Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of a Syrup Based on Balanites aegyptiaca L. Delile

Ouédraogo Salfo, Traoré Sidiki, Yoda Jules, Traoré Aristide, Traoré Tata Kadiatou, Lompo Marius, Kini Felix, Ouédraogo Sylvin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42857

Introduction: The kernel powder of the fruit of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del is mixed with sorghum flour for the treatment of intestinal worms in Burkina Faso. Previous preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the medicine.

Objective: The objective of this study is to execute galenic formulations based on extracts of the kernel of the fruit of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) with good pharmaceutical quality.

Methods: The quality control was carried out for the freeze-dried extracts of kernels  and the syrups were prepared thereon. Thin layer chromatography has been used to characterize the chemical constituents. Syrups were prepared from lyophilized aqueous extracts.  Fifteen (15) test formulationswere prepared and the quality control of these samples helped to sort out only one best among them.

Results and Discussion: The results show that the syrups had a good appearance without sedimentation, it was easy to disperse and, it showed absence of Salmonella and coliforms. Stability studies showed that after two years’ of storage, the syrups kept the same colors, taste and were free of mold. The chemical composition of the syrup was similar during the studied storage time. Assessments of bacterial contamination of syrups showed an absence of Salmonella and coliforms. After two years of storage they have maintained a good microbiological quality.

Conclusion: This study made it possible to ensure good quality of the syrups prepared. Parameters studied can be used routinely as elements of evaluation and quality control.

Open Access Original Research Article

QTc Prolongation and Arrhythmia Development in the Treatment of ICU Delirium: An Investigation of Medication-Related Risk Factors

Anli Francis, Daniel S. Eiferman, J. Michael Boyd, Gary Phillips, Claire V. Murphy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42942

Aims: Antipsychotics are commonly used for ICU delirium, although there is limited data describing the risk of QTc prolongation with these therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for QTc prolongation associated with antipsychotic agents for ICU delirium.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study of patients with ICU delirium who received an antipsychotic agent.

Place and Duration of Study: The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Surgical and Medical ICUs, between January 1st, 2012 and January 1st, 2015.

Methodology: QTc prolongation was defined as QTc >500 ms or >20% increase from baseline. The primary outcome was the prevalence of QTc prolongation.  Secondary outcomes included risk factors for QTc prolongation, prevalence of Torsades de Pointes (TdP) or ventricular arrhythmias, ICU length of stay, length of delirium treatment, and all-cause ICU mortality. 

Results: Two hundred and nine patients were included, with 27 (13%) patients developing QTc prolongation. In univariate analysis, patients with QTc prolongation had higher baseline QTc (median 453 vs. 442.5 ms) and increased use of concomitant antiarrhythmic (22.2 vs 8.2%) and antidepressant (11.1 vs 5.5%) agents.  In multivariable logistic regression, medium [AOR 0.2; 95% CI 0.06-0.74; P=.02] and high [AOR 0.10; 95% CI 0.01-0.80; P=.03] antipsychotic agent dose intensity were associated with decreased risk of QTc prolongation.  Three patients in the no QTc prolongation group developed a ventricular arrhythmia, but no episodes of TdP were observed in either group.

Conclusions: The rate of QTc prolongation in patients receiving antipsychotics for ICU delirium was relatively low and may not correlate with arrhythmia risk.  While no clinically relevant risk factors were identified to predict risk of QTc prolongation in this population, the low rate of QTc prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias indicate that further research is needed to determine if frequent ECG monitoring is truly indicated in this population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Routine Replacement or Clinically Indicated Replacement of Peripheral Intravenous Catheters

Sarah Amouei Foumani, Ezzat Paryad, Atefeh Ghanbari Khanghah, Ehsan Kazemnezhad Leili

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/38767

Introduction: Intravenous catheter replacement time is still one of the challenges before care systems. Replacement of the catheter after 72 hours is now implemented in many treatment centers.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the complications of peripheral intravenous catheters 72 and 96 hours after indwelling.

Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 123 patients with the inclusion criteria and the subjects were chosen by block randomization. The catheter insertion site was assessed by the nurses of the surgery ward using Infusion Nurses Society scales on assessment of leaking, infiltration and phlebitis, and assessing the signs of obstruction. If the signs of complication were not observed, the catheters were assessed up to 72 hours in the control group and up to 96 hours in the intervention group. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as the Chi-square, Mann Whitney, Fisher’s exact test, Kruskal Wallis and logistic regression.

Results: There was no significant difference in the complications (phlebitis, infiltration, leakage and obstruction) of the two groups of catheter for 72 hours and up to 96 hours. But comparing the complications in the two groups of control and intervention before and after 72 hours showed significant statistical differences (phlebitis p=0.0001, infiltration and leakage p=0.014, obstruction p=0.002). These complications were less in catheters in the intervention group during 72-96 hours.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the catheters can keep in the site to 96 hours if they do not have complications after 72 hours. It seems that by assessing intravenous lines using standard scales for assessing the catheter insertion site, unnecessary catheter changes can be prevented. Therefore, patients experience less pain and nurses' time and equipment will be saved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiology of Speech/Voice Production

Imen Daly, Zied Hajaiej, Ali Gharsallah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42403

Aims: This study looks at the pathological disorders analysis from speech signals. She presents the effectiveness of the few parameters of the glottal source and these moments of closure for the diagnosis of the Parkinson’s disease.

Study Design: This analysis is performed around the Czech database that contains many recordings were divided between PD and healthy control (HC). More than 68 subjects are used where each speaker pronounce the sustained vowel [a] in normal intonation.

Methodology: Several researchers are trying to produce objective measures to diagnose Parkinson's disease or to act as an objective tool to assist in its decision-making by measuring some vocal parameters. In this study, we studied the hyper nasality of PD and HC using acoustic analyzes.

Results: The results presented in this study indicate that speech related symptoms of PD are evident in the glottal flow signal. Particularly notable results were recorded for the glottal parameters, with the correlations found between the measurements and the deviations of the speech during the pronunciation of the vowel. These results can be used as  positive indicators for the diagnosis of the disease

Conclusion: This study presents a glottal source analysis with its different parameters in the frequency domain and the detection of the closure time by using two algorithms. This study suggests that these findings will be useful as objective indices that can either diagnose Parkinson's disease or act as an objective decision support tool.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Evaluation and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Organisms Isolated from Frozen Chicken Products Sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Catheirine N. Stanley, Victoria O. Arueyingho

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41616

Frozen chicken products contribute a large proportion of the protein needs of the average Nigerian family. Although chicken products are safe when frozen continuously and properly stored, they are easily prone to microbial contamination. However, the majority of the frozen chicken products sold in open markets are smuggled into the country in very unhygienic circumstances that make them susceptible to microbial contamination thus compromising their quality. This study, therefore, evaluated the microbiological quality of frozen chicken parts sold in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. The objective was to isolate the microorganism(s) if any, present in the frozen chicken samples, characterize and identify them and then determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates. A total of two hundred chicken samples were collected from different pppmarkets and evaluated for microbial contamination using standard microbiological methods. A total of eleven isolates were obtained as follows: Escherichia coli (27.82%), Salmonella sp (13.64%), Shigella sp (4.88%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.52%), Staphylococcus species (2.92%), Bacillus subtilis (17.83%), Enterobacter species (4.15%), Micrococcus sp (1.61%), Klebsiella sp (1.84%), Proteus sp (3.07%) and Citrobacter species (3.65%). The microbial load which ranged from 1.4 - 2.4 x 102CFU/g exceeded the acceptable limit for poultry products which falls within the range of 101 - 102 CFU/g. HaveAntibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates were also determined using four antibiotics namely amoxicillin/clavulanate (20 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), ciprofloxacin (5 µg) and erythromycin (5 µg). Some of the isolates were resistant to these antibiotics. The unacceptable level of contamination seen in the frozen chicken parts and the non-susceptibility of many of the isolates to the commonly available antibiotics pose serious hazards to the health of the consuming public. The regulatory authorities and all agencies of government charged with safeguarding the public health need to live up to their responsibilities. Strict controls with respect to adequate and appropriate storage conditions, good sanitary practices and awareness programs should be implemented to encourage the provision of safe poultry products and  minimize the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms.