Open Access Study Protocol

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Need Assessment Tool for Women with the Experience of Pregnancy Termination Due to Fetal Anomalies: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Study

Bahareh Kamranpour, Mahnaz Noroozi, Massoud Bahrami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i630155

Introduction: Fetal anomalies, especially when results in pregnancy termination, is a great challenge for pregnant women. Pregnancy termination can have a great physical, mental and social impact on women and their families. The aim of the present study is to explain the experience of women who underwent pregnancy termination due to fetal anomalies and to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a specific tool to assess the needs of these women.

Materials and Methods: This protocol study has a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. The first phase is a qualitative study based on purposeful sampling among women with the experience of pregnancy termination due to fetal anomalies and their spouses, midwives, gynecologists and forensic medicine specialists in Rasht, Iran. Data collection will be performed based on semi-structured interviews and record field notes. Data will be analyzed simultaneously using qualitative content analysis method. The draft of the need assessment of women with the experience of pregnancy termination due to fetal anomalies questionnaire will be prepared based on the findings of the first phase as well as literature review. The questionnaire will then be finalized based on evaluations in an expert panel. The face and content validity as well as reliability of the questionnaire will be performed after generating questionnaire items. Construct validity will be assessed using the exploratory factor analysis through a descriptive cross-sectional study on women with the experience of pregnancy termination due to fetal anomalies. Sample size will be calculated based on the required sample size for factor analysis for identifying the factors of the questionnaire. Therefore data will be collected from health and treatment centers based on convenience sampling. Data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Conclusion: The developed questionnaire in this mixed methods study can be used in the interventions, supporting and curative programs for women with the experience of pregnancy termination due to fetal anomalies.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effectiveness of Local Combined Cold-Hot Application on Bruising of Enoxaparin Sodium

Faride Ebrahimi-Shalmani, Nazila Javadi-Pashaki, Ehsan Kazemnejad Leili, Ataollah Asadi Louyeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i630151

Introduction: Bruising is one of the most common adverse events following administration of enoxaparin sodium, which can lead to unpleasant consequences such as reduced access to various sites for injection, joint complaints, and reduced satisfaction of patients from the treatment and care provided. Therefore, in order to find ways to reduce this complication, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of local combined cold-hot application on bruising caused by subcutaneous injection of enoxaparin sodium.

Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted from July to December 2018. 74 patients hospitalized in Poursina Hospital in Rasht were selected according to inclusion criteria and assigned to intervention group 1 (37 persons) and intervention group 2 (37 persons) by randomized block design. In each intervention group, the left side of the abdomen was treated as control (without intervention) and the right side was treated with cold pack (intervention group 1) or cold-hot pack (intervention group 2). Data collection was done by two-part tools, including individual and clinical data, and related records of bruising. Evaluation of the incidence and severity of bruising was performed at 24, 48, 72 hours after the first injection. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22 using descriptive and inferential statistics (Independity Test, Friedman, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Kolmogorosimerno).

Results: The majority of research samples were men (79.7%). The mean age of the patients was 21 ± 48 years. The mean and standard deviation of bruising in intervention group 1 at 24, 48 and 72 hours after injection was 24.44±1.09, 4.49±1.04 and 4.35±1.14, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of bruising in intervention group 2 at 24, 48 and 72 hours after injection was 1.65±0.63, 1.49±0.65, and 0.88±0.43, respectively. Differences in bruising size were statistically significant (P<0.001).

Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that use of local cold-hot pack compared to cold pack is more effective regarding the size of bruising in place of enoxaparin sodium injection, which is clinically important.

Open Access Original Research Article

Accessing the Hypoglycemic Effects of Seed Extract from Celery (Apium graveolens) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Kamal Mans, Talal Aburjai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i630152

Aims: The present study is aimed to evaluate the potential mechanism of antidiabetic action of seed extract celery (Apium graveolens) and its effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: Laboratory-experimental design was used in this study.

Methodology: This study was conducted on fifty experimental animals. Adult albino rats (Sprague-Dawely strain) weighing about 220 g each were used throughout the study. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to five experimental groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 - received normal saline (0.5 ml/kg), and serves as control. Group II - gavaged daily for thirty days with 1ml of the extract at doses of 425 mg/kg body wt and served as control. Group III - Untreated diabetic rats that received two doses of alloxan 150 mg/kg. Group IV - Treated diabetic rats for thirty consecutive days with 1 ml of the extract at a dose of 425 mg/kg body wt.  Group V: Treated diabetic rats for thirty consecutive days with 14.2 mg/kg of metformin. Several hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed.

Results: It was found that the administration of ethanol extract of A. graveolens produced significant reduction in blood glucose level in diabetic rats after thirty days of treatment. However, there was a significant (P=.05) increase of insulin secretion. Also, the RBC and WBC count, PCV and neutrophil percentage decreased significantly (P=.05). This study indicated that the ethanol extract increased the RBC and WBC counts, PCV, ESR, and neutrophil percentage in diabetic rats. However, the WBC count of the extract - treated diabetic group was still lower than those of control values. Administration of the extract resulted in a significant reduction in the mean values of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, ESR, urea, uric acid, creatinine accompanied by an increase in the mean values of total protein, albumin, insulin, HDL-C, neutrophile count and PCV in diabetic rats. No significant changes in these parameters were found in the control group. Effects produced by this extract were closely similar to a standard antidiabetic drug, metformin.   (p<0.05) hypoglycemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, protection against body weight loss of diabetic animals and might alleviate diabetes-induced disturbances of some biochemical and hematological parameters.

Conclusion: our study was dedicated to monitoring changes in the lipid profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-microbial Properties of Valeriana officinalis, Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus daenensis Methanolic Extracts against Helicobacter pylori

Raheleh Khademian, Fatemeh Karimzadeh, Parisa Moradi, Behvar Asghari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i630153

Aims: Helicobacter pylori infection spreads widely in the world and has several complications including gastric cancer. The aim of this work is to investigate the antimicrobial properties of Valeriana officinalis L., Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus daenensis extracts against H. pylori.

Methods: The disk diffusion test was used in this experiment. Methanolic extract was isolated from Valeriana officinalis L., Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus daenensis. Ten clinical isolates of H. pylori were used in this experiment, which was obtained at Alzahra hospital, Tehran, Iran from individual patients with gastrointestinal disorders. H. pylori strains were identified using the checking of bacterial growth (0.5 – 1 mm), Gram staining, urease test, catalase test and the drug resistance standard was performed on them. To determine the MIC of the extracts, disk diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) test in agar was used.

Results: The clinical strains showed the highest susceptibility to tetracycline (10%). The inhibition zone diameter was the highest at 10% concentration of methanolic extracts of Valeriana officinalis L., Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus daenensis and had the highest growth inhibitory effect at higher concentrations.

Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of Valeriana officinalis L., Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus daenensis herbs showed high anti-H. pylori effects in high concentrations and among them, Satureja bachtiarica showed the highest antibacterial effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration of Antidiabetic Activity of Stephania japonica Leaf Extract in Alloxan-Induced Swiss Albino Diabetic Mice

Md. Dobirul Islam, Syeda Farida Akter, Md. Amirul Islam, Md. Salim Uddin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i630154

Aims: Presently the medicinal world is rapidly turning more on the therapeutic health benefits of natural product and medicinal plants in the management of major crucial disease and their complications. Medicinal plant, Stephania japonica has been studied for exploring antidiabetic potentiality as an alternative source of medicine against the global threat of Diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: The extraction of S. japonica leaf was carried out by acetone and ethanol. Phytochemical screening and quantitative analysis of S. japonica leaf extracts were evaluated through chemically forming characterized color formation and calibration method respectively, by using standard reference substances (ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin) to assess the probable compounds present in the extract. Anti-diabetic potentiality of highest phytochemicals containing two extracts were investigated in in vitro as a ⍺-amylase inhibitors and in vivo through alloxan-induced Swiss albino diabetes mice model.

Results: Alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, flavonoids, resins, saponins, tannins and coumarins were present in the leaf extracts. The estimated amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthrocyanidins contents of acetone and ethanol extract were 92.12±0.64 and 56.54±1.05 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/gm of dry extract, 66.02±1.42 and 46.17±0.54 mg of catechin equivalent (CAE)/gm of dry extract, 7.05±0.108 and 5.26±0.083 mg of quercetin equivalent (QUE)/gm of dry extract, 35.19±0.67 and 9.55±1.11 mg CAE/gm of dry extract, respectively. In 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method, acetone and ethanol extract showed α-amylase inhibition of 51.02% and 46.62%, respectively at the concentration of 1000 µg/mL whereas in starch iodine color assay, acetone and ethanol extract showed inhibition of 57.32% and 52.12%, respectively at the concentration of 800 µg/mL. In contrast, both of the leaf extracts significantly (p<0.05 to p<0.001) improved the lipid profile parameters, blood glucose level and serum hepatic marker proteins in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

Conclusion: The present study strongly concluded that S. japonica leaf extracts process potent antidiabetic potentiality that might be significance for the management of diabetes and its complications.