Open Access Original Research Article

Depletion in Serum Levels of Folic Acid, Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Female Wistar Rats Treated with Sub-toxic Dose of Acetaminophen/Methionine Combination – A Chronic Study

Ayobola Abolape Iyanda, Francis Adeniyi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-79
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/923

Context: Studies have identified that concurrent administration of methionine and acetaminophen (paracetamol) prevents tissue damage and both methionine and acetaminophen at high doses can induce oxidative stress. Antioxidants mediate against oxidative stress. Moreover, folic acid depletion has been identified to cause neural tube defects in neonates of affected female subjects.
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of chronic exposure to sub-toxic dose of acetaminophen/methionine (ratio 5:1) on female Wistar rats, with emphasis on folic acid and antioxidant vitamins and minerals.
Material and Methods: Rats were divided into 3 groups with each group consisting of 8 rats and treated with acetaminophen/methionine, acetaminophen or saline daily by gastric gavage. The study lasted 30 days after which blood was obtained through retro-orbital bleeding.
Results: Results show that Wistar rats administered with 350 mg/kg BW (sub-toxic dose) of acetaminophen exhibited significant alteration (p<0.05) in levels of all trace elements (except Se) as well as vitamins (except vitamin A). Significant alterations in the levels of all vitamins (except riboflavin) and all minerals (except Cu, Mn, Se) (p<0.05) were also recorded in serum of rats administered with acetaminophen/methionine combination.
Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study therefore suggest that chronic abuse of subtoxic dose of acetaminophen/methionine combination may induce alterations in levels of vital molecules, a situation which may increase an individual’s risk to oxidative stress-induced diseases and her neonate to neural tube defects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Amino Acid Profile and Haemoglobin Polymerization Inhibition Potential of Some Nigerian Legumes

O. A. Ojiako, K. Anugweje, C. U. Igwe, C. S. Alisi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-88
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/896

The amino acid profile and the effects of the seed extracts of Sphenostylis sternocarpa, Monodora myristica and Mucuna sloanei were studied based on their ability to inhibit haemoglobin polymerization and improve the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio of sickle cell erythrocytes. The samples were fractionated into crude aqueous extract (CAE), fat-soluble (FAS), butanol-soluble (BUS) and water-soluble (WAS) fractions. The CAEs of the samples ranked highest in amino acid content in the range of S. sternocarpa (7.12 ± 0.00 g/100g)>M. myristica (6.00 ± 0.15 g/100g)>M. sloanei (3.56 ± 0.21 g/100g). The amino acids identified in appreciable quantities in the seed samples included Phe, Leu, Val, Ile, His, Arg, Tyr, Met, among others. The extracts inhibited polymerization to varying degrees with CAE of both S. sternocarpa and M. myristica, as well as the WAS of M. myristica eliciting significantly (p<0.05) high percent inhibition of polymerization when compared with Phe standard. The extracts improved the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio of HbSS blood from 1.36% for CAE of M. sloanei to 85.04% for CAE of S. sternocarpa; and from 11.03% for WAS of S. sternocarpa to 36.08% for WAS of M. sloanei. These legumes could, therefore, have immense nutritional and therapeutic importance in the management of sickle cell disease and other related diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous Blighia sapida Root Bark Extract on Normoglycemic Albino Rats

A. N. Saidu, A. Mann, C. D. Onuegbu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 89-97
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/1056

Aims: To carry out phytochemical screening and investigate hypoglycemic effect of aqueous Blighia sapida root bark extract (ABRE) on normoglycemic Albino rats.
Study Design: Extraction and administration of bioactive extract.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, between June, 2010 and September, 2010.
Methodology: Extraction of the air-dried ground root of Blighia sapida (100 g) was done with 80mls distilled water for 2 h. The extract (ABRE) obtained was then administered at concentrations of 100mg/ml and 200mg/ml per 1000g body weight of the rats. The normoglycemic albino rats were employed. Qualitative phytochemical screening was carried out according to the standard methods of Trease and Evans (2006). The animals were fed ad libitum with vital finisher made up of maize and soya beans mainly. Fasting blood taken after 16h over night fasting was used in this study.
Results: The phytochemical screening of ABRE shows the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugar, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenol and tannin; while the test for protein showed negative results. Administration of the aqueous of B. sapida root bark at intervals of 48h for 21 days resulted in decrease in the blood glucose levels of rats.
Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that consumption of the ABRE exerts significant hypoglycemic effect in normoglycemic rats. These findings support the traditional use of ABRE for controlling diabetes. Further studies to isolate active principle(s) of the extracts as well as to elucidate their exact mechanism(s) of action are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Vernonia amygdalina Del. Extract on Cholesterol Level and Lipid Peroxidation Status in Rats Given Red Dye Adulterated Palm Oil Diets

Imafidon E. Kate, Okunrobo O. Lucky

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-107
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/1095

Aims: To evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of V. amygdalina on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation status in rats.
Study Design: Experimentation.
Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Biochemistry and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin city, Nigeria. From February, 2011 to November, 2011.
Methodology: Biochemical analyses were carried out to determine the activities of liver and plasma catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and levels of malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Consequently, forty-eight rats were divided into six groups of eight rats each; the first group of animals was fed on rats’ chow only while others were given 90% rats’ chow supplemented with 10% palm oil. Solvent red 24 was administered in the diet to provide levels of 0% (PO/GM). 0.005% (PO/0.005), 0.01% (PO/0.01) and 0.015% (PO/0.015). The sixth group of animals was given 0.015% dye along with 200mg/kg extract of V. amygdalina. The animals were given these diets for six weeks along with water ad libitum.
Results: There were reductions in catalase activities at all dose levels of dye administration and significant (P<0.05) increase in SOD and malondialdehyde levels in those groups administered with 0.015% dye (PO/0.015). These effect was significantly ameliorated on administration of the V. amygdalina extract. LDL-Cholesterol levels was significantly increased and HDL-Cholesterol reduced at all levels of dye administration, this effect was significantly ameliorated in the PO/BL group on administration of V. amygdalina.
Conclusion: Administration of different dose of solvent red 24 dye increased lipid peroxidation status and LDL-Cholesterol levels in rats, these effects were ameliorated on administration of 200mg/kg V. amygdalina aqueous extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of the Petroleum Ether Extract of Solanum macrocarpum L. (Local Name: Gorongo)

O. A. Sodipo, F. I. Abdulrahman, T. E. Alemika, I. A. Gulani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 108-128
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2012/1207

Aims: To investigate the petroleum ether extract of the unripe fruit of Solanum macrocarpum L. (Solanaceae) for its chemical components and its antimicrobial properties against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi.
Study Design: Experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri and Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria, between October 2007 and July 2009.
Methodology: After authentication of the plant, extracts were prepared from the fruits of S. macrocarpum using Soxhlet apparatus. The petroleum ether extract was investigated for its chemical composition using GC-MS after it had been fractionated earlier using AGC. The extract was also evaluated for its antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion antimicrobial selectivity test using gentamicin (10µg/disc), ciprofloxacin (5µg/disc) and tetracycline (2.5x105µg/disc) as standards.
Results: All the microorganisms used were resistant to the effect of the petroleum ether extract. However, a total of sixty eight (68) compounds were identified in the extract and its four (4) fractions, whilst only thirty eight (38) chemical structures of the identified compounds were shown because some of the compounds were common to all the fractions.
Conclusion: The detection of 2-methoxy furan, 4-0-methyl-mannose, 2-hydroxy-ϒ-butyrolactone, 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl 9-octadecanoate, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and butanoic acid validates the antihyperlipidaemic property of the fruit of S. macrocarpum, so consumption of this fruit is recommended as a nutraceutical.