Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Flour Composition and Temperature on Physico-chemical and Sensory Properties of Quinoa Based Extrudates

Omar Alajil, T. V. Hymavathi, P. Robert, L. V. S. B. Deepika

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/45346

Aim: Quinoa has extraordinary and promising nutritional and cultivation features, therefore supplementing or replacing of common cereal grains with quinoa carries high potential benefits to consumers worldwide. Quinoa incorporation in diets can be made more acceptable through extrusion cooking which is cost effective process. However for quinoa extrusion it is used to be incorporated with other flours to enhance its extrusion properties. Therefore the current study aims to develop suitable ingredient blends and extrusion temperature for preparing acceptable quinoa based extrudates.

Study Design: Randomized block design (RCBD) design was used. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Foods and Nutrition, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Between November 2015 and June 2016.

Methodology: Seven formulation of quinoa flour blended with different proportions of corn, oats, rice and sweet potato flours were extruded at three different temperatures (100˚C, 130˚C and 150˚C) and total of 21 treatments were obtained. Their sensory acceptability and physico-chemical properties such expansion ratio, bulk density, hardness, colour, WAI and WSI were evaluated.

Results: Lower Bulk density, lower hardness, lighter colour and higher sensory score were observed in extrudates processed at highest temperature (150˚C). However, the highest expansion was observed at 130˚C for most formulations. Two formulations were observed to have desirable properties such as highest expansion ratio, lowest bulk density, most desirable colour and sensory acceptability namely Quinoa:Corn:Rice (60:25:15) and Quinoa:Oats:Rice (60:25:15).

Conclusion: Two formulation were found most desirable namely Quinoa:Corn:Rice (60:25:15) and Quinoa:Oats:Rice (60:25:15). However Quinoa:Oats:Rice can be better blend in view of nutritional prospect.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (Nictaginaceae) on the Activities of Antidiabetic, Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Enzymes in Experimental Diabetes

Mama Sirou Amidou Ibrahima, Attakpa Sèlidji Eugène, Béhanzin Gbèssohélè Justin, Amoussa Abdou Madjid, Sangaré Maxime Machioud, Akotegnon Rodrigue, Guinnin Félix, Lagnika Latifou, Sezan Alphonse, Baba-Moussa Lamine, Bialli Seri, Naim Akhtar Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/45640

Diabetic therapeutic potentiality of methanol extract of stem leaves of Boerhavia diffusa was investigated following in-vivo study models in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Methanol extract of stem leaves of Boerhavia diffusa exerted the glucose lowering effect an increase in serum insulin level on 28st day of postadministration. In addition to a higher expression of insulin receptor A. The extract treatment or glibenclamide for 28 days significantly (p<0.05) reduced HbA1c.

Boerhavia diffusa L. or glibenclamide for 28 days show no damaging effect on red blood count and hemoglobin when compared to the control group.  Significant (p<0.05) increase in platelet count and white blood cell count was observed in groups treated with Boerhavia diffusa L. and glibenclamide when compared to control group.  

Boerhavia diffusa L. and glibenclamide showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) low density Lipoprotein (LDL), Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST),  Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). Methanol extract of 600 mg/kg b.w had more lowering effect (p<0.05) on TC and TG as opposed to the untreated group.

Methanol extract or glibenclamide also modulated significantly (P<0.05) the activities of carbohydrate-metabolising enzymes and Hepatic glycogen content. Boerhavia diffusa or glibenclamide administration up-regulated mRNA expression of Glucose Transporter-2 (Glut2)

Boerhavia diffusa or glibenclamide also corrected antioxidant status of diabetic animals in liver. The lipid peroxidation inhibition activity of extracts from Boerhavia diffusa is stronger when compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid.

These clearly showed that methanol extract from Boerhavia diffusa has the inhibitory activities of the xanthine oxidase, lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid-lowering Effects of Foxtail Millet (Setariaitalica) and Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoawild) in Pre-diabetics

B. Anusha, T. V. Hymavathi, V. Vijayalakshmi, Pradeep Reddy, T. Pradeepa Robert

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/45285

The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of foxtail millet (FM) and quinoa (QA) food supplementation on lipid profile in non-diabetic subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A cross over design was used for this study. Ten subjects were given 65 g of QA for 30, days and with a wash of 15, FM was given for another 30 days and lipid levels were studied. Supplementation of QA followed by FM significantly(p=.05) reduced all lipid fractions. QA consumption significantly reduced all fractions of lipids than that of FM except HDL-C. FM consumption resulted in significant reductions in TC and LDL-C but not in other fractions. Though not significant, a higher increase in HDL-C was exhibited by FM (1.7 mg/dl) than by QA (0.5 mg/dl). These differences can be attributed to the higher dietary fibre and lower carbohydrate content of QA than that of FM. During the 60 days, consumption of QA and FM was found to have an overall benefit of lowering TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C by 10.77, 6.83, 3.39, 14.63 and 7.71% respectively. The study demonstrated that consumption of QA and FM are beneficial for the risk reduction of higher lipids in the human subjects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Antibiotic Misuse and Safety Practices in Saudi Population: A Pilot Study

Yasmen F. Mahran, Bashair F. Aldossari, Basmah I. Bin Huraymil, Fay A. Aljumaah, Maymunah S. Al-Duwilah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/45974

Aim: To explore the main antibiotic misbehaviors on daily basis, assess the Saudi population awareness with medication safety measures and correlate these factors to gender, age and educational levels.

Study Design:  This research is a cross sectional study and the design used a questionnaire survey distributed randomly among public people & health care professional in Al-Riyadh – Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia, in 2016-2017.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: were collected from people in Al-Kharj and Al-Riyadh during about two months.

Methodology: We included 413 people (82 men, 331 women; age range 18-61 years) which 334 came from public and 79 from health care professionals. These questionnaires were randomly distributed in Riyadh and Al-Kharj. The collected data were statistically analyzed using Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) software analysis tool (version 22.0). Chi square test with p < 0.05 was used to check for significance of differences in responses.

Results: Results showed that significant percentages of participants were misusing antibiotics due to unawareness or intentional mistakes especially in storage and disposal measures. Moreover, health care professionals declared that most errors were highly related to patient incompliance.

Conclusion: The active participation by health care professionals is fundamental for raising the antibiotic safety measures among the Saudi population and might even be cost effective.

Open Access Review Article

Synopsis of Research Methodologies: A Brief Guide for Pharmacists

Ahmed Ibrahim Nouri, Abdikarim Mohamed Abdi, Mohamed Azmi Hassali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42207

Research is a scientific way of answering questions and testing hypothesis in order to generate new knowledge or validate existing knowledge. Pharmacists, other than their functions in dispensing drugs, they could pursue roles in various areas such as clinical research, research and development, quality assurance, and pharmacy practice research. Every investigation has a study design, types of study design used are dependent on types of questions to be answered and types of research (i.e., qualitative or quantitative research). This review presents a brief overview of general quantitative study designs, sampling methods, data collection, and data analysis. Additionally, qualitative study designs, sampling methods, data collection and interviewing process, qualitative data handling and its analysis.