Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Study and Antidepressant Effect of Essential Oil of Apium graveolens L.

Mehrdad Shahrani, Najmeh Asgharzadeh, Hossein Amini- Khoei, Zahra Mirzaeian, Ali Ahmadi, Zahra Lori Goeini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i430179

Background and Purpose: Depression is a common and debilitating disease.The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of Apium graveolens essential oil and its anti-depressant effect in mice and the effect on motor balance, serum and brain antioxidant capacity.

Materials and Methods: 60 mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (N=10), Control, reserpine 5 mg/kg IP, reserpine + fluoxetine 20mg/kg, reserpine + essential oil (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg). The intervention group received 5 mg/kg reserpine and 18 hours later, essential oil (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg). Assessment of depression done with forced swimming and open field tests and motor balance with a Rotarod. Serum and brain antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde levels were measured.

Results: Reserpin increased the immobilization time in the forced swimming test, the number of motor units in the open field test, serum and brain malondialdehyde and reduced the antioxidant capacity and the motor balance. Fluoxetine and essential oil of Apium graveolens 50 and 75 mg/kg reduced the time of immobilization time, number of motor units, serum and brain malondialdehyde and increased serum and brain antioxidant capacity and motor balance. Apium graveolens essential oil 100 mg/kg increased serum antioxidant capacity and reduced number of motor units.

Conclusion: Chemical compounds of essential oil of Apium graveolens have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and regulating of chemical neurotransmitters properties that are known mechanisms of depression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Forgiveness Skill on Worry and Hopelessness in Women Victims of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

Shahrbanoo Ghahari, Neda Naeimi, Zahra Azemnia, Mohammad Mazloumirad, Susan Salari, Nadia Ghorbanzadeh Piraghon, Mahro Asadollahinia, Abouzar Nouri Talemi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i430175

Sexual abuse is a major health problem and trauma if encountered in childhood. This study was conducted about the Effectiveness, Forgiveness skill on worry and hopelessness in Women Victims of sexual abuse in childhood.

This is a semi-experimental study with pretest-posttest as well as control and test groups. 30 depressed women who reported a sexual abuse by relative and referred to several psychological clinics in Tehran in 2017 were studied. Studied sample consisted of 30 women who were selected randomly (how the author has used random sampling) (the author should have used purposive sampling rather than random) and signed into two 15-member experimental and control groups. Sample members of test group were under intervention individually within 12 sessions with forgiveness approach and control group members were remained in waiting list. Both of groups filled out worry and hopelessness scale   in baseline and after intervention. The data were analyzed using covariance analysis through IBM SPSS 22.0 software.

Results obtained from study indicate difference between worry and hopelessness level of women victims of sexual abuse in control and experimental groups after forgiveness training.

Forgiveness skill is effective in reducing worry and hopelessness in women victims of sexual abuse in childhood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of 50% Trichloroacetic Acid Solution with 10% Potassium Hydroxide Solution in the Treatment of Plane Warts

Reza Yaghoobi, Nader Pazyar, Bahareh Maleki

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i430178

Background: Warts are very common disorders. Plane warts are caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) occurring mostly in children and young adults. Among the treatment modalities, topical application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is age old. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) has a keratolytic effect on virus-infected cells.

Aims: To compare the safety and efficacy of topical 10% KOH solution with 50% TCA solution in the treatment of plane warts.

Materials and Methods: Sixty-four consecutive patients with plane warts were randomly assigned into two groups of thirty-two patients. Group A received 10% KOH solution and group B received 50% TCA solution once weekly until the complete clearance of warts in a maximum period of 12 weeks.

Results: In group under treatment with 10% KOH, 24 patients (75.0%) complete response, 5 patients (15.6%) moderate response, 2 patients (6.3%) mild response, and 1 patient (3.1%) had no response. In group under treatment with 50% TCA, 28 patients (87.5%) showed complete response, 2 patients (6.3%) moderate response, 2 patients (6.3%) mild response. Statistically no significant difference was found between the therapeutic response to 10% KOH and 50% TCA (P=0.41).

Conclusion: 10% KOH was found to be equally effective in the treatment of plane warts compared to 50% TCA with the advantage of fewer side effects.

Open Access Review Article

Low Back Pain Treatments in Traditional Iranian Medicine

Valiollah Gerayeli Malek, Soraya Parvari, Alireza Abbassian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i430174

Back pain and back problems are one of the most common causes for referring patients to health care specialists that have a large economic cost. Therefore, it is considered necessary to find effective treatment for these patients. For the treatment of back pain, various methods as complementary and alternative medicine and industrial drugs are used; that the efficiency of these medicine methods for treatment of back pain is not without dispute. From a variety of traditional methods for treatment of back pain can be cited: the use of medicinal herbs for example: Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceous), Chamomile (Family: Asteraceae), Rosemary (Family: Peppermint), Ginger (Family: Zingiberaceae), Colchicum (Family: Colchicaceae), Curcuma (Family: Zingiberaceae), and use of Medicinal Methods for example: cupping/hijamat, leech therapy, bloodletting, and gams; therefore, this review was conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods which used in traditional remedies for the betterment of back pain.

Open Access Review Article

The Management of Zygomatic Complex Fractures: A Review

Abbas Karimi, Ehsan Shoohanizad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i430176

The face symmetry has prominent role in the human body after injuries and accident. The zygomatic region is important factor in the injuries face. Due to its location, its fracture is the 2nd frequent fractured bone of mid-facial. Zygomatic bone fractures are more abundant in young males and its incidence and etiology is different based on location. Post-traumatic facial deformity is the most incorrect reconstruction of the facial skeleton. Inadequate healing of the supported soft tissues lead to malposition of landmarks, shrinkage and thickening. The zygomatic bone fracture and coronoid process impingement lead to restricted mouth opening. Interruption in zygomatic position has psychological, aesthetic and functional effects which impairs the function of mandible and ocular tissue. Therefore, diagnose and properly management of the zygomatic bone injury is important. Healing displaced fragments of zygomatic bone after inadequate fixation and reduction of fracture consequences facial asymmetry. There is a lack of information about evaluation of benefits and costs of different zmc fracture methods. So, this literature review was done to characterize the etiology, incidence, clinical findings and results of different treatment trends of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures. Surgeons have been utilized numerous approaches, but there are different ideas for the best one.