Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Larvicidal Properties of Blighia sapida Leaf Extracts against Larvae of An. gambiae, Cu. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti

Peace M. E. Ubulom, Godwin N. Imandeh, Ette O. Ettebong, Chinweizu Ejikeme Udobi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 259-268
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/1870

Blighia sapida is a medicinal plant used in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of some eye ailments and headache. The Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Ghana, has used this plant for the treatment of diarrhea for over 20 years.
Objective: This study was designed to investigate the lethal effect of aqueous, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaf of B. sapida on fourth instar larvae of An. gambiae, Cu. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.
Methods: The lethal effect of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of B.sapida at concentrations of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% w/v each were investigated in static bioassays on 4th 15 instar larvae of An. gambiae, Cu. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.
Results: The 72hLC50 values of the aqueous extract were 0.393, 0.488 and 0.423%w/v for larvae of An. gambiae, Cu. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively, while the values for the ethanol extract were 0.319, 0.407 and 0.384%w/v for An. gambiae, Cu. quinefasciatus and Ae. aegypti larvae respectively. For the ethyl acetate extract tested against larvae of An. gambiae, Cu. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the 72hLC50 values were 0.135, 0.177 and 0.133% w/v respectively. As judged by the 72hLC50 values ethyl acetate extract was the most potent of the three extracts.
Conclusions: Results obtained demonstrate that the leaves of B. sapida have marked larvicidal potential against mosquito larvae used in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effects of Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol ex. Correa in Inflammatory, Nociceptive and Arthritic Conditions on Experimental Animals

P. S. Patil, P. D. Argade, R. S. Ghule, R. Venkatnarayanan, P. R. Shinde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 215-227
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/1774

Aims: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antiarthritis activities of methanolic extract of T. populnea flower (TPF) and root (TPR) extract; yet unreported.
Study Design: Extraction and administration of bioactive extract.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Department of Pharmacognosy, R.V.S. College of Pharmaceutical Science, Sulur, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India, between June 2010 and July 2011.
Methodology: Thespesia populnea flowers and roots were extracted by soxhlet extraction using methanol. Anti-inflammatory activity of TPF and TPR was studied by using acetic acid induced vascular permeability and cotton-pellet granuloma. The antinociceptive activity of TPF and TPR was evaluated using formalin-induced paw licking response and the hot-plate test. The antiarthritic activity was studied by using adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rat. In addition total flavonoid content was determined with spectrophotometric method.
Results: Administration of TPF and TPR (400 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the formation of granuloma tissue induced by cotton pellet at a rate of 37.06% and 25.76% respectively. TPF and TPR inhibited acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. In the adjuvant-induced arthritis test TPF and TPR inhibited 50.68% and 30.13% of paw thickness respectively. TPF and TPR also produced significant (P < 0.01) analgesic activity in formalin-induced paw licking response. In the hot-plate test, TPF and TPR have shown significantly (P < 0.01) increased in latency time when compared with control.
Conclusion: Altogether, the present data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory antinociceptive and antiarthritis properties of flower and root of Thespesia populnea suggesting its potential role as adjuvant therapeutic tool for the management of inflammatory-related diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method Development and Its Validation for Salbutamol

Selvadurai Muralidharan, Jayaraj Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 228-237
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/1279

Aims: A simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for quantification of salbutamol in rat plasma. Terbutaline was used as an internal standard (IS).
Study Design: Validation study.
Methodology: The present method used solid phase extraction of salbutamol from rat plasma. Chromatographic separation achieved isocratically on reversed-phase c18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5μ) and the column effluent was monitored by uv detector at 276 nm. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile: 50mm ammonium acetate (ph 7.0), (80: 20 % v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min.
Results and Discussion: This method was linear over the range of 50.0 – 1000.0 ng/ml with regression coefficient greater than 0.99.
Conclusion: The method was found to be precise, accurate and specific during the study. The simplicity of the method allows for application in laboratories that lack sophisticated analytical instruments such as LC–MS/MS or GC–MS/MS that are complicated, costly and time consuming rather than a simple HPLC–UV method. The method was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic study of salbutamol in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antistaphylococcal Activity of N-Butanol and Aqueous Sub-Fractions of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves

G. O. Adeshina, B. O. Olayinka, A. Mohammed, Y. K. E. Ibrahim, J. A. Onaolapo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 238-248
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/1727

Aims: To carry out the antistaphylococcal activity of n-butanol and aqueous sub-fractions of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. And Thonn.) Müll. Arg. leaf extract against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Study Design: Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility determination of the test S. aureus isolates, extraction of A. cordifolia leaf, partitioning of the extract, Zones of inhibition and Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentrations determination.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. February 2010 to October 2011.
Methodology: A. cordifolia leaves were collected from Abuja, Nigeria. The activity of the ethanol extract, N-butanol (NSF) and aqueous (ASF) sub-fractions of the plant leaf against five clinical staphylococcal isolates and the standard Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591 were determined using agar-well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined by the Kirby-Bauer-CLSI modified disc agar diffusion technique (DAD).
Results: The diameter zones of inhibition showed by ethanol extract against the test staphylococcal isolates ranged between 12 mm - 26 mm, while the diameter zones of inhibition observed from N-butanol sub-fraction and aqueous sub-fraction against the isolates were between 11 mm - 36.5 mm and 11 mm - 35 mm respectively. The diameter zones of inhibition of the sub-fractions against the standard MRSA ATCC 33591 ranged from 11 mm – 27.5 mm. The diameter zones of inhibition of the test antibiotics ranged from 10 mm to 23 mm. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M. I. C.) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (M. B. C.) values produced by ethanol extract were higher than those of the sub-fractions. N-butanol sub-fraction produced the lowest M. I. C and M. B. C. values of 0.625 mg/ml – 1.25 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml – 2.5 mg/ml respectively. The M. I. C. and M. B. C. values of the N-butanol sub-fraction against the standard strain ATCC 33591 were 1.25 mg/ml and 2.5 mg/ml respectively.
Conclusion: The tested N-butanol and aqueous sub-fractions of A. cordifolia leaf were active against the S. aureus strains at low concentrations. The plant can be a possible candidate in the search for alternative antistaphylococcal agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flavonoids Extracted from Fruit Pulp of Cucumis metuliferus Have Antiviral Properties

K. I. Amagon, N. N. Wannang, H. A. Iliya, L. D. Ior, G. O Chris-Otubor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 249-258
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/1872

Aim: To investigate the antiviral property of flavonoids from Cucumis metuliferus fruit pulp in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) induced with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).
Study Design: Extraction and administration of bioactive extract.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, University of Jos, Nigeria and Virology Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria between June, 2011 and August, 2011.
Methodology: The CEF cells were first exposed to 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125, 1.563, 0.782, 0.391 and 0.195 mg/ml of the sterile flavonoids to test for cytotoxicity and the cells monitored visually daily using a light microscope for evidence of cytopathic effects at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Toxicity of flavonoids in embryonated eggs and antiviral assay for flavonoids using IBDV were then carried out. Hemagglutination test for antigenicity of the virus was also performed to confirm antiviral activity.
Results: The flavonoids (100 to 0.195 mg/ml concentrations) were not cytopathic when exposed to CEF cells. After 24 and 48 hours, all the embryonated eggs died at 100 and 50 mg/ml of the flavonoids respectively, but mortalities were not recorded at other concentrations of the flavonoids. Concentrations of the flavonoids at 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml were found to be toxic against IBDV, but viral replication was not inhibited from flavonoids concentrations of 3.125, 1.563, 0.782, 0.391 and 0.195 mg/ml.
Conclusion: This investigation revealed that flavonoids from Cucumis metuliferus fruit pulp were relatively safe in chickens and possess antiviral activity against IBDV.