Open Access Minireview Article

Nutrition and Oral Health: A Mini Review

Nireeksha ., Mithra N. Hegde, Suchetha Kumari N.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i530148

Nutrition is a part of systemic health in maintaining an equilibrium between the healthy and ill status. As a part of our regular diet and intake as supplements it plays a major role in maintaining oral health .this article focuses on role of various nutrients that play a major role in maintain oral health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antityrosinase and Cytotoxic Potentials of Isatis cappadocica subsp. alyssifoli as a Potent Pharmaceutical Resource

Meltem Güner, Atila Taner Kalaycioglu, Seyda Kanbolat, Nuriye Korkmaz, Rezzan Aliyazicioglu, Mahmoud Abudayyak, Ali Kandemir, Sengul Alpay Karaoglu, Ufuk Ozgen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i530146

Isatis species, which are endemic across most of Turkey, exhibit antibacterial, anticancer and antiviral effects. The aim of this study was to determine of antioxidant, antimicrobial, tyrosinase inhibitor, cytotoxic activities, and phenolic profile of polar extracts of Isatis cappadocica Desv. We analyzed the antioxidant properties of extracts using total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The phenolic composition of methanolic extract of I. cappadocica was analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Extracts’ antimicrobial properties were evaluated based on the agar well diffusion technique. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity was measured colorimetrically. Methanolic extract yielded better FRAP and CUPRAC results and aqueous extract yielded better DPPH activity. Benzoic acid, and sinapic acid were detected as major phenolic compounds. Methanolic extract was particularly effective against all the bacteria investigated, apart from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Methanol extract was exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The methanol extract has caused to death of cells by dosage in the high concentrations cytotoxic activity on the PC-3 and 3T3 cell lines. The results showed that I. cappadocica could be used as a natural source in the food, cosmetic, and drug industries due to their rich antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and tyrosinase inhibitor activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teaching Schizophrenia: 8-Minutes Video Based Lecture Versus 1-hour Traditional Lecture

Elham Alshammari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i530147

Video-based teaching module is well known and practiced in some university courses but the effort to validate this type of education tool in medical and health education system is yet to be expanded and explored especially from pharmacy students’ perspective. Materials and method: forty pharmacy students evaluated their experience from attending a one-hour lecture and watching a short video-based lecture lasted for eight minutes both were about clinical presentation and diagnosis of schizophrenia. Result and discussion: 70% of the sample (n=28) preferred video-based lecturing. Advantages and disadvantages varied from faculty and students’ perspectives, but it saved time, was enjoyable and memorable. Conclusion: positive agreement of pharmacy students toward schizophrenia video-based lecture was assured and effort must be put on validating video-based lecture content.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro and in vivo Investigations of a Sudanese Honey in the Management of Dermatological Fungal Infections

Rasha Saad Suliman, Heyam Saad Ali, Abd Araheem Husayn, Babiker M. A. Elhaj, Rania Suliman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i530149

Superficial fungal infections represented 17% of skin diseases in patients attending the outpatient clinic of Khartoum Hospital of Skin and Venereal Diseases.

The treatment of these infections usually involves the use of systemic drugs and/or topical well-tried preparations. All of the drugs carry a potential of adverse reactions, besides their relatively high cost.  Honey, which is a natural product of the honeybee, is believed to be active against fungi.  In this study, honey was used as topical treatment for six different clinical syndromes of superficial fungal infections.

The study, which was carried out at the outpatient clinic of Khartoum Hospital of Skin and Venereal Diseases, included 360 patients (210 males and 150 females) with skin, hair and nail infections. Patients, diagnosed by clinical examination and direct microscopy (KOH), were given honey to be applied on their lesions twice daily.  Follow-up was made weekly by both clinical and laboratory evaluations.  A complementary follow-up visit after 4 weeks of completion of treatment was needed in order to trace any clinical or mycological changes.  Clinical and mycological cure showed some difference.  Two hundred and sixty patients (72.4%) showed clinical cure associated with hyphal clearance on direct microscopy.  Spores were not affected by honey, a direct cause of high relapse rate (42.3%).  It is concluded that honey had a therapeutic effect on skin and scalp fungal infections but nail infection were not affected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Effect of Intraoperative 1 mg/kg/h and 2 mg/kg/h IV Lidocaine Infusion on Postoperative Pain and Nausea-Vomiting in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

Mahzad Alimian, Reza Safaeian, Behrooz Zaman, Saeedreza Entezari, Amir Ehsan Abedian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i530150

Objective: To relieve postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting, various drugs and methods, including intraoperative IV lidocaine infusion in different surgeries. However, the exact dose has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of intraoperative 1 mg/kg/h and 2 mg/kg/h IV lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain and nausea-vomiting in laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery in Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups (1 mg/kg/h lidocaine) and (2 mg/kg/h lidocaine). Postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting were evaluated at times 0, 30 min, 1 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after surgery. Data was analysed using statistical tests and SPSS 22.

Results: There was no significant difference in the effect of intraoperative 1 mg/kg/h and 2 mg/kg/h IV lidocaine infusion on static and dynamic pain and nausea-vomiting, agitation, systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse rate and postoperative administration of pethidine in laparoscopic gastric bypass (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Based on results of this study, administration of low dose lidocaine (1 mg/kg/h) can be considered as an appropriate dose of IV lidocaine infusion in order to control postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.