Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Demographic Factors and BMI with Osteoporosis: A Cross-Sectional Study in Kurdistan Province, West of Iran

Nasrin Moghimi, Khaled Rahmani, Mohsen Rajabnia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i530109

Background: Regarding the association of osteoporosis with various fractures and its disabilities, high cost of treatment and rehabilitation, asymptomatic majority of patients and revealing after serious disability and preventable disability and its complications, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and its association with demographic factors and body mass index (BMI) in patients referred to Sanandaj densitometry center.

Methods: This cross- sectional descriptive- analytic study was carried out on 250 patients referring to Sanandaj densitometry center from September 2017 to September 2018. For the subjects, BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method at two bone segments, ie the hip and spine. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, fisher exact test, chi- square test and logistic regression test using SPSS V.23 software.

Results: In 250 studied subjects, there were found 68 cases (27.2%) osteoporosis in spine region and 38 cases (15.2%) in hip region. There was a significant correlation between age and incidence of osteoporosis in the spine and hip (P-value < 0.001), with the increase in age, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased. Despite the prevalence of osteoporosis in females, there was no significant relationship between sex and osteoporosis in spine and hip (P-value > 0.05). Despite the higher prevalence of osteoporosis in the study population living in the city, there was no significant relationship between residence and osteoporosis in spine and hip (P- value > 0.05). There was a significant relationship between education level and osteoporosis in spine and hip (P- value < 0.001), so that with the increase in education, the prevalence of osteoporosis decreases. There was a significant correlation between BMI and osteoporosis in spine and hip (P- value < 0.05), with an increase in BMI, the prevalence of osteoporosis decreases.

Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of osteoporosis. Therefore, considering the increased risk of fracture, the morbidity and mortality due to osteoporosis and their costs, increasing awareness of people about complications, how to reduce the risk factors and timely treatment, it seems necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Acceptance of Illness and Quality of Life in Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Tahereh Alidoost Balas Baneh, Homa Mosaffay Khomami, Leila Mirhadian, Zahra Atrkarroushan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i530110

Introduction: Study on quality of life and acceptance of the illness plays a significant role in the health of pregnant women, especially pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the acceptance of illness and quality of life in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 150 mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus referred to Al-Zahra Hospital of Rasht, Iran, using available sampling method. Data were collected by a demographic information checklist and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) in two dimensions, physical and mental health. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software and using chi-squared, Fisher's exact, and Mantel-Haenszel tests.

Results: Among the mothers, 37.3% accepted the illness and 62.7% did not. There was a significant relationship between the quality of life status or score and the gestational age (p = 0.019), surgical history (p = 0.005), number of operations (p = 0.002) and previous history of diabetes in previous pregnancies (p = 0.037). However, with the control of individual and social variables, Mantel-Haenszel test did not show significant relationship between acceptance of illness and the quality of life of the mothers. On the other hand, the relationship between acceptance of illness and quality of life was not significant, based on χ2 test.

Conclusion: It is suggested that training classes be held before and during pregnancy for mothers at the reproductive age so that they have the readiness and knowledge to deal with the disease properly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs on Blood Pressure Lowering and Renal Function

Olugbenga M. Ajulo, Oluwatoyin H. Ajulo, Blessing W. Anietimfon, Idongesit O. Umoh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i530111

Aim: Study aimed at evaluating blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of antihypertensive medications and their effect on renal function.

Study Design: This was a progressive observational study, evaluating the lowering effect of selected antihypertensive agents on BP and renal functions of hypertensive patients.
Study Location: The study involved moderately hypertensive patients who attended Cardiology clinic and were already receiving antihypertensive drug regimen at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom state, Nigeria. University of Uyo Teaching Hospital is a tertiary healthcare facility that was established in 1999.

Methods: Seventy hypertensive patients who received antihypertensive medications for at least 6 months were recruited for the study. The recruited participants were advised on adherence and were given adherence chart to record time of medication used. A 3 ml blood was collected and Omron digital BP meter was used to take three separate BP readings and the average was recorded. The blood samples were analysed in the laboratory for serum creatinine (Scr) by using Randox’s Scr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) kits. The Scr was used to calculate the creatinine clearance (CrCl) by using Corkcroft-Gault equation. Participants were followed-up for three months consecutively. Statistical analysis was considered significant at p=.05. SPSS version 20 was used for the analysis.

Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduced from 130±2.64 mmHg in phase 1 to 120±1.13 mmHg in phase 3 while CrCl increased from 82.01±4.49 ml/min to 91.62±4.35 ml/min respectively. Both SBP and BUN were higher in females (131±3.30 mmHg and 2.67±0.19 µmol/l)                         while CrCl was higher in males (102.06±8.91 ml/min). Amlodipine (AM) reduced SBP by                           9 mmHg, Lisinopril+Hydrochlorothiazide (LH) reduced SBP by 7 mmHg and Lisinopril+Amlodipine+Hydrochlorothiazide (LAH) reduced SBP by 22 mmHg. CrCl decreased among participants on AM, LH and LAH by 0.89 ml/min, 0.01 ml/min and 8 ml/min respectively.
Conclusion: Antihypertensive medications reduced SBP especially in three-drug combinations but worsened renal function.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Biochemical Properties and Effects of Different Vegetable Oils on Blood Indices in Wistar Rats

Md. Touhidur Rahman, Meherunnahar ., Muhammad Ali, Shaikh Shahinur Rahman, A. Y. K. M. Masud Rana, Kumkum Yeasmin, Md. Hafizur Rahman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i530112

Mustard oil is popular edible oil in Bangladesh. It contains about more than fifty percent erucic acid which is toxic to human beings. This study evaluated the determination of biochemical properties (acid value, iodine value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter %) of mustard oil, virgin coconut and sesame oil and toxicity determination of these oils through blood indices targeting of these oil by mixing with normal diet as a dietary supplementation. This study found acid value of mustard, sesame and virgin coconut oil was 0.92, 0.312, 0.52 respectively. Iodine value of mustard, sesame and virgin coconut oil were 110.2, 105.2, and 11 respectively. Saponification value of wild mustard, sesame and virgin coconut oil was 171.1, 187.2 and 240   respectively and unsaponifiable matter % of mustard, sesame and virgin coconut oil was 1.19, 0.31 and 0.92 respectively. Also in vivo experiment  we divided wistar male rats were 4 groups such as normal diet 12 g/day/rat, mustard oil (MO) 0.6 g/day/rat, virgin coconut oil (VCO) 0.6g/day/rat and sesame oil (SO) 0.6 g/day/rat. In this study the vegetable oil causes the effect on average body weight gain, Food Efficiency Ratio (FER), and lipid profiles  [Total cholesterol (Tch), HDL- Cholesterol  LDL - Cholesterol, Triglyceride (TG)] and serum  enzymes [SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT)] of different groups of rat also been estimated. The study found that mustard oil significantly (p<0.05) increase lipid profile and enzymes SGOT, SGPT level in blood serum which is an indication of heart and liver disorder. The study found that coconut and sesame oil consumption in rat significantly (p<0.05) decrease of these parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Patients’ Responses to Oral Hypoglycemic Agents at a University Health Centre

Olugbenga Matthew Ajulo, Oluwatoyin Hephzibah Ajulo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i530113

Background: There were 1.5 million deaths caused by diabetes in 2012, of which more than 80% of diabetes deaths occurred in developing countries. WHO estimated diabetes would be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030.

Aim: The study aimed at evaluating type 2 diabetes mellitus patients’ clinical responses after use of oral hypoglycaemic agents.

Study Design: The study was a retrospective observational study.

Place and duration of Study: The study was undertaken at Primary healthcare facility, University Health Centre. The study monitored case notes of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who attended the endocrinology clinic within the ten years of review. 

Methods: After ethical approval was given, a retrospective evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients’ folders was done for one hundred and nineteen patients who attended the endocrinology clinic. Relevant information obtained from patients’ folders were collated and analysed.

Results: Out of one hundred and nineteen participants who received oral hypoglycaemic agents, seventy-six (63.8%) participants were in the age range of 45-55 years, followed by twenty-four (20.2%) participants with age range of greater than 55 years. Sixty-eight (57.1%) participants were females while fifty-one (42.9%) were males. Forty two (35.3%) participants had a controlled plasma glucose level of <110 mg/dl while seventy-seven (64.7%) participants had plasma glucose level of >110 mg/dl. Efficacy index was highest for Daonil+Glycomet followed by Diabinese+Glucophage and Glucovance respectively.

Conclusion: The study indicated that fewer type 2 diabetes mellitus patients’ plasma glucose levels were controlled by two drugs combination therapy involving metformin.