Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Anti-urease Activity of Various Solvent Extracts of “Terminalia arjuna” Seeds

Naila Aslam, Mahmood Ahmad, Kashif Barkat, Muhammad Khawar Abbas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38794

Background: Terminalia arjuna, a popular cardio curative plant. Present work emphasizes on the evaluation of antioxidant and anti-urease activity of different fractions extracts of Terminalia arjuna seeds.

Methods: Six alternate fractions including methanol, ethanol, n- butanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and distilled water were separately used for extraction of Arjun seeds. Antioxidant activity was evaluated through free radical scavenging (DPPH) assay method, using 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) as a standard free radical. Anti- urease activity was also assessed through anti-urease absorbance assay method.

Results: Methanol and ethanol extracts showed highly significant results (88±1.52 and 87±0.057 % inhibition respectively) than other fractions extracts but less significant than the standard ascorbic acid (93.73 ±1.12). All various fractions extracts of Arjun seed exhibited anti-urease activity up to some extent, but ethyl acetate extract exhibited highest results than other extracts as 70.4±0.15% inhibition of urease followed by n-butanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extract respectively.

Conclusion: Present work is a sort of novel work as these activities of Arjun seed have not been reported till now. Evidence of the current study have provided a new way to utilize anti-urease and antioxidant potential of Arjun seeds for therapeutic purpose in current of various diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Resveratrol on Liver Histopathology of Lead-induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

Salisu Muhammad Highab, Musa Aliyu, Bala Yauri Muhammad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/23253

Aims: To investigate the effect of resveratrol on liver histopathology of lead-induced toxicity in wistar rats.

Study Design: Experimental Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of  Pharmacology and  Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (11° 10' N, 07° 38' E), at the elevation of 650 m above sea level, located in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria and August- September, 2014.

Methodology: The study employed wistar rats (150 - 250 g) which were administered carboxymethylcellulose 10 g/l (control), lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg), lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg) and succimer (10 mg/kg BW); lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg) and resveratrol (200 mg/kg); lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg) and resveratrol (400 mg/kg); and resveratrol alone (400 mg/kg) then administered lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg) daily for 2 weeks and considered as prophylactic group. All treatments were through the oral route for different days. After the animals were euthanized, liver was removed from the rats and fixed in 10% formalin for at least 48 h. Livers were then processed routinely, and the tissues were embedded in paraffin wax. Histological sections was cut at 5 – 6 µm and stained with routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). A detailed microscopic examination was carried out by a consultant histopathologist. Photomicrograph of the liver was taken at magnification (x 250).

Results: In the liver, necrotic cell (hepatocyte), vacuolated hepatocyte, fatty changes and hydropic degeneration were observed in positive control group. In addition, there was an interrupted liver parenchyma with evidence of hyperemia in the liver sinusoids, complete congested central vein.

Conclusion: We concluded that lead poisoning in wistar rats causes toxicopathological changes in the liver of the wistar rats. Furthermore, the use of resveratrol as a protective agent can reduce the toxic effect of lead poisoning and improve the histopathological lesions observed in wistar rats at doses tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Proliferation and Wound Healing Effects of Narcissus tazetta L. Bulb on Primary Human Dermal Fibroblasts

Maryam Rameshk, Fariba Sharififar, Mitra Mehrabani, Abbas Pardakhty, Alireza Farsinejad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/39090

Aims: Narcissus tazetta L. bulbs have been used in Traditional Persian medicine (TPM), as "Zaroor" for wound healing. Toward quality assurance of the plant, pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, physicochemical characterization, and healing effects of "Zaroor" were studied.

Study Design: Original Research Article.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in herbal and traditional medicines research center at Faculty of Pharmacy and stem cell research center at Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences of Kerman, Iran from March 2016 to September 2017.

Methodology: Total flavonoid content (TFC) of the plant was measured and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling was planned for qualitative assessment of the plant with reference to rutin as the marker compound. Antioxidant activity was studied using DPPH and FRAP assay. Proliferation and wound healing effect of the plant was evaluated on the primary human dermal fibroblast by neutral red and scratch assay.

Results: The pharmacognostic studies and physicochemical characteristics indicated characters, which are of diagnostic value for plant standardization and quality control. HPTLC chromatogram of the plant extract confirmed the presence of rutin in comparison to Rf value of the standard. Maximum inhibition of DPPH radical and IC50 value was estimated at 10000 µg/ml (99.89%) and 2379.82±37.59 µg/ml respectively. In FRAP test, the antioxidant value was estimated 0.29±0.02 mM/mg SO4Fe. Plant extract exhibited no significant effects on cell proliferation in HDF cells after 48 hr treatment using neutral red assay. The greatest reduction in gap width was considered after 48 hr at 1.562- 6.25 µg/ml. This activity was significantly different from untreated cells as a control (p<0.01).

Conclusion: N. tazetta would be effective for wound healing through different mechanisms such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect, which needs to be studied in more details.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates in Kermanshah City with Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)

Parviz Mohajeri, Touraj Esmailzadeh, Sara Torkaman, Abbas Farahani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/39168

Background and Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) in the last decade has been identified as one of the opportunistic pathogens and an important cause of nosocomial infections. Molecular typing plays an important role in studying the epidemiology of Acinetobacter. The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic pattern which was performed by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates from patients in various hospitals in the city of Kermanshah, the city which is located in the west of Iran.

Materials and Methods: 33 isolates of A. baumannii were collected from clinical samples in four general hospitals of Kermanshah. Isolates were identified by biochemical tests and API 20NE kit. The antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The clonal connection was estimated by PFGE  and DNA patterns were analyzed by Gel compare II 6.5 software.

Results: All isolates showed high-level of resistance, but resistance which was observed against Colistin and Minocycline was low, while no resistance to Polymyxin B and Tigecycline was observed. The PFGE analysis revealed the existence of 10 different genetic patterns among the 33 strains including: I (n = 12), II (n = 2), III (n = 4), IV (n = 3), V (n = 3), VI (n = 4), VII (n = 2). Clone I was the dominant clone. In terms of antibiotic resistance, no significant difference was observed among the different genetic patterns.

Conclusion: Isolates were obtained from a large variety of patterns genetically. This study could represent the wide range of isolates of A. baumannii that were gathered from different parts of the hospital. Diverse sources of infection may, therefore, appear to control these infections, according to various sources, which are not simple.

Open Access Review Article

Application of Molecular Techniques in Quality Control of Drugs of Natural Origin; A Review

Juwairiya Butt, Shumaila Arshad, Zulfiqar Ali Mir, Sophia Awais, Javed Iqbal, Saeed-Ul-Hassan .

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38523

Pharmacognosy is a long established pharmaceutical science, which played a diverse role in the discovery, characterization, production and standardization of drugs. Molecular pharmacognosy using molecular biological tools has extended the scope of pharmacognostical science and plays an important role in the safe and efficient usage of crude drugs. So, these crude drugs are required to be authenticated. DNA Molecular profiling is an additional tool for quality control of herbal drugs as DNA is more basic component of living organisms, whereas chemical and phenotypic expression is controlled by arrangement and expression of genes in the DNA”. This novel approach has several significant advantages over morphological and chemical methods. It is possible to use DNA based identification methods to identify species and different constituents of an herbal medicines and transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics based methods for the functional analysis of key genes involved in synthesis of desired medicinal materials. It serves as a complementary tool to standardization of drugs.