Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Tridax procumbens with Special Reference to Nosocomial Pathogens

Chitra Pai, Ujjwala Kulkarni, Manjusha Borde, Sowmya Murali, P. Mrudula, Yashwant Deshmukh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 164-173
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2011/763

Aims: To evaluate the aqueous as well as ethanolic extracts of Tridax procumbens L., (Asteraceae) against various bacterial pathogens including strains obtained from community acquired and nosocomial infections.
Study design: Experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology and Department of Pharmacology, M.G.M. Medical College and M.G.M. New Bombay Hospital, Navi Mumbai, India, between July 2010 and December 2010.
Methodology: After authentication of the plant, extracts were prepared from the leaves of T. procumbens using Soxhlet apparatus. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were tested against some standard strains as well as clinical isolates of different bacteria by agar well diffusion technique. Nosocomial strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different clinical samples were also tested.
Results: While the aqueous extract had no antibacterial activity, the alcoholic extract showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract against the nosocomial strains of Pseudomonas was significantly more compared to that of antibiotics such as augmentin, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin.
Conclusion: Narrow spectrum preparations like extracts of Tridax leaves may be useful for successful therapy against multidrug resistant pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Free Radical Scavenging and In-vitro Antioxidant Effects of Ethanol Extract of the Medicinal Herb Chromolaena odorata Linn.

C. S. Alisi, O. A. Ojiako, C. G. Osuagwu, G. O. C. Onyeze

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-155
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2011/409

The ethanol extract of the leaf of Chromolaena odorata (Linn) was assessed for free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant potentials. Ability of the extract to scavenge reactive intermediates (superoxide ion O2·-, hydrogen peroxide H2O2, nitric oxide NO˙, hydroxyl radical OH˙) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, were used to assess its free radical scavenging potentials. Antioxidant potential was studied by assessing in-vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation in both the brain (Neuro-protective potentials) and liver homogenates of Fenton-oxidant stressed rabbits. Inhibition of protein oxidation was assessed in-vitro by loss of protein thiol (P-SH), while assessment of the reducing power of the extract was further used to assess antioxidant capacity. Results obtained showed the ability of the extract to scavenge free radicals and reactive intermediates in a dose-response manner. The plant also had good antioxidant capacity. The secondary plant metabolites found earlier in the extract may explain reasons for the bio-efficacy of the plant. These findings are of great importance in view of the availability of the plant and its observed possible diverse applications in medicine and nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of Gelatinases by Vegetable Extracts of the Species Tapirira guianensis (Stick Pigeon)

T. R. Longatti, G. Cenzi, L. A. R. S. Lima, R. J. S. Oliveira, V. N. Oliveira, S. L. Da Silva, R. I. M. A. Ribeiro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 133-140
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2011/372

Tapirira guianensis (Stick pigeon), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to possess various biological activities. The aim of this study was the phytochemical analysis of the fractions of extracts of T. guianensis and the investigation of the action of these extracts on the activity of gelatinases using zymography. Matrix metalloproteinases (gelatinases) have prognostic influences in human cancers, where higher expressions of these enzymes are associated with increased aggressiveness and biological behavior of tumors. Many natural products have been tested on several stages of carcinogenesis to demonstrate their effectiveness in the inhibition or activation of molecules that are important for tumor progression. This study identified the fractions obtained from the crude extract of T. guianensis (Stick pigeon), which efficiently inhibited gelatinases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Stress Scale Psychometric Validation for Malaysian Diabetic Patients

S. Wasif Gillani, Syed Azhar Syed. S, Yelly Oktavia Sari, Azmi Sarriff, Atif Amin, Mirza Baig

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 156-163
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2011/511

Aims: The purpose of this study was to provide factorial analytic findings, construct validation and normative data for the Malaysian diabetic patients. Gender difference was also examined with racial response to PSS-10.
Study design: Population base cross sectional survey.
Place and Duration of Study: Penang between Nov 2009 and March 2010.
Methodology: Cluster random sampling technique was employed for the selection participants in the community. A total of 1924 diabetic patients with age ≥ 18 (mean age = 39.51) were approached; 992 of them were female and 932 of them were male. People rated how often they had experienced these feelings in the last week on a five-point Likert scale from 0 = never to 4 = very often. The scale was translated into Malay language independently by two psychological counselors who had at least a master’s degree and bilingual efficiency. The LISREL 8.30 program was used to assenting factor analysis. Chi-square (χ2)/df (degree of freedom) ratio, GFI (goodness of fit index), AGFI (adjusted goodness of fit index) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used to evaluate the fit of the model (two-factor).
Results: Barlett’s test of sphericity was 1603.417 (p<0.001) and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of the sampling adequacy was 0.83. Varimax rotation was conducted with these two identified factors. Factor A integrated items 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 10, labeled as ‘Perceived Avoidance’ while Factor B containing items 4, 5, 7, 8 and labeled as ‘Perceived Controllable’. Item variance showed 45.73 per cent of accountability with Factor A and 13.43 per cent with Factor B. Mandatory factor analysis for the two-factor of Malaysian version of PSS yielded: GFIs: χ2 (39) = 127.846, p<0.001, χ2/df= 4.1; GFI = 0.97; AGFI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.06 and CFI = 0.99.
Conclusion: PSS-10 is a reliable tool for assessing the stress measures among diabetic living of the society. High stress level is identified among the females as compared to male diabetic patients. Overall the whole cohort has high perceived stress level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Artemisia annua L. Infusion for Malaria Prevention: Mode of Action and Benefits in a Ugandan Community

Patrick E. Ogwang, Jasper O. Ogwal, Simon Kasasa, Francis Ejobi, David Kabasa, Celestino Obua

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-132
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2011/392

Malaria is major public health problem in Uganda endemic in 95% contributing up to 40% of hospital outpatient attendances. Approaches to controlling the disease include; environmental, entomological and medicinal interventions. Some communities use medicinal plants to control the disease. In this paper we report the use of Artemisia annua L. for malaria prophylaxis at a Ugandan floricultural farm. We conducted a survey of the farm workers to determine extent of use of A. annua ‘tea’, their clinic attendance patterns and also quantified the levels of artemisinin and flavonoids in A. annua. We further tested the effect of artemisinin devoid extract in laboratory animal models. Findings from the survey showed that 84.2% of the managers and 62% of field workers in this farm consumed A. annua ‘tea’ once a week to prevent malaria and related fevers. Clinic attendance due to fevers or symptoms associated with malaria was reduced by 80% while cases of laboratory confirmed diagnosis of malaria reduced by 16.7%. Laboratory test of A. annua leaf powder used in community indicated the presence of artemisinin (0.4% to 0.5%) and flavonoids (9% to 11%). A. annua extract devoid of artemisinin was found to significantly boost monocyte counts in albino rats (p<0.001).The action of these flovonoids could explain the mechanism of prophylaxis of A. annua ‘tea’. A. annua variety or product thereof rich in flavonoids but devoid of artemisinin should be developed and tried for mass prevention of malaria as a beverage or food taken regularly.

Open Access Review Article

Medical Herbalism and Herbal Clinical Research: A Global Perspective

Sunday J. Ameh, Obiageri O. Obodozie, Peace C. Babalola, Karnius S. Gamaniel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 99-123
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2011/403

This review aims to sensitize researchers, regulators and other stakeholders to the centrality of clinical research to drug development from herbs used in Traditional Medicine (TM). The review uncovered and dwelt on the fact that: while clinical trials of chemical medicines (pharmaceuticals) tend to come late in the drug development chain, the reverse is often the case with herbal medicines (phytomedicines). Once the decision is made to develop a single phytochemical entity (phytopharmaceutical, example: artemisinin) from a plant, the need for such sensitization is particularly desirable, given their huge socioeconomic implications. The review emphasized that drug development from a traditional herb can: i) take the route of standardization of the herb or its extract for immediate use without further chemical manipulations; or ii) proceed along the line of isolation and other manipulations aimed at optimising bioactivity. By the first route, development proceeds directly from confirming that the pharmacological property of the herb tallies with its traditional indication, leading instantly to value addition to traditional knowledge accumulated over years. This is because herbal medicines based on time tested traditions need not undergo phased trials as would a novel pharmaceutical (or an old herb for a new indication), since their long histories often offer evidence of their safety and efficacy. In the second route, clinical studies usually come later in the chain. This is because, unlike the traditional therapeutic, the new phytopharmaceutical, taken out of its natural microenvironment and subjected to various chemical manipulations, including purification, is no longer the equivalent of the ancient remedy with predicable effects. Moreover, in this later case, interest in the new entity (an artificially concentrate isolate) may shift completely from the traditional indication of the herb, hence the need for phased trials of phytopharmaceuticals (or an old herb for a new indication), despite their natural origin.