Open Access Case Study

Drug Utilization and Cost Analysis for Common Skin Diseases in Dermatology OPD of an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital - A Prescription Survey

S. P. Narwane, T. C. Patel, Y. C. Shetty, S. B. Chikhalkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2011/223

Introduction: Epidemiology of skin diseases has been studied and evaluated occasionally. In view of high incidence of skin diseases and economic burden that it poses, there is a need to evaluate the present epidemiology and prescribing pattern of skin disorders.
Objective: To assess common skin conditions, drug utilization patterns and cost analysis in Dermatology Out patients Department (OPD) of Tertiary Care hospital.
Methodology: After taking Ethics committee’s permission, prescriptions of 600 patients attending Dermatology OPD were audited. The prescriptions were analyzed for common skin conditions drug utilization and cost analysis.
Results: The common skin conditions found were Pyoderma and Scabies while common classes of drugs prescribed were antiallergics, antifungals and steroids. Drugs prescribed by Generic name were 16.6% and Brand names were 83.4%. It was revealed that 30% of total drugs dispensed from hospital pharmacy and 70% from outside pharmacy. Average hospital and outside pharmacy costs were INR19.40 and INR116.20, respectively. The outside pharmacy cost of prescription (Spearman’s Rho = -0.130, p < 0.01) as well as cost paid by the patients (Spearman’s Rho = 0.408, p < 0.001) had a negative correlation with the socioeconomic score as the drugs were prescribed irrespective of the socioeconomic class.
Conclusion: The dermatological prescription analysis gives a message to the prescribing physician to achieve rational and cost effective medical care. The drugs which are made available in the hospital pharmacy should be based on clinical evidence generated from meta-analysis of drug studies, pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacoeconomic studies. There is dire need for physicians training with regards to rational use of drugs and pharmacoeconomics. Hospital should make essential drugs available with continuous monitoring to improve the prescribing pattern. The limitation of this study is that the actual direct costs and indirect costs were not studied. It opens the scope for further study in this area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Phytochemical Composition and Hypoglycaemic Activity of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Costus afer in Albino Rats

S. Momoh, O. W. Yusuf, M. M. Adamu, C . O. C. Agwu, F. O. Atanu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2011/237

Medicinal plants are reservoirs of natural products with anti-diabetic potentials. In the present study we screened Costus afer for the presence of plant products and to study the effects of the methanolic leaf extract of the plant on fasting blood glucose of normal rats. Adult male wistar strain albino rats were given graded doses (200-800mg/kg) of the methanolic leaf extract of Costus afer, standard hypoglycaemic drug glibenclamide or a combination of the two in the presence or absence of oral glucose feeding. Fasting blood glucose was monitored for 6 hours post administration of drugs. Phytochemical studies revealed relative amounts of alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, phenols, glycosides and terpenoids. Costus afer showed significant hypoglycaemic effect (p<0.05) comparable with the standard drug. However, the plant extract did not reduce blood glucose in glucose fed rats. Also, a combination of plant extract and glibenclamide caused a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar of both glucose loaded and unloaded rats. The results validate the use of Costus afer as a hypoglycaemic plant in native medicine. These effects could be attributed to its phytochemical constituents. Costus afer could be a promising plant for the development of anti-diabetic drugs.