Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Characterization of a Liposomal Formulation Based on Glucosamine and Vitamin D, Commercialized as a Nutritional Supplement

German Madrigal Redondo, Rolando Vargas Zuñiga, Marianela Chavarría Rojas, Santiago Sibaja Rodríguez, Sindy Chaves Noguera

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39746

In the last years, the transport and release mechanism of bioactive compounds has been studied. The liposomes are multivesicular systems that enhance the absorption, stability, and transport of these compounds. The glucosamine is an amino-monosaccharide, it has been associated with many biological activities, but its bioavailability and oral stability are very low. For this reason, the glucosamine formulation in liposomal systems is a good alternative.

In this paper, the physicochemical characterization of a liposomal formulation based on glucosamine and vitamin D was realized, this formulation is commercialized as a diet supplement. The determination of pH, degrees Brix, refraction index and specific gravity was realized to characterize the formulation. On the other hand, the structure, size (diameter) and membrane thickness of the liposomes were measured by microscopic observation.

From the formulation analysis, it is possible to affirm that the liposomes are multivesicular structures. Also, the external membrane thickness is higher than the membrane thickness of the encapsulated liposomes, indicating the liposomes could be multilamellar structures. The multilamellar and multivesicular structures are related to a high stability, resulting in a beneficial aspect of the formulation. Additionally, the dimension and structure conformation are related with an efficient encapsulation process of the active components, which are glucosamine and vitamin D.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modulation of Nitrosamine-Induced Liver Injury in Rats by Propolis Extract: Long-term Study

Jehan A. Khan, Tahani M. Alghamdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41420

This study investigated the prophylactic effect of propolis extract against nitrosamine-induced liver injury in experimental animals. Eighty male adult rats were grouped into 8; control, treated with propolis extract, 3 groups treated with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 mg nitrosamine/kg b.w and 3 groups treated with nitrosamine plus 2.5 mg/kg propolis extract for 12 weeks. Data obtained showed that, propolis extract exert prophylactic activity against nitrosamine-induced hepatotoxicity. Administration of nitrosamine lead to, liver function tests, oxidative stress markers and inflammatory markers were significantly increased. Propolis extract administration resulted in normalizing of the elevated liver functions. The propolis extract lowered the oxidative stress and the inflammatory markers compared with untreated group. In addition, histological investigation of livers revealed that propolis extract reduced lymph infiltration, hepatic congestion and inflammation in nitrosamine-injected rats. It was deduced that, the propolis extract exert hepatoprotective effect against liver damage induced by nitrosamine and it possess anti-inflammatory action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Contractile Activity of Methanol Extracts of Acanthus montanus on Albino Rat Uterus

F. E. Okieimen, O. J. Owolabi, O. Iyekowa, M. E. Jonathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/38641

Aim: To determine the chemical and uterine contratile activity of extract of A. montanus using the Ugo basile organ bath model 4050.

Study Design: Five female Wistar non-pregnant rats weighing between 160-200 g were brought into oestrus by injecting 0.2 mg/kg of stilbesterol in ethanol intra-peritoneneally for 24 hours. The rats were sacrificed under chloroform anaeshesia. The uterine horns were identified and the two horns of the uterus cut out and transferred to a petri-dish containing physiological salt solution (PSS). 1.0-1.5 cm length was mounted in a 10 ml organ bath containing De-Jalon solution with the following chemical compositions NaCl, 154mM/L NaHCO3, 5.95 mM/L, D-Glucose, 2.78 mM/L KCl, 5.40 mM/L,CaCl2.2H2O, 5.44 mM/L. The tissue was aerated with air via an aerator and the temperature maintained at 37ºC with a pH of 7.4. The spontaneous contractions of the uterus were recorded by means of force displacement transducer connected to an amplifier and a multi-channel recorder and allowed to equilibrate for 30 minutes with periodic changing of the bath fluid every ten minutes under a resting tension of 750 mg.

The effect of the extract on the concentration response curves for oxytocin and acetylcholine was determined. Hence responses to different doses of oxytocin and acetylcholine alone and in the presence of the extract were also obtained. The effects of two positive controls (Salbutamol and atropine) were also determined.

The experiment was repeated five times and the mean and standard deviation of the results were calculated.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry and Pharmacology, University of Benin, Benin City, between March 2016 to July 2017.

Methodology: A total of 980 g of the plant material was extracted with a soxhlet apparatus using 1.5 L of methanol (BDH, England) as solvent. The extract was concentrated in vacuo at 50ºC.  The extract was stored in a refrigerator at 4ºC until needed for the experiment.

Female non-pregnant Wistar rats were pre-treated intra-peritoneally with 0.2 mg/kg of diethylstilbestrol 24 h prior to the actual experiment [1]. The rats were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia. The abdomen was opened and the two horns of the uterus carefully isolated, freed of mesenteric fat and a 1 cm piece was mounted in a 10 mL organ bath containing De-Jalon physiological salt solution. The tissue was bubbled with air using an aerator and temperature was maintained at 37ºC, with a pH of 7.4. The spontaneous contraction of the uterus was recorded with 7003-B transducer connected to an Ugo Basile Data capsule device. The transducer was previously calibrated to establish a relationship between the force applied to the transducer and the gauge deflection (500 mg). The tissue was allowed to equilibrate for 30 minutes before the start of the experiment and placed under tension of 500 mg.

Results: From the phytochemical screening result, terpenoids was observed in larger amount than other phytochemicals. The presences of these bioactive constituents have been reported to have physiological effect in man [2].   

The results also showed that various concentrations of oxytocin and acetylcholine produced a significant contraction of the rat uterus. Administration of the extract produced a significant (P = .05) dose-dependent reduction in oxytocin and acetylcholine induced contractions by the extract at concentration tested (Figs. 1-2). From the graphical plot, the percentage response to log dose of  Acanthus montanus extracts supplemented with oxytocin exhibited anti-contractile effect of the uterus of rats at 30%: -2.699, 40%: -2.398 and 45%: -2.097 (Fig. 1), while for Acetylcholine induced contraction, the effect of anti contractile activity was observed at 25%: -0.699, 40%: -0.398, 45%:-0.097 and 45%: 0.301 (Fig. 2). This study revealed that extract at both doses produced significant inhibition of oxytocin and acetylcholine induced contractions of the uterine smooth muscle in non-pregnant rats.

Conclusion: The methanol extract of Acanthus montanus was found to possess anti-contractile activity on the uterine smooth muscles in non-pregnant rats, which corroborates the use of the plant extract in the treatment of spontaneous abortion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analyzing the Impact of Empowerment Model-based Education on Self-efficacy and Self-esteem of Patients with Diabetes

Nahid Dehghan, Shadi Abdollah Zargar, Simin Esmaeilpour Zanjani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/40187

Aims: Traditional education fails to effectively treat patients with chronic diseases.  Therefore, educating patients through a more comprehensive approach is required to encourage patients to actively participate in the management of the chronic disease. Empowering the patient is considered as a program for self-care and a change in behavior while caring the diabetics. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are the most important components of empowerment. The rise in self-efficacy and self-esteem has been effective in diabetes care improvement. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of empowerment-based education on self-efficacy and self-esteem in diabetic patients referred to diabetes clinic.

Methodology: This is an interventional study of a randomized clinical trial control type. In this study, 90 diabetic patients were randomly selected and divided into two case and control groups according to the random numbers table. Data collection was carried out by demographic information questionnaire and self-efficacy questionnaire (20 questions) and Cooper Smith's self-esteem questionnaire (35 questions) with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of respectively 94.3% and 93% before training for both Case and Control groups. Then, for the case group, training was performed based on the empowerment model and the control group received the only common care in the diabetes clinic. Six weeks after the intervention, self-efficacy and self-esteem were measured again by Cooper Smith's adult self-esteem questionnaire and diabetes' self-efficacy. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Chi-square, and T-plus statistic tests.

Results: The two groups were matched in terms of demographic characteristics and mean scores of self-esteem and self-efficacy before intervention, and there was no significant difference between them, but after intervention, the findings showed that the mean score of patients' self-esteem in the case group has been 83.24 before training the empowerment model and it increased to 111.69 (P = 0.000) after implementing empowerment training. Also, the mean score of self-efficacy of patients in the case group before the empowerment model was 100.49, which increased to 139.49 after training (P = 0.000). The findings showed a significant difference between the mean self-esteem (P = 0.000) and self-efficacy (P = 0.000) of patients in the case group before and after the training. However, there was no significant difference in the control group before and after training, so educating patients about empowerment model could increase self-esteem and self-efficacy in diabetic patients.

Conclusion: Empowerment model-based education has increased self-esteem and self-efficacy in diabetic patients. According to the findings of this research, it seems that empowerment is feasible for patients with diabetes and it is associated with improvement of self-efficacy and self-esteem in patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Prone Position on Gastric Residuals in Preterm Infants

Golnaz Forough Ameri, Somayeh Rostami, Hamideh Baniasadi, Batoul Pour Aboli, Fereshteh Ghorbani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/40433

Background: Gastric residual is a common problem in preterm infants. Position after feeding affects the gastric residuals in preterm infants. This study aims to determine the effect of changing the infant's position on gastric residuals.

Method: This study was conducted a cross-over study in a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Gavage of the neonates was conducted in two stages. The first stage was conducted with a volume feeding of 50 cc per kg every day of milk and the second stage was done with a volume feeding of 100 cc per kg every day. After feeding, infants were placed in the desired position (prone) for 180 minutes and the gastric residuals were measured and recorded. Half of the neonates considered as control group. Data were analyzed by independent-samples paired t-test, Mc Namara’s test, and Fisher and Pearson test.

Results: This study's findings indicated that residuals in preterm infants after 180 min in the prone position was less than residuals in infants after 180 min in the control group – this result is the same for both volume 50 cc/kg/day and 100 cc/kg/day (P=0.0001).

Conclusion: Considering there's less gastric residual in a prone position, placement of infants after feeding and then changing the position according to the behavior cues of them is recommended. These results could help health care professionals to provide efficient feeding, as well as perform the appropriate positioning of preterm infants.