Open Access Short Research Article

Pharmacy Students’ Perception and Evaluation of Objective Structured Clinical Examination: Near East University Experience

Bilgen Basgut, Abdikarim Mohamed Abdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i230162

Background: Pharmacy educators have always been desirous of the best methods for formative and summative evaluation of trainees. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is an approach for student assessment in which aspects of clinical competence are evaluated in a comprehensive, consistent, and structured manner. Though recently become popular in pharmacy schools globally, its use in North Cyprus and Turkey pharmacy schools appears limited.

Objectives: To assess pharmacy students’ evaluation and overall perception of OSCE.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pharmacy students, who participated in the final OSCE examination in 2015-2016.The study sample consisted of fifth-year Pharmacy students who took the OSCE assessment during their studies. A24-item self-administered structured questionnaire was employed to obtain relevant data on OSCE evaluation in terms of content reliability and structure of the examination. Students’ responses were based on a 4-point Likert scales ranging from disagree to no comment. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 22.

Results: Of 81 eligible students, 74 completed self- administered questionnaire representing 91.35% response rate. A total of 68(90.7%) students agreed that wide knowledge area and clinical skills were covered in the exam. Over 80% of the students saw that OSCE besides it provided them with an opportunity to learn real life scenario, it was well administered and run in the faculty and better organized compared to a previous pilot OSCE (68%). Around 77% of the students saw that 7 minutes time allocated per station was adequate, while a close percentage also agreed that standardized patients were competent in their role playing. Majority of students though they identify that OSCEs highlighted areas of weakness in their skills and knowledge but still disagree with incorporating OSCEs marks into final marks and thus prefer it as an formative assessment.

Conclusions: Students highly perceived the exam feeling that it is more resembles actual practice providing them with self-confidence, and more clearly their defects and what they need to improve regarding both skills and knowledge. They saw OSCEs as being a beneficial formative assessment that should not be included as marks into finals.

Open Access Minireview Article

Factors Contributing in Incidence and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome: Updated Mini Review

Ashgan Mohammed K. Al-Manzlawi, Khalid O. Abulnaja, Mazin A. Zamzami, Taha A. Kumosani, Qari M., Alaama Mohammed Nabil, Alaa Adel Aljehani, Suzan Nouri Alturki, Soonham S. Yaghmoor, Said S. Moselhy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i230167

It has been well-established that obesity is the major contributing factor forthe development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. According to WHO, 44% increase of diabetes, 23% increase of ischaemic heart disease, and between 7% and 41% increase of certain cancer are due to obesity. The Middle East region is reported to have the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults in the world. In Saudi Arabia, over 35% of the population are obese, and it is estimated that 24% of adult has diabetes including undiagnosed diabetes cases. Obesity and chronic metabolic disease associated obesity impose the heavy financial burden on national healthcare in the Gulf countries as they do in most countries worldwide. Biochemical markers for MetS included changes in trace elements, vitamin D,hormonal (adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin), inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10), biochemical markers (Ox-LDL,  uric acid) and prothrombic factors (PAI-1). Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary of four serine peptidase inhibitors that functions to modulate extracellular matrix remodeling and fibrinolysis. The link between PAI-1 and MetS has been established.  This review screening major factors and the association between PAI-1, trace elemnts, vitamin D, obesity hormone and expression of obesity genes for early prediction of MetS for control and management to prevent late complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of an Efficient Extraction Method for Separating Solasodine, an Steroidal Alkaloid, From an Oily Matrix: A Comparison Between LLE and SPE

Shahram Kalantari Khandani, Mitra Mehrabani, Fariba Sharififar, Abbas Pardakhty, Mostafa Pournamdari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i230163

Aims: In many references of Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), there are methods to produce medicinal products from plant fruit based on extraction of active substances into oils. One of these recommendations is to import cucurbit or pumpkin seed oil into an entirely ripe fruit of Solanum melongena plant. In this study for the first time, the extraction of solasodine from the oily matrix has been investigated to find a precise method with suitable extraction recovery.

Study Design:  Original Research Article.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in herbal and traditional medicines research center of Kerman, Iran from February 2015 to November 2017.

Methodology: Solasodine, an active steroidal alkaloid metabolite of the plant, was used for standardization of the product. Two methods of (Liquid-liquid extraction) LLE and (Solid phase extraction) SPE were evaluated and their conditions were optimized by assessment of seven effective factors at five levels using HPLC as the method of choice for solasodine determination.

Results: Results showed that LLE and SPE in optimized conditions had recoveries of about 76.5 and 94.7%, respectively. For the extraction of low concentrations of the analyte, the SPE method had better accuracies (88 to 105%), but its precision was less than that of LLE method. In contrast, the LLE method had a higher precision in the whole range while its relevant accuracy was lower. The LOD and LOQ of SPE-HPLC method were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/ml and those of the LLE-HPLC method were 0.2 and 0.7 μg/ml, respectively.

Conclusion: In general, both methods of LLE-HPLC and SPE-HPLC showed acceptable validation parameters including linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD, and LOQ; and they can be used for routine extraction and determination of solasodine in traditional medicine products.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Familiar Voices on the Level of Consciousness among Comatose Patients: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

Mohammad Kazem Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Yeganeh, Aida Mohammad Ebrahimzadeh, Zahra Atrkar Roshan, Mostafa Soodmand, Moluk Pouralizadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i230164

Background: Brain injury can reduce consciousness and the ability to respond to environmental stimulation.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of familiar voices on the level of consciousness (LOC) among comatose patients with a brain injury hospitalized in the intensive care unit.

Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, sixty comatose patients with head trauma were conveniently selected from an intensive care unit of a hospital in Rasht, Iran, and randomly allocated to either a control or an intervention group. Participants in the intervention group received auditory stimulation for three consecutive days and the level of consciousness was compared in two groups. The Glasgow Coma Scale was used to assess the patients’ level of consciousness. The data were analyzed through the Chi-square, the paired-samples t, student’s t test, and the repeated-measures analysis of variance. 

Results: A significant increase was found in the mean LOC in the intervention group after every daily auditory stimulation (P<0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in the control group (P>0.05). The repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that the time and interaction of time and groups were statistically significant (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Auditory stimulation with familiar voice was effective in improving levels of consciousness among comatose patients with a brain injury after three days.   

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (AED) on Serum Copper Level in Children with Epilepsy

Shamim-Ara-Sarkar ., Habibur Rahman, Israt Jahan, Md. Ranzu Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i230166

Background: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder in which brain activity becomes irregular, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness. Serum copper level may change due to long term use of antiepileptic drugs.

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the serum copper level in childhood epilepsy treated with long-term Anti-Epileptic Drug (AED).

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Paediatric Neurology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) during March to August’ 2013. Sample size was one hundred, among these fifty were case (epileptic child who had received  anti-epileptic drugs (Carbamazepine and/or Valproic acid) for more than three months) and rest fifty were control (newly diagnosed epileptic child, who yet not received antiepileptic drug).

Result: The mean copper level was 1.11±0.32 µg/ml in case group and 0.96±0.20 µg/ml in control group, which was statistically significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The use of one drug or multiple drugs in the treatment of epileptic patients may play significant role in increasing copper serum level.