Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Atherogenic Indices in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Maryam Jameshorani, Alireza Arefzadeh, Pooyan Khalighinejad, Sadegh Ranjbar, Saeideh Mazloomzadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41490

Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication in pregnancy. Triglyceride (TG) to high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio is an indicator of insulin resistance.

Methods: Controversial findings of recent studies suggest that ethnicity and other possible factors may affect risk of developing GDM. In this study, 130 pregnant women of 18 to 35 years old were recruited. Demographic data as well as gestational age at the time of the test and blood glucose levels before and after oral glucose tolerance test were obtained from all subjects. TG/HDL-C ratios were significantly higher in women with GDM compared to controls.

Results: The difference of mean levels of non-HDL-c and total-cholesterol was not statistically significant between cases and controls. The optimal cut off point for TG/HDL-C and GDM was 2.66 with sensitivity and specificity of 86.2% and 52.3%, respectively with positive and negative predictive values of 64.4% and 79.1%, respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that GDM can affect lipid profiles and lipoprotein metabolisms, of which, a contentious finding was lower LDL-c in women with GDM. The optimal cutoff point for predicting GDM was remarkably different from the values presented in earlier studies. It is suggested that a high TG/HDL ratio is independent of the role of family history.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Hepatoprotective Properties of the Ethanolic Extract of Careya arborea Roxb. Bark in Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Md. Rajibul Islam, Md. Jahir Alam, Md. Abdus Sobhan Khan, Kazi Mohsenatun Nessa Douti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41949

Traditional plants have been utilized to manage hepatotoxicity according to recent trends. Careya arborea (CA) has been used in folk medicine to alleviate several diseases. In the present study, ethanolic extract of Careya arborea bark has been utilized to study its efficacy on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity on model rats.

SD Rats of either sex (150–200 gm) were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals each. Acute hepatotoxicity was induced by paracetamol (600 mg/kg body weight) administered once daily for one week whereas the extract of the investigated plant was given orally throughout the whole experiment at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Silymarin (100 mg/kg body weight) was given orally as a standard hepatoprotective drug. The degree of hepatoprotection was determined by the estimation of biochemical parameters like ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, total protein, albumin and globulin.

The increased serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes were found in the paracetamol treated group, indicating the severity of hepatocellular damage induced by paracetamol. Treatment with CA as well as standard hepatoprotective agent silymarin attenuated the increased levels of these hepatic enzymes. Body weight was improved insignificantly by CA, whereas liver weight was recovered significantly (p<0.05). ALT, AST, ALP as well as bilirubin levels were improved very highly significantly (p<0.001) by CA at 500 mg/kg dose. Also, the total protein and albumin levels were increased significantly at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The STD drug silymarin produced very highly significant (p<0.001) effect at 100mg/kg dose.

Changes in the biochemical parameters suggested that the ethanolic extract of Careya arborea bark has shown the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Octanol-water Partition Coefficients Determination and QSPR Study of Some 3-hydroxy Pyridine-4-one Derivatives

R. Sabet, A. Fassihi, L. Saghaie

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41142

The partition coefficients (Kpart, in octanol/water system) of a range of bidentate ligands containing the 3-hydroxy pyridine-4-one moiety were determined using shake flask. These derivatives were subjected to quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) analysis. A collection of chemometrics methods, including partial least squares combined with the genetic algorithm as variable selection method (GA-PLS), factor analysis-based multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) and principal component regression (PCR) were employed to make connections between structural parameters and logp o/w. The results revealed the significant role of constitutional parameters in the partition coefficient of the studied compounds. The most significant QSAR model, obtained by GA-PLS, could explain and predict 96% and 91% of variances in the logp o/w data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Major Adverse Effects Associated with Tacrolimus (Fk506) Based Regimen among Saudi Kidney Transplant Patients

Ahmed S. Ali, Marzog S. Al-Nasser, Mai A. Abdul Sattar, Huda M. Alkreathy, Mohammed N. Al-Amma, Rayan A. Alsulaimani, Ezz H. Abdulfattah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41611

Tacrolimus (Fk506)- based immunosuppressant regimen has become the cornerstone in managing kidney transplant patients (KTP) , where it has been used typically used on chronic basis. However, various adverse effects on multiple organ systems are expected and their incidence is depending on many variables including genetic and non-genetic factors. The present study aims to explore  the adverse effects associated with the chronic use of Tacrolimus - based immunosuppressant regimen in Saudi kidney transplant patients (SKTP). It was performed retrospectively at Kidney Transplant Center AFHSR in Khamis Mushait (Saudi Arabia) and comprised 100 SKTP treated with Tacrolimus who were followed-up for 24 months (2012-2014).

The findings showed that the most common clinical complications associated with Tacrolimus -based regimen were as follows: nephrotoxicity (46%), hypertension (27%), new onset diabetes mellitus (18%), infections (22%) hyperlipidemia (28%) and hypomagnesaemia (85%).  In addition nausea and insomnia were shown to be other common complaints .

Conclusion:  The present study demonstrated a significant association between hypertension and chronic kidney rejection. as well as between nephrotoxicity and chronic rejection   High trough levels of Tacrolimus  were documented as a risk factor for the development  of new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in SKTP. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of the Quality and Interchangeability of Some Brands of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine Tablets Marketed in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

M. Bagbi Baribefe, E. Omotoso Abayomi, I. Ukanireh Mkpongke

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/40186

The research work was carried out to ascertain the quality and suitability for substitution in clinical practice of some brands of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine phosphate (40 mg/320 mg) tablets marketed in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Ten different brands (A to J) of the drug were used. The tablets were subjected to various Official and non-Official test as specified by the Pharmacopoeias.  All the brands under review passed the test of physical assessment, the weight uniformity test and friability test. Brands A, B, C, F and G passed the hardness test while samples D, E, H, I and J failed the test. The disintegration time for all the brands were within the acceptable limit with the innovator brand (C) showing the shortest disintegration time of 0.75 minutes, while brand I, had the highest disintegration time of 7 minute. Samples B and D were pharmaceutically bioequivalent to the sample C (innovator brand) for Dihydroartemisinin. While samples B, H, and J were pharmaceutically bioequivalent to innovator product (sample C) for Piperaquine phosphate. Therefore, this study implies that only sample B is both pharmaceutically and therapeutically equivalent to the innovator brand, and thus they can be used interchangeably in clinical settings.