperchem. The structural invariants used in this study were those obtained from whole molecular structures: by both hyperchem and dragon software (16 types of descriptors). Four chemometrics methods including MLR, FA-MLR, PCR and GA-PLS were employed to make connections between structural parameters and anticancer effects. MLR models revealed the effects of constitutional, functional, geometrical, WHIM and GETAWAY descriptors having higher impact on anticancer activity of the compounds. GA-PLS showed functional, constitutional and chemical descriptor indices to be the most significant parameters on anticancer activity. Moreover, the result of FA-MLR analysis revealed the effects of functional descriptors on the anticancer activity. A comparison between the different statistical methods employed and the results indicated that GA-PLS represented superior results and could explain and predict 81% and 78% variances in the PIC50 data, respectively. Docking studies of these compounds were also investigated and promising results were obtained showing that some compounds were introduced as a good candidate for cancer agents.