Open Access Original Research Article

Possible Gastroprotective Mechanisms of Dacryodes edulis Extract in Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulceration in Male Wistar Rats

E. Nwaonukuru, O. O. Olaniyi, F. S. Oluwole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/36166

African bush Pear known as is a well-known plant in West Africa, the fruits are edible while the bark, leaves, stem and roots are employed for a variety of purposes. It has been previously reported to possess high antioxidant properties and has also been used in folkloric medicine to treat ulcer among other ailments. This study therefore investigated the possible anti ulcer mechanisms of action of methanolic leaf extract of Dacryodes edulis (ME) in male Wistar rats.

Fifty (50) adult male Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 200g were randomly divided into two experimental groups. Twenty five (25) animals were further sub-divided into 5 groups (n=5). The first subgroup was used for the antiulcer study using indomethacin induced ulceration model. The second experimental group was used to examine the mechanisms of action of ME i.e gastric mucus secretion, antioxidant enzymes and prostaglandins secretion. Each subgroup was divided into; Control, Omeprazole (positive control) and three doses of (ME) D. edulis (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) pre-treated for twenty-eight days orally.

D. edulis (200 mg/kg) conferred a significant reduction in the mean ulcer score (P=0.05), producing 64.75% ulcer inhibition. Compared with the control, the catalase activity was significantly increased in the 200 mg/kg group of D. edulis and in the Omeprazole group, while SOD levels were significantly increased across all test groups and in Omeprazole group. There was significant reduction MDA level of all the pre treated groups when compared with the control. There was dose dependent increase across all the groups pre-treated with D. edulis when these were compared with the control.

In conclusion, the anti-ulcer effect of Dacryodes edulis is likely mediated via the production of antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, SOD), reduction in lipid peroxidation (MDA concentration), and increase endogenous prostaglandins (PGE2).

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Hypoglycemic Property of Globimetula braunii (Loranthaceae) Leaf Extracts

Gideon O. Okpanachi, Avosuahi R. Oyi, Hassan Musa, A. Abdulsamad, Muhammad B. Sani, Jamilu Ya’u

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39870

Aims: To carry out phytochemical screening, acute toxicity test and to investigate the hypoglycemic potential of the ethanol extract and fractions of Globimetula braunii leaves.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development and Animal House, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. August 2016 to April 2017.

Methodology: The leaf powder (2.1 kg) was extracted with 7.0 L of ethanol using the infusion method. The extract obtained was further fractionated each with 2.7 L petroleum ether 60/80, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to obtain PEF, EAF and NBF fractions respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract and TLC profiling of the different fractions were carried out. Acute toxicity testing via the oral route of administration was conducted on Laboratory mice. The hypoglycemic property of the extract and fractions on Alloxan induced hyperglycemic adult Wistar rats was investigated.

Results: The percentage yield of the ethanol extract was 10.22 % w/w. The PEF, EAF, NBF and AQF fractions yielded 3.8%, 6.59%, 14.21% and 48.36% w/w respectively. The phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract showed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, phenols/tannins and triterpenoids. These were redistributed among the fractions of the extract. The extract was practically non-toxic when administered orally (LD50>5000). Treatment with 250 and 500 mg/kg of ethanol extract produced a significant effect (P<.001) at 1 h, 2 h and 4 h post administration via oral route when compared with 500 mg/kg metformin. The ethanol extract, petroleum ether and n-butanol fractions (500 mg/kg) showed significant blood glucose reduction effect (P<.001) after 1 h, 2 h and 4 h treatment.

Conclusion: A Pharmacological study of the extract and fractions of G. braunii leaves have significantly proven the safety and significant blood glucose reduction effect. The hypoglycemic property may be linked to their phytoconstituents especially the flavonoids, phenols and triterpenoids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Simvastatin, Hydrochlorothiazide and Combined Treatment on Bone Formation and Lipid Profile of Corticosteroid-Induced Osteoporosis in Albino Rats

Taha A. Kumosani, Mai A. Alim A. Sattar Ahmad, Mohamad Qari, Hanan Ali Amin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/40943

Statins and thiazides which are widely prescribed for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and hypertension play an important role in bone metabolism and may have potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.  Moreover, concomitant use of statins and thiazides may offer additive effects on bone metabolism and might be of value in attenuation of dyslipidemia that may be induced by the use of thiazides. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of statins, thiazides and combined treatment of both drugs on bone metabolism and lipid profile in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in albino rats. Five groups of rats were used; 15 rats each. The first group received no medication and served as normal control. Osteoporosis was induced in the other four groups by daily oral administration of prednisone for thirty days. Then,    osteoporotic groups were randomized into four groups; one received no medication and served as control osteoporotic group for other osteoporotic groups.  The third, fourth and fifth groups received daily treatment of either hydrochlorothiazide (HCT, 10 mg/kg/ day), simvastatin (SIM, 10mg/kg/day)or combined SIM-HCT orally for 90 days. Then, the effects of the test drugs on bone metabolism were evaluated biochemically (estimating serum alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium and parathyroid hormone level, and by histopathological examination of the tibia. Moreover, serum lipid profile was investigated and compared between all test groups. Also, the vascular reactivity of the isolated rats' aortic rings was studied. The results obtained revealed significant treatment - dependent effect of all test drugs on serum calcium level which was further confirmed histologically by significant (p<0.05) increase in cortical and trabecular bone thickness. Moreover, a significant decrease in LDL and TG was only obtained with the combined group while SIM group only produced the significant increase in HDL However, HCT group showed a significant increase in LDL and TG and cholesterol. Furthermore, all tested groups exhibited improvement in the lowering effect of endothelium-dependent relaxations induced by osteoporotic group compared to normal control group with the insignificant difference between combined and normal groups P>0.05). In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrated that combined statins and thiazides may offer additional beneficial effects in corticosteroid-induced osteoporotic rats by additive mechanisms on bone metabolism, reduction of thiazide-induced dyslipidemia and by further improvement in the vascular reactivity of the aorta.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Toxicological Evaluation of Atorvastatin and Riboflavin in Diethylnitrosamine Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Kaleemuddin Mohammed, Saida Sadath, Tariq Jamal, Syed Shoeb Razvi, Abdulaziz Al-Orabi, Ali H. Aseeri, Fahad A. Al-Abbasi, Firoz Anwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39652

Background: Atorvastatin, a commonly prescribed drug for the management of hyperlipidemia, acts as competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase—a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. On the other hand, riboflavin is also a well-studied micronutrient known for its anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and antioxidant properties. However, the synergistic or antagonistic effect of both drugs when administered together is not studied yet.

Method: This study was an attempt to evaluate the toxicity/efficacy of atorvastatin (30 mg/kg) in combination with riboflavin in hepatocarcinogenic rats when challenged by a single diethylnitrosamine DENA (160 mg/kg; I.P). Serum ALT, AST, creatine kinase, urea, uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin, albumin, LDL, FT3, FT4, calcium, phosphorus, and triglyceride levels were estimated. Histopathology was also performed to study the alterations in the cellular architecture of cardiac and hepatic cells.

Results: Result revealed that DENA significantly plummeted (P < 0.001) most of the parameters when compared with normal control. Atorvastatin+Riboflavin group significantly managed to restore the altered parameters like LDH, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. Nonetheless, this drug combination also caused mild hepatic damage by increasing the ALT, AST, total bilirubin and creatine kinase. The histopathology revealed that liver sample of DENA+ATS+B2 group exhibited severe necrosis with substantial fat depositions and binucleated cells, whereas the heart sample revealed partial detachment of cells with increased intracellular gaps.

Conclusion: It is suggested from current results that this combination therapy was not only unsupportive to hepatocellular carcinoma treatment but damaging to the hepatic and cardiac cells.

Open Access Review Article

The Neglected Anticancer Phytoceutical Treasures from the Nilgiris Biosphere: A Short Review

M. V. N. L. Chaitanya, P. Suresh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/40529

Background: Cancer is the second most dreadful disease of the globe and nearly 100 different types of cancer have been identified. The main problem with the cancer is its resistance and many existed synthetic molecules are becoming clinically insignificant on exposure to cancer cell over a long time.

Scope: This makes the scientists to look over major alternative sources like plants and algae to discover new phytoceuticals against cancer. However many new anticancer phytochemicals have been discovered from the Nilgiris Biosphere, not even a single phytochemical found to be clinically significant or the potent research has been stopped at preclinical level itself.

Conclusion: Hence this review is focused on the important neglected phytochemicals that have been discovered from the Nilgiris biosphere and the research had been stopped at preclinical level. Hence a proper step has to be taken by the researchers to rejuvenate this left phytoceuticals to be a clinically significant anticancer phytoceutical and have to reach over all globe at an economical cost.