Open Access Original Research Article

Modulation of Hormonal, Oxidative Stress and Fatty Acids Profiling in Response to Glutamine and Chromium in Diabetic Rats

Jehan A. Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i130156

Background: Fatty acids profiling of diabetes may be helpful in early diagnosis and management of diabetic. Chromium is a trace element and important cofactor for many anti-oxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase. Glutamine is semi essential amino acid and reported to improve endothelial function, decrease   blood pressure, and vasodilator. This study investigated fatty acids profiling in diabetic rats and their response to administration of glutamine and chromium.

Methods: Fifty male albino rats were divided into 2 groups as following: GPI (10 rats); Control group. GP II (40 rats) were injected alloxan (75 mg /kg) i.p. for six consecutive days for induction of diabetes. Diabetic rats were divided into four groups: GP II: (Untreated diabetic): GP III: Rats were given orally with L-glutamine (100 mg/kg).GP IV: Rats were given with Chromium chloride (30 µg/ kg) ip. GP IV: Rats were given Glutamine and Chromium. After 6 weeks. Sera were used for the determination of Nitric oxide (NO), malondialdhyde (MDA), total antioxidants, insulin, glucagon, HA1C and fatty acids profile.

Results: Data obtained showed that, diabetic rats treated with glutamine and chromium restore the levels of hormones, HA1C, NO and MDA better than individual treatment (p<0.01) compared with untreated diabetic (p<0.001). A significant elevation of saturated fatty acids in diabetic and reduced unsaturated FA compared with control. Combination treatment reversed this ratio. This may explain increased insulin sensitivity in treated rats compared with untreated.

Conclusion: It was concluded that, Glutamine combined with chromium increased insulin sensitivity and recovery pancreatic efficacy in insulin production. Administration of glutamine or chromium reduced HA1c, the mechanisms involved explored the potential of these compounds in control fatty acids contents and management of diabetic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey the Effect of Educational Program Based on Precaution Adoption Process Model on Screening Cervical Cancer Behaviors among Rural Women, Mixed Method Development

Afshin Bahmani, Nasrin Bahmani, Behnaz Enjezab, Hossein Baghianimoghadam, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i130158

Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is considered as a preventable cancer in women. Pap smear test is an effective screening program for diagnosing cervical cancer, but for some reasons its use is low. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the women's participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model and effect of educational program based on model on doing the Pap test with a Mixed Method approach.

Materials and Methods: This study was a Mixed Method approach. Thirty women voluntarily participated in this study in sarvabad city of Iran. The sampling began purposefully and continued until saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Quantitative study was conducted implementing a quasi-experimental method. Participants were divided into two groups as experimental and control groups using Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) among 180 rural females in Sarvabad. In treating the experimental group, the methods of lecturing with question and answer, playing videos, specialized consulting and pamphlet were used. The questionnaire including a demographic characteristic and variables that affecting the stages of the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM). Data analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney, chi-square and descriptive statistical methods. P <0.05 was considered as the significance level.

Results: In qualitative study Model-based themes included, awareness, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, social norms. Women`s awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear test is not enough, but, they perceived the severity of the disease. In quantitative study in comparison of the means of the scores of psychological variables affecting the decision process in Pap smear test, there was a significant relationship between the experimental and control groups based on Mann-Whitney test and control groups based on variables, perceived susceptibility, awareness and social norms. But the perceived severity was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Findings of this study will help health managers and health planners to plan and train ways to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Characterization of Liposome-Enriched Ketoprofen Liposomal Hydrogels

Muhammad Wahab Amjad, Maria Abdul Ghafoor Raja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i130159

The purpose of this study was to develop liposome-enriched Ketoprofen liposomal hydrogels and carry out in vitro release profile experiment. The aim was to achieve sustained topical drug delivery for extended time interval from liposomal gels. Phosphatidylcholine, Cholesterol and Ketoprofen were dissolved in chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) mixture and subsequently transferred to a flask attached to rotavapor. The liposomes were assessed for particle size and percent drug entrapment. F-7 and F-8 batches were found to be optimized batches having optimum sizes, drug entrapment efficiencies and cumulative drug releases. F-8 batch was further evaluated for stability. The results show that the prepared liposomes of Ketoprofen might turn out to be potential candidates for effective and safe sustained drug delivery thereby resulting in the reduction of dosing frequency.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Knowledge of Nurses about Evidence-based Guideline in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

Mohammad Reza Yeganeh, Zahra Farhang Bagheri, Tahereh Khaleghdoost Mohammadi, Zahra Atrkar Roshan, Moluk Pouralizadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i130160

Introduction: Stroke is the most common cerebrovascular disease and the third most common cause of disability in the world. The study aimed to assess the knowledge of nurses in emergency departments based on evidence-based care guidelines in the acute phase of ischemic stroke.

Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 129 nurses working in emergency departments of 16 hospitals of Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2017. Samples were selected randomly. The study tool was a questionnaire with 10 multiple choice questions about the care of acute phase of ischemic stroke patients. Data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 21 using descriptive tests, ANOVA, T-test, Chi-square.

Results: The mean of the participants’ knowledge about acute phase of ischemic stroke care was 40.07 ± 16.46. The highest response rate was related to the symptoms of stroke (85.27%). There was a significant relationship between the number of beds in the hospitals and the nurses' knowledge about beginning treatment of Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) (P<0.005), optimal level of blood pressure prior to administering intravenous tPA (P<0.001), and recommended dosage of tPA (P<0.001) .Also, a significant relationship was reported between the number of beds in the emergency departments and the nurses' knowledge about optimal level of blood pressure prior to administering intravenous tPA (P<0.001), and recommended dosage of tPA (P<0.001).

Conclusion: The nurses' knowledge was not satisfactory about the guideline of the acute stage of ischemic stroke. Therefore, provision of evidence-based continuing education courses and mandatory attendance of emergency nurses in these courses is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Workforce Perceptions of Hospital Safety Culture: Case of Iran Teaching Hospitals

Zohreh Anbari, Rahmatollah Jadidi, Javad Nazari, Saeed Amini, Sajad Khosravi, Mohammad Saleh Koushki, Tayabeh Sadat Jaddi Arani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i130161

Background: One of the main determinants of safety and quality of care in hospitals is institutionalization of safety culture among their employees. This study aimed to assesses patient safety culture in Iran teaching hospitals.

Methods: Four Iran provinces were selected purposefully, one hospital from each was entered the study randomly, and proportional with hospital size, 500 employees were selected. The data were collected using standard questionnaire of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and analyzed using Excel and SPSS 22.

Results: Patient safety dimensions with highest positive score were organizational learning and continuous improvement (77%), management support for patient safety (68%) and supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety (61%) and dimensions with the lowest patient safety score were non-punitive response to error (20%), communication openness (28%), frequency of events reported (32%), staffing (37%), teamwork across and within hospital units (71%). Although 48% of the participants have not reported any event during 12 past months, but 64.6% scored patient safety excellent/ very good.

Conclusions: There are punishment and blame culture, non-openness in communication channels and low reporting of events in Iran hospitals. It is necessary for hospital management to design error and accident reporting system and reinforce non-punitive culture to increase error reporting.