##### Comparison of Efficacy of Omega3 Fatty Acids with Vitamin A and Vitamin C in the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome

B. Aluri, M. S. Mirdehghan, I. Nayak Vittal, C. Seema

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/45816

Background: Dry eye is one of major ocular surface disorders affecting millions of people.    The chronic discomfort in these conditions interferes with the quality of life for a long period of time. A typical clinical symptoms of dry eye are ‘burning sensation', 'irritation', and 'ocular fatigue'. Hence the Aim of this research “To compare the efficacy of Omega3 fatty acids with Vitamin A and Vitamin C in the treatment of dry eye syndrome”.

Methods: The present study titled “Comparison of efficacy of Omega3 fatty acids with Vitamin A and Vitamin C in the treatment of dry eye syndrome” was conducted in VIMS & RC, Whitefield, Bangalore between January 2013 and July 2014 on the subjects who attended the outpatient department of Ophthalmology at VIMS & RC. This was a interventional and non-observational l study of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of dry eye syndrome after informed consent which satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dry eye syndrome diagnosis and severity level of diseases was determined with OSDI scoring, TBUT, Schirmer’s test 1 & 2, Rose Bengal Test and TMH.

Results: Results showed that lesser grade of dry eye is seen in patients with higher education, younger age group and with indoor jobs as compared to patients with outdoor jobs who had higher grade of dry eye in our study groups. Improvement was  observed in TBUT, Schirmer’1 & 2, Rose Bengal, OSDI score and grade of dry eye in both 2nd study group (CMC + Omega 3 fatty acids) and 3rd study group ( CMC+ Vitamin A&C) as compared to the control group.(P<0.001) This improvement was more significant in 2nd study group as compared to 3rd study group.

Conclusion: It was observed that dry eye syndrome was more significantly improved in group2 (CMC + Omega 3 fatty acids) as compared to groups 3( CMC + Vitamin A&C). It was concluded using oral supplementation of omega 3 fatty acids or vitamin A & C would be beneficial for patients suffering from dry eye syndrome.

##### First- order Derivative and UV-spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, and Caffeine in Bulk and Parmaceutical Formulatation

Sura L. Alkhafaji, Abdulbari M. Mahood

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/46503

Aims: This work is to develop accurate and simple spectrophotometric methods with the first derivative for estimation of Ibuprofen (IBU), Caffeine (CAF) and Paracetamol (PAR) in bulk and pharmaceutical preparation.

Method: The methods use ethanol 90%: 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (25:75) as a solvent for analysis. The wavelengths were determined for each drug in the range of 200-400 nm in spectrum mode. UV-spectrophotometer-equipment used to calculate the first derivatives through which IBU, CAF, and PAR were evaluated for simultaneous assay. The validity of the methods is established on the basis of linearity, accuracy and precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The methods applied to estimate the level of PAR, IBU, and CAF in a capsule dosage form.

Results: The linearity of the methods was in the range of (1 - 15) µg /ml at λ max 220 nm for IBU, for CAF was (1-10) µg /ml at λ max 272 nm, and for PAR was (1-16.5) µg /ml at λ max 257 nm. In the second method, by application of first derivatives, IBU has an absorbance at 212 NM (in contrast CAF and PAR have zero value at is this wavelength) whereas, CAF absorbed at 272 nm (in contract IBU and PAR have zero value at this wavelength) whereas PAR has absorbance at 230 nm (in contrast IBU and CAF has zero value). Upon derivative assay, the amount was 98.58 %, 98.15% and 98.66% for PAR, IBU, and CAF, respectively.

Conclusion: The suggested methods can be effectively applied for simultaneous determination of IBU, CAF and PAR in the bulk and capsule dosage form with good precision, recovery and less percentage of error.

##### Researching the Effects of Ellagic Acid on Depletion Exercise

Ersan Kara, Funda Karabağ Çoban, Mustafa Akıl

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/45923

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether exhaustion exercise causes endothelial damage and to investigate the effect of ellagic acid on this potential damage.

Methods and Materials: The study was carried out on 32 male and adult Spraque - Dawley rats at Experimental Animal Research and Research Center of Afyon Kocatepe University. The experimental animals were equally divided into four groups. Swimming exercises will be performed as acute exercises for once and experimental animals are made to swim in groups including two rats following the completion of the study and before the decapitation. At the end of procedures that last for four weeks, total oxidant (TOS), total antioxidant (TAS), nitric oxide (NO) and Asymmetric dimethyl Arginine (ADMA), TNF α, INF γ and IL6 plasma and tissue levels was assayed from the blood samples to be taken from experimental animals with decapitation.

Results: The data obtained as a result of the studies were evaluated by using SPSS 20.0 statistical program. Endothelial damage markers and cytokine levels were significantly (p<0,05) increased in swimming groups and ellagic acid significantly (p<0,05)  decreased these parameters.

Conclusion: Ellagic acid  may have protective effect against damage that may occur during exhaustion exercise.

##### Hybrid Design as a Strategy for Development of Trypanocidal Drugs

Marcelo da Silva Freitas, Ana Claudia Torrecilhas, Patrícia Xander, Camilla Ioshida Vasconcelos, Renato Farina Menegon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/46885

Aims: We performed an initial in vitro study with a single molecule to evaluate the possibility to develop a larger series of hybrid compounds active in Chaga’s disease. Hybridization is an important approach to confer to a single molecule the biological activity of two distinct molecules. We proposed thiosemicarbazone (TS9) hybridization with β-citronellol through carbamate linkage.

Methodology: The cytotoxicity of the hybrid compound was evaluated against human THP-1 cells and all forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). IC50 value was determined against amastigotes and the selectivity index (SI) was estimated based on toxicity against THP-1 cells. Lipinski analysis was performed in order to estimate the hybrid drug-like properties.

Results: The hybrid presented substantially less cytotoxicity against THP-1 cells than TS9 and biological similarities to both matrix moieties. The hybrid SI (3.9) was better than for TS9 (0.6) and similar to that found for benznidazole (BZN) (4.7), but with a higher drug-like score performed by Lipinski analysis.

Conclusion: In face of its relevant trypanocidal action against T. cruzi amastigotes, it’s an important concept proof to pursue in developing of hybrid or prodrug derivatives of TS9 and antiprotozoal terpenes.

##### Prevalence Study of Antibiotic Usage and Health Care Associated Infections in Northern Cyprus

Wissal Jame, Abdikarim Mohamed Abdi, Hüseyin Kaya Süer, Nedim Çakir, Bilgen Basgut

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i230095

Purpose: This study aims to provide a prevalence survey of antibiotic usage and HAIs and evaluate the cost of antibiotic therapy.

Methods: All inpatients on surgery, paediatrics, medicine, and ICU specialities were surveyed within a period of one week, April 2016 at Near East University hospital in Northern Cyprus. ACross-sectional study was performed and desired data on antibiotic use and HAIs were collected and analysed.

Results: Out of 137 inpatients, 39.4% (n=54) were on one or two antibiotics. The usage of antibiotic was appropriate in 70% of the patients while it was inappropriate in the remaining 30%. The most common appropriate use was seen in empirical (80.6%) and prophylaxis (69.2%), while in definitive therapy cases (60.0%), the usage of antibiotics was irrationally inappropriate. Overall, 10.9% of hospitalized patients developed HAI. The most prevalent infection was UTI (urinary tract infections) (33.3%). Prevalence of HAIs was high in patients over 30 years old and in those who stay in hospital more than 10 days. The overall daily cost of antibiotic therapy was $919.61 per day, while the total daily cost for hospital infections was$482.

Conclusion: Irrational antibiotic use was seen mostly in definitive therapy, continuous use of empirical therapy without carrying microbiological test was commonly observed. The prevalence of HAI was relatively high which led to more hospitalization and more cost.