Open Access Original Research Article

Volatile Constituents, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Aerial Parts of Origanum majorana L. from Yemen

Mohamed Al-Fatimi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/35932

Aims: There is no report about the analysis of volatile composition of Origanum majorana L. (Lamiaceae) by static headspace method in combination with GC-MS. The present study reports for the first time the volatile composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of O. majorana from aerial parts of plant collected in Yemen.

Methodology: The volatile composition was obtained by headspace vapour of plant aerial parts and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and antimicrobial activity by agar diffusion.

Results: The major volatile compounds were found to be monoterpenes: Trans-sabinene hydrate (16.0 %), sabinene (14.1%), cis-sabinene hydrate (11.8 %), γ-terpinene (10.2%),α-terpinyl acetate (10.0%), α-terpinene (8.9%), terpinen-4-ol. In addition, five volatile non terpenoid compounds were identified for the first time: 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, pentanal and methyl 2-methylbutanoate. Furthermore, dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activities against five bacteria and two fungi strains. The most sensitive microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus, reaching MIC values of 50, 100 mg/mL for methanol and dichloromethane extracts, respectively. The methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay followed by dichloromethane extract.

Conclusion: The O. majorana extracts showed potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activities mostly attributed to identified oxygenated monoterpenes. The obtaining of volatiles of the plant as vapour by headspace method showed more qualitative and accurate quantitative results than by hydrodistillation method. Therefore, the headspace analysis should be useful in analytical control of herbal crude drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive Effects of Hydromethanolic Leaf Extracts of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Euphorbiacea) in Streptozotocin Induced-diabetic Rats

Weleh, Ikechukwu Iyke, I. Green, Kinikanwo, Njoku, Bestman, Oriji, Vadunume Kingsley

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/35367

Introduction: The potency of plants is largely due to the presence of phytochemicals contain in them. Plant-derived chemicals influence endocrine activities in animals and humans have received affluent attention due to their possible adverse effects or benefits, especially on sex hormones.

Aim: This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of hydromethanolic leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on sex hormones in streptozotocin induced-diabetic wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Thirty (30) wistar rats with an average weight of 230 grams, were randomly assigned into five groups of 6 (six) animals each. Group 1: served as negative control (non-diabetic) and received normal animal chow and water ad libitum, group 2: served as positive control group and received 10 mg/kg bw of glibenclamide, groups 3, 4 and 5 served as experimental group and received 100 mg/kg bw, 150 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg body weight of C.A orally for 28 days after being induced with diabetics using streptozotocin.

Results: Phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of a highly abundant level of alkaloids and flavonoids, with moderate levels of tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, free anthraquinones, combined anthraquinones, terpenes, cardiac glycoside and cyanogenetic glycoside. Administration of the extract of C.A shows significant (P<0.05) decrease in LH, testosterone, estradiol, whereas that of serum prolactin concentration was significantly increased.

Conclusion: The biologically active phytochemicals in the hydromethamelic leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius may disrupt the endocrine system, thus inducing hormonal imbalance or disorders in hormone deponent organ, infertility and contraception. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius might be a promising contraceptive agent and an excellent alternative natural remedy in reproductive and gynaecological studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanism of Anticonvulsant Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract and Fractions of Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) in Mice

Lateef Abiola Akinpelu, Moses Atanda Akanmu, Efere Martins Obuotor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42430

Aims: This study investigated the anticonvulsant potential of ethanol leaf extract and fractions of Milicia excelsa (Moraceae).

Study Design: This study used experimental animal models predictive of human convulsion in mice.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, between January 2014 and  February 2015.

Methodology: The anticonvulsant effect of ethanol leaf extract (EME), n-hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (BF) and aqueous (AF) fractions of the extract was evaluated using picrotoxin-, pentylenetetrazole-, and strychnine-induced convulsion models. The neural mechanism of anticonvulsant effect of the most active fraction (AF) was also investigated using flumazenil (3 mg/kg, i.p.), cyproheptadine (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and L-NG-Nitroarginine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in picrotoxin-induced convulsion model.

Results: EME and AF significantly (P < .05) delayed the onset of clonic and tonic convulsions and prolonged death latency with varying degrees of protection in picrotoxin-, and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion models. EME, EAF and AF significantly (P < .05) pronlonged the onset of clonic convulsion in strychnine-induced convulsion in mice. Flumazenil, cyproheptadine and L-NG-Nitroarginine abolished the anticonvulsant effect of AF suggesting the involvement of GABAergic, serotonergic and nitergic pathways.

Conclusion: This study concludes that Milicia excelsa leaf contains biologically active anticonvulsant principles, thus lending pharmacological credence to the suggested traditional use. Further study may be undertaken to isolate and elucidate the chemical structure of the biologically active ingredient(s) responsible for the observed anticonvulsant effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (CAR – T) Therapy – A Novel Treatment in Cancer

Priyadarsini Baskaran, Venkatraman Karthikeayan, Anusha Natarajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/43471

Cancer is one of the most challenging diseases affecting mankind. It continues to defy all the treatment modalities and advancements and claims millions of lives every year. Chimeric Antigen Receptor –T (CAR-T) cell therapy is one of the breakthroughs in cancer treatment. Chimeric antigen receptor is a recombinant immunoreceptor that enables the T cells to recognise and kill tumour surface antigens in a non MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) restricted manner. There are four generations of CAR-T cells, of which the second generation CAR-T cells have maximum efficacy clinically. In 2017, two CAR-T cell therapies were approved by FDA for the treatment of ALL (Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia) and NHL (Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma). More than 80% remission is achieved with these tumours which are resistant to all other treatment modalities. Now CAR-T cell therapies are being tested for non – haematological malignancies also. However, the adverse effects of CAR-T cell therapies are very severe like Cytokine Release syndrome (CRS) and on - target off - tumour toxicity. This review will attempt to cover the basic concept and the applications of CAR-T cells, their adverse effects, challenges faced and the future prospects of the CAR-T cells in treatment of cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Portulaca oleracea Reduces Lipemia, Glycemia, and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Fed Cholesterol-enriched Dietq

F. Djellouli, D. Krouf, M. A. Lacaille-Dubois, M. Bouchenak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/43495

Aims: In this study, the effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia combined with diabetes in rats were investigated.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Clinical and Metabolic Nutrition, Department of Biology, Nature and Life Sciences Faculty, University of Oran1, Algeria, between September and July 2017.

Study Design: The effects of an aqueous extract from the leaves of Po were studied on glucose homeostasis, lipid parameters, and oxidative stress markers, in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats on a cholesterol-enriched diet.

Methodology: Experimental hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rats with 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 days. Hypercholesterolemic male Wistar rats (n=28) were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection dose (55 mg/kg BW) of STZ. Hypercholesterolemic diabetic rats were divided into two groups (n=10): Hypercholesterolemic diabetic group (HC-D), and hypercholesterolemic-diabetic group supplemented with 1% of Po aqueous extract (HC-DPo) during 28 days. Assessed parameters were blood glucose, insulinemia, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), liver and plasma lipids, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes in plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and tissues.

Results: A significant increase in final body weight was found between both groups. In HC-DPo vs HC-D group, glycemic parameters were improved by decreasing glucose, HbA1C levels, and by enhancing insulinemia. Low plasma values of  total cholesterol (TC) (-42%), triacylglycerols (TG) (-63%), very low and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, LDL-C) (-66% and -80%), and increase of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (-26%), leading to decreased atherogenic indices TC/HDL-C (-57%) and LDL-C/HDL-C (-85%) were noted in rats treated by Po compared to untreated group. In the liver, heart and aorta, lipid peroxidation was lowered, and inversely, antioxidant enzymes activities were increased after treatment with Po.

Conclusion: On the basis of these finding, it can be concluded that the Po aqueous extract is an interesting natural product to prevent hypercholesterolemia in diabetic rats. Protocols in hypercholesterolemia diabetic patients are needed to verify and validate these results.