Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of a Commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening Tetracycline Residues in Foods of Animal Origin from the Perspective of Bangladesh

A. Y. K. M. Masud Rana, Shahabe Uddin Talukdar, Md. Mahamodun Nabi, Md. Hedayetul Islam, Mohammad Jahurul Islam, A. S. M. Saifullah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/45959

Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is one of the most important screening methods of antibiotic residue analysis in different food matrices. This study was carried out to validate the ELISA kit of R-Biopharm (RIDASCREEN) for screening tetracycline antibiotic residues in the muscle of chicken, beef, and shrimp in accordance with the European Commission (EC) decision 2002/657/EC. The kit was validated in terms of different characteristic performances, e.g., detection capability, specificity, applicability, ruggedness, and stability. Detection capability CCβ of the method was 100 µg/kg for three types of matrix with a false compliant rate of 5% for beef and chicken, and 0% for shrimp samples. The threshold value T was equal to 1.85, 1.558, and 1.532 OD for beef, chicken, and shrimp samples, respectively, whereas the cut-off value Fm was equal to 0.621, 0.519, and 0.424 OD, respectively. The kit was valid because Fm<T for all the cases. Sensitivity of the kit decreased after six months of first experiment, but still can be used successfully because the Fm values clearly lowered the T values, and the reading ODs did not overlap any ODs of spiked samples. The ELISA kit for tetracycline was robust and cost effective because there was no need to use solid phase extraction. In case of monitoring tetracycline antibiotic residues, the kit is applicable for the muscle of chicken, beef, and also shrimp with the same detection capability value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Self-care and Its Related Factors in Hemodialysis Patients in Kermanshah

Behnam Khaledi-Paveh, Fatemeh Merati Fashi, Amir Hossein Hashemian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/43244

Aims: Chronic renal failure is a progressive and irreversible disorder, which disables kidneys to excrete metabolic waste and maintain fluid and electrolyte. Hemodialysis is one of the main treatments for chronic kidney failure patients.  These patients with the onset of dialysis faced in their lives with numerous needs and a lot of changes and to live with this chronic disease it is necessary to Carry out self-care activities. According to increasing number of hemodialysis patients, This research was done With the aim of examining self-care and Related activities and its relationship with variables such as age, sex, level of education, Marital status and economic status of hemodialysis patients.

Study Design: The present study is a cross-sectional observational study that evaluates 122 patients under treatment by hemodialysis in educational hospitals of Kermanshah Imam Reza and Imam Khomaini as accessible. To collect data, demographic information and self-care checklist were used To collect data. Data analysed by software spss22 and using descriptive statistics (percent, diagram, mean) Student t-test and ANOVA or f test.

Findings: In examining the demographic variables, 50% of women participated in the study (22.3%) of the subjects were aged 60-70. 72.1% of subjects had an education level less than a diploma, and 83% were non-working. The findings of research with confidence coefficient 95%  indicated that means of self-care in surveyed patients are 56.32 and patients have had most self-care for skin and fistula (24.99) and least self- care for sleep (6.20). Self-care is higher in people with higher education, and there is no relationship between self-care and the variables of sex, age, economic status and marital status of patients.

Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between self-care and patient education thus, by considering the level of knowledge and the state of their lives and correcting patients' weaknesses, training of self-care activities should be increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilisation of Antiepileptic Drugs in a Tertiary Referral Centre, Southern Nigeria

Eshiet, Unyime Israel, Erah, Patrick O., Ekeh, Bertha C.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/44547

Objective: Antiepileptic drug therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with epilepsy. Drug utilisation research is an important aspect of pharmacoepidemiology. It highlights the gaps in the present prescribing practice and helps in improving patient care. This study was aimed at determining the recent prescription pattern of antiepileptic drugs in an ambulatory care setting in Nigeria.

Methods: A cross sectional antiepileptic drug use study was conducted using case notes of epileptic patients managed at the medical outpatient clinic of the University of Uyo teaching hospital, a tertiary referral centre in southern Nigeria between January to December 2017.

Results: Sodium valproate was the most frequently prescribed antiepileptic drug accounting for 46.32% of the prescriptions, followed by carbamazepine and levetiracetam which accounted for 28.42% and 9.47% of the antiepileptic drugs used respectively. Antiepileptic drug combinations were used in 14.46% of the cases studied. Adverse drug reactions were documented in only 3.61% of the cases, while clinically significant drug-drug interaction was noted in 26.51% of the cases.

Conclusion: Sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently prescribed antiepileptic drugs in the University of Uyo teaching hospital. Antiepileptic drugs were prescribed mostly as monotherapy. The extent of documentation of adverse drug reactions associated with the use of antiepileptic drugs is poor.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Root Canal Irrigant Solutions and Different Filling Periods on Microleakage of Resin Composite (An In vitro Study)

Alireza Daneshkazemi, Maryam Modabber, Mehrdad Akhavan, Pedram Daneshkazemi, Fatemeh Mirhosseini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41972

Aims: Chemical irrigants used in endodontic treatments, may cause changes in the composition of the dentin surface and affect its interaction with resin composite. Sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) are common root canal Irrigant solutions. Sodium hypochlorite and CHX have a potential of antimicrobial activity but CHX is less toxic compared with sodium hypochlorite. So CHX may be considered as a good alternative for sodium hypochlorite irrigant solution. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different root canal irrigation solutions subsequent to endodontic therapy on microleakage of clearfil S3 bond and Z250 resin composite restoration after applying immediate or delayed periods.

Materials and Methods: This in-vitro study was done on 80 single-rooted human maxillary intact premolar teeth. After disinfection, access cavity preparation was done. Teeth were randomly divided into 8 equal groups according to canal irrigation type(0.2% chlorhexidine, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, saline normal) and time of restoration by Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray, Japan) and Z250 (3M, USA) resin composite (immediately, one week later) and compared with control group. After thermocycling, dye penetration was done and microleakage was recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Kruskal–Wallis and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical tests.

Results: Microleakage rate in all groups of canal irrigants with immediately or after a week restoration with resin composite were not statistically significant (p> 0.05). The microleakage rate in immediately and after a week resin composite restoration filling with using different canal irrigants had a statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: The Microleakage rate was not significantly different between immediate and after one week of canal irrigation and composite resin filling. Using 0.2% chlorhexidine and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigants reduce significantly microleakage rate compared to saline.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anthelmintic Potential of Aqueous Extract of the Stem Bark of Bridelia ferruginea (Benth) Euphorbiaceae

Oladejo Afees Adebayo, Otunla Babatunde Joshua

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/28940

Bridelia ferruginea is a common plant often used to cure gastrointestinal infections and has phytomedicinal potential. Similar to other medicinal plants, it also has antimicrobial as well as antiprotozoal potential. This study was carried out to access the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of the stem bark of bridelia ferruginea by using a model worm i.e Pheretima posthuma (earthworm). In this assay, three different concentrations i.e 25, 50 and 100mg/ml of above mentioned extract were tested in bioassay by observing time of paralysis and time of death of worms in minutes. Piperazine citrate was used as a standard reference compound along with normal saline as control in the same concentration. The results indicated that brideliaferruginea crude extract possesed anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Mechanism for the Adsorption of Erythromycin onto Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Mahadethe Dashtizade, Davoud Balarak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/43573

The ability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to adsorb the Erythromycin antibiotic from aqueous solution was studied through the batch experiments. The adsorption of Erythromycin onto MWCNT was found to be dependent on adsorbent dose, initial concentration and contact time. The experiments were carried out at natural solution pH. Based on the observed results, the highest removal efficiency was achieved to be 99.4% under optimum conditions. The adsorption kinetic results showed that the pseudo-second order model was more suitable to explain the adsorption of Erythromycin onto MWCNT. The adsorption mechanism results showed that the adsorption process was controlled by both the internal and external diffusion of Erythromycin molecules. The values of free energy change (∆G0) and enthalpy change (∆H0) revealed that the adsorption process has the spontaneous, feasible, and endothermic nature.