Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison the Effect of Golghand and Foot Reflexology on Constipation in Elderlies

Tayebeh Mirani Moghadam, Habib Shareinia, Hosein Mohammadzadeh Moghadam, Moosa Sajjadi, Amir Reza Rajabi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i330099

Objective: Constipation is one of the most common problems of the elderly, causing many complications and high costs for these individuals and affecting their quality of life. This study aimed to compare the effect of Golghand (a pharmaceutical composition of roses and honey) and foot reflexology on constipation in the elderly.

Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 60 elderly people with constipation in 2017. Subjects were selected through simple and purposive sampling and were randomly allocated to Golghand and foot reflexology groups by permuted block method. The foot reflexology was carried out in the specific area of constipation twice a day and each time for 15 minutes for two weeks. Golghand group received Golghand half an hour before lunch (one teaspoon of Golghand in one cup of cooled boiled water). Constipation assessment scale was filled for the subjects before and at the end of the intervention by an evaluator, who was unaware of the intervention approaches of the groups. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 20 using statistical tests of Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney U, and Friedman test at the significance level of <0.05.

Results: In this research, mean age of the participants was 66±8.66 years. According to the results of Mann-Whitney U, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of the frequency of bowel movements on the first day after intervention (P=0.246). However, on days 2-14 after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the study groups in this regard (P<0.05). Similarly, results of the Friedman test were indicative of a significant difference between the two groups regarding the frequency of bowel movements (P<0.001), in a way, that after the passing of the mean period, the number of bowel movements increased in both groups. However, this increase was higher in the Golghand group, compared to the foot reflexology group (P<0.001). Moreover, independent t-test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding mean intensity of constipation (P=0.01).

Conclusion: Consumption of Golghand increased the frequency of bowel movements and reduced the intensity of constipation in elderly individuals. This method had greater impacts on constipation, compared to the foot reflexology technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modulation the Neuro-toxicity Induced by Aluminum Chloride in Rats Using Beetroots and Broccli Extracts

Abeer Ali Al-Balawi, Yousri Mohamed Ahmed, Ashwag Albukhari, Shareefa A. ALGhamdi, Mustafa A. Zeyadi, Morog R. Maddah, Etimad H. Huwait, Soad Ali, Taha A. Kumosani, Said S. Moselhy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i330100

Backgound: The generation of oxidative stress can be referred to Aluminium toxic effect in animals and humans. This study aimed to evaluate the role of broccoli (Br) and beetroot (Be) extarcts as antioxidant that prevents oxidative stress that associated with aluminum toxicity.

Materials and Methods: Fifty Wister female rats were grouped into five groups (each 10 rats): Group 1: control group, administered drinking water only. Group 2: (Neurogenerative) which were induced by oral administration of aluminum chloride (20 mg/kg b.w) daily for one month. Group 3: Rats given aluminum chloride were treated with Rivastigmine (Ri) (1 mg/kg b.w) as a reference drug daily for five weeks. Group 4: Rats given aluminum chloride were treated with beet root extract (50 mg/kg b.w) daily for six weeks. Group 5. Rats given aluminum chloride were treated with broccoli extract (50 mg/kg b.w) daily for five weeks.

Results: (AlCl3) group showed a significant increase in Ach level (P<0.05) and a non-significant change in DOP and NE levels compared to control. (AlCl3+Be) was non-significant (P˂0.05) change in Ach, DOP and NE levels compared to (AlCl3) group and showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in Ach level compared to control. (AlCl3+Br) showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in NE level and non-significant (P˂0.05) change in Ach and DOP levels compared to (AlCl3) group. (AlCl3+Ri) showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in Ach, DOP and NE levels compared to (AlCl3) group. Also, showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in Ach and NE compared to control.

Conclusion: Neuroprotective role of broccoli in the present study which may result from its antioxidant properties due to its bioactive content such as glucosinolate, isothiocyanate, Sulforaphane, and flavonoids. Therefore, Broccoli can have a favorable effect on neurotoxicity due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on the Effect of Matricaria chamomile and Achillea millefolium Capsules on Primary Dysmenorrhea Intensity of Dormitory Students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, 2018

Shiva Radfar, Roonak Shahoie, Bijan Noori, Fereshteh Jalilian, Leila Hashemi Nasab

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i330101

Background: Menstrual pain is the most common pain and one of the main causes of referral to a doctor among young women. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) and Matricaria chamomile plants to treat menstrual pain.

Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial study was performed on 50 female students of Kurdistan Medical Sciences residing in dormitory in 2018. Individuals were randomly divided into two groups of chmomile and yarrow using sealed envelopes. Twenty for people received 250 mg chamomile capsules every 8 hours and 26 people received 150 mg hydroalcoholic capsules of yarrow every 8 hours during the first three days of menstruation in two menstrual cycles. The data collection tool was a questionnaire and the severity of pain was assessed using visual analogue scale for the pain (VAS).

Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of pain severity and duration of pain before taking the drug (p > 0.05). The average pain severity in the first menstrual cycle in the two groups decreased significantly (p< 0.05), which was more noticeable in the yarrow group. However, the average pain severity in the yarrow capsule group was lower than that of the chamomile capsule group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Both capsules of yarrow and chamomile reduce the severity of pain, but the yarrow capsule, with its long-lasting sedative effect, proved more helpful to reduce the severity of menstrual pain and could be effective in solving one of the issues among women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Success Rates of Vaginal Sonography and Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Intrauterine Pathologies in Female Infertility

Mahnaz Yavangi, Marzieh Farimani, Firozeh Zonoori, Nooshin Mohammadpour, Mohamad Ali Dayani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i330102

Background and Aim: Uterine anatomical pathologies play important roles in causing female infertility. This study was conducted to survey the efficiency of hysteroscopy and vaginal sonography in detecting the intrauterine pathologies in infertile women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all the infertile women referring to the Endometriosis Research Center between December 22, 2013 and August 22, 2015. Forty five women were recruited and the data on the examinations of uterine lesions were analyzed by transvaginal sonography (TVS), hysteroscopy, and pathology as the standard test. Data analysis was conducted by SPSSv16 using t-test and Mann-Whitney test, and the sensitivity and specificity were measured with reference to the standard test.

Findings: For diagnosing polyp, endometrial hyperplasia, and myoma, TVS showed the 75%, 25%, and 85.71% sensitivity, respectively, and specificity of 92.30%, 92.30%, and 56.97% respectively. For them, hysteroscopy showed the 60%, 75%, and 75.71% sensitivity respectively, and specificity of 71.65%, 30.92%, and 56.97% respectively.

Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the sensitivity of TVS and hysteroscopic findings in diagnosing uterine pathologies is relatively high, but the sensitivity of TVS was low to diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction of Cyclosporine A with Pomegranate Juice and Its Potential Nephroprotective Effect in Rats

Ahmed S. Ali, Mai A. Abdul Sattar, Hala M. Makki, Soad S. Ali, Ragia H. Ghoneim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i330103

Objectives: To study the effect of concomitant administering of pomegranate juice orally (PJ) on bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CsA) and independently its potential nephroprotective effect against CsA induced nephrotoxicity.

Methods: A- Pharmacokinetic study (PK), Wister rats were divided into groups (each 6 rats) I-: CsA PO + Vehicle; II- CsA IP + Vehicle, III- CsA PO + PJ, IV- CsA IP + PJ. CsA dose was 20 mg/kg for 5 days the vehicle or PJ (2 ml) was given 1 h before drug administration. Blood samples were taken at the 1st and 5th day at specified times and CsA level was determined by immune assays. Relative bioavailability of CsA was determined.

B- Nephroprotection study (separate study to administer bioequivalent CsA PO doses, in view of PK study), I- ( CsA 13 mg PO + 2 ml PJ .II- CsA 20 mg P0 + 2 ml vehicle (for 28 day). The design also includes two control groups (vehicle alone or PJ alone). Blood samples for drug analysis, biochemical investigations and kidney samples for histopathology were taken at the 28th day.

Results: PJ juice enhanced the bioavailability of oral CsA by about 50% (P > 0.05). But CsA (IP) was not affected after repeated administration for 5 days. Independently, the marked kidney damage induced by CsA was reversed by concomitant administration of PJ as well as it attenuated the increase in serum creatinine.

Conclusions: Repeated administration of pomegranate juice enhance CsA oral bioavailability which likely due to inhibition of intestinal enzymes and transport pump. Independently it caused significant attenuation of CsA induced renal toxicity.