Open Access Short Research Article

The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on Monoterpene Composition of the Essential Oil in Shoot Cultures of Sautreja khuzistanica Jamzad

Fatemeh Farzi, Hamid Fahimi, Mozafar Sharifi, Amir Mousavi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/43472

Background and Objective: Numerous monoterpenes are present in the essential oil of Sautreja khuzistanica Jamzad. In this study, the effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) applied in the LS medium of shoot cultures of S. khuzistanica on individual monoterpene percentages were evaluated.

Results: Our results showed that 44 h after elicitation with 250 and 500 µM MJ, several monoterpenes including α-Pinene, β-Pinene, γ-Terpinene, α-Terpinene, β-Myrcene, p-Cymene, α-Thujene, Carvone significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.001). Linalool significantly decreased by treatment with 250 µM MJ. A significant increase in carvacrol and α-Terpineol concentration was observed in 250 and 500 µM MJ treatments (p ≤ 0.001). Cis-sabinene hydrate concentration was significantly increased by treatment with 500 µM MJ (p ≤ 0.001).

Discussion and Conclusion: Changes in individual monoterpene percentages were observed in MJ treated versus control plants. The results of this study indicated that MJ application may affect essential oil monoterpene composition. The information is beneficial to our further investigation and understanding of MJ elicitation on the essential oil quality, and it may be also helpful to the manipulation of the essential oil composition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preoccupations and Worries in Women with Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

Shahrbanoo Ghahari, Raheleh Fallah, Leila Behnam, Mohammad Mazloumi Rad, Nazanin Farrokhi, Raoofeh Ghayoomi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/40229

Aims: As one of the most prevalent cancers among women, breast cancer can severely affect the patients psychologically. Worry and anxiety can be one of these effects. Hence, this study is conducted to evaluate the most important worries and preoccupations of women with breast cancer.

Methodology: In this qualitative study, 14 women with breast cancer under treatment are selected from Tehran's clinics and Shohada hospital and 7 psychotherapists and counselors are selected from consultation centers in Tehran in 2016 using purposive sampling method. The patients were interviewed using group-focused method and the therapists were interviewed individually using in-depth interview. The data was recorded and along with data collection, the results were analyzed using content analysis.

Results: Future uncertainty and ambiguity were the main themes found in this study. The sub-themes also included lack of control, prediction of loss and psychological insecurity.

Conclusion: Women with breast cancer have many worries and the main themes of these worries include ambiguity, future uncertainty and secondary themes include insecurity, prediction of loss and vulnerability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effect and PRRS Antiviral Activity of Glycyrrhizinic Acid in Aqueous Solution and with the Presence of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

M. Z. Urbán-Morlán, S. E. Mendoza-Elvira, A. Jiménez-García de León, H. Ramírez-Mendoza, N. Mendoza-Muñoz, A. Ciprián-Carrasco, D. Quintanar-Guerrero

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/44806

Aims: To study the effect of glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) solutions on uninfected and PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome) virus-infected cells in culture. An attempt of testing loaded nanoparticles with GA on cells was also explored.

Study Design: Different concentrations of GA in solution were tested on MARC cells as well as on virus-infected cells and observed during 144 h. Solid lipid nanoparticles with GA were tested on cell culture previously infected. In the end, cytotoxicity (CC50), inhibition of the cytopathic effect (EC50), virus titer and selectivity index were determined. Trypan blue staining (TB) and MTT assay were also performed and statistically analysed.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratorio de Posgrado e Investigación en Tecnología Farmacéutica y Laboratorio de Microbiología y Virología de las Enfermedades Respiratorias del Cerdo, both at Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, UNAM; between March 2015 and August 2017.

Methodology: For CC50 determination solutions of GA were added and TB and MTT assay was performed. EC50 was evaluated on virus-infected cells that were treated with GA solutions. Viability and selectivity index were calculated. Virus titer was calculated by the Reed & Muench method. Nanoparticles containing GA (0.54 mg/ml) were obtained by the microemulsion method and tested on cells previously infected with the virus. TB staining and MTT assay were performed at the end of the study.

Results: Cell viability was verified by MTT assay and TB dye exclusion test. Only the 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 mg/ml solutions were statistically different from controls P < .05. The CC50 of GA was above 4.2 mg/ml. The EC50 was calculated at 0.48 mg/ml. The viral titer decreased two logarithms compared to the control. The selectivity index was 8.7. Viability decreased significantly P < .05 compared to controls only at 0.9 mg/ml. An SLN assay on PRRS-infected cells showed that cell viability was comparable to that exerted by the virus-infected control cells P > .05. So cells treated with SLN interfere with MTT assay.

Conclusion: GA showed a reduction of PRRS in vitro replication. SLN interferes with the MTT assay and it is necessary to perform more assays to conclude on the antiviral activity of GA when administered in nanoparticles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studying the Effect of Local Solution of Clobetasol on Peritoneal Adhesion after Laparotomic Surgery in Rats

Soroush Noroozzadeh, Leila Ghafoor, Noshin Sadat Mosavi, Hamidreza Banafsheh, Amirhosein Matini, Seyed Alireza Morovaji

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/45122

Background and Objective: Adhesion is an important complication of abdominal and pelvic surgery. Applying corticosteroids reduces vascular permeability and releasing of cytokines and chemotactic factors. The current study has examined the effect of clobetasol solution on intra-abdominal adhesion in the rat after laparotomy.

Materials and Methods: 50 albino male rats with age of three months were undergoing laparotomy; the ileocecal abrasionas induced the peritoneal adhesion. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 rats per group): the first group was treated with 5 ml clobetasol 0.05%; the second group was treated with 5 ml clobetasol 0.025%; the third group was treated with 5 ml clobetasol 0.0125%; the fourth group was treated with 5 ml paraffin and fifth group (control) was no undergone under any treatment. After 14 days, the adhesion and histopathologic changes were compared between the groups. The rats that died for any reason were excluded from the study.

Results: From among 50 rats, 3 rats died in groups 3, 4 and 5. There was a significant statistic difference between the groups regarding adhesion severity (p = 0.018). In the case of integration of intervention groups (groups 1 to 3), there was a significant statistic difference in the amount and severity of adhesion, as well as the rate of inflammation and the extent of fibrosis among the groups (p = 0.028, p = 0.03, p = 0.002, p = 0.048) which was determined by Fisher's exact test.

Conclusion: The clobetasol solution can prevent the onset of adhesion after laparotomy in mice and reduce its intensity. Safety and the possibility of using clobetasol to prevent adhesion after abdominal surgery in humans require more clinical trials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ligand Based Drug Designing of Molecular Target PPARγ/AT1R through CDOCKER and ADMET Prediction

Zhi Jing, Ya-Ya Liu, Xiao-Yan Feng, Wen-Qing Jia, Jian-Wen Liu, Xian-Chao Cheng

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/43482

Aims: The current research has shown that the complications of hypertensive diabetes have a great impact on the body. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II antagonist, has the dual role of antihypertensive and antidiabetics effects. This research aims to find a novel compound to treat hypertensive diabetes.

Study Design: Taking telmisartan as the lead compound to explore the active compounds with a similar structure is the orientation to explore new hypertensive diabetes drugs. The target compounds enhance the partial activity of PPARγ with the retention of antagonistic activity of AT1R.

Place and Duration of Study: Tianjin Key Laboratory on Technologies Enabling Development of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnostics (Theranostics), School of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University, between November 2017 and April 2018.

Methodology: In this paper, high-throughput screening the virtual compounds library, by docking, ADMET prediction and molecular dynamics of PPARγ/AT1 dual target active drugs, the target compound has similar chemical characteristics of the original ligand.

Results: The representative compound 544 has better pharmacokinetic properties and shows a good combination with both targets. The complexes of the compound with both targets were simulated for 20ns, respectively, and the binding mode was stable.

Conclusion: This work aims to find the novel PPARγ/AT1 dually active compounds in the treatment of hypertensive diabetes complication. The study can effectively reduce the impact of drug metabolism on the liver and kidney, adverse reactions and some other side effects.