Open Access Study Protocol

Molecular Characterization Using gtf Gene Detection and Medium Optimization of Beta-D-Glucan Production from Pediococcus parvulus F1030 Isolated from Local Egyptian Boza

Khalid Abd El Ghany, Ragaa A. Hamouda, Hoda A. Mahrous, Sherin M. A. Sharaf, Hanafy A. Hamza

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/39079

Background: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have great benefits which can improve the nutritional value of food, reduces some infections, immune modulator effect, curbs some types of cancer and restricts glucose level of serum.

Aims: This study was carried out to detect glycosyltransferase gene (gtf) encoding glucosyltransferase enzyme responsible for beta-D-glucan production in  Pediococcus parvulus F1030 which is isolated by authors from local Egyptian Boza (local alcoholic beverage), and enhancing its production by medium optimization.

Materials and Methods: Molecular identification and DNA sequencing were performed by using specific primers and the medium optimization was enhanced using Plackett-Burman Design.

Results: The isolate detected as Pediococcus parvulus by the molecular identification with using 16S rDNA and submitted in GenBank as Pediococcus parvulus F1030 with accession number ky942131 by the authors. The study revealed the presence of 97% identity with similar to Pediococcus parvulus accession number ky425809. The gtf gene was detected in the isolate by 16S rRNA gene using specific primers. The medium optimization showed enhancement of beta-D-glucan production. The medium number 2 yielded 11 g l-1 from it by using concentration 1.5 g l-1 from sucrose, 0.5 g l-1  from CaCl2, 0.75 g l-1  from tween80, 3 g l-1  from KHPO4 and 1.5 g l-1  from glutamic acid.

Conclusion: Molecular characterization of isolated Pediococcus parvulus showed 97% identity with a similar organism in NCBI site, the detection of gtf gene carried out by using PCR technique with specific primers and beta-d-glucan production was enhanced with medium optimization using Plackett-Burman Design.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening and Production of Peptidase Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Soil

Shahpara Rehman, Rimsha Khan, Syed Bilal Hussain, Syed Aun Muhammad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37048

Aims: Proteases are the most deliberate microbial enzyme at mercantile, industrial, health professional, analytic, symptomatic, outgoing interruption and other sectors.

Methodology: About 8 isolates were recovered from different soil samples gathered from various fields of Abdul Hakeem District Khanewal of Pakistan. Bacterial identification was performed by Gram’s staining, endospore staining and hang drop motility test. Samples after serial dilution plated on gelatin agar plates which have composition, Nutrient agar 7.5 gram, gelatin 21 gram, NaCl 0.15 gram, Agar,1.5 gram and 300 ml of distilled water. On these plates zone of inhibition appeared after incubation of 48 hours. The enzyme was extracted by ammonium sulphate precipitation technique. Protease enzyme was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Enzyme producing activity of bacterial isolate was studied by using spectrophotometer at 280 nm.

Results: Among these, three isolates (SA1, SA2, SA3) showed good proteolysis activity, two isolates display moderate activity (SA7, SA8) while the rest were inactive. The plates with clear zone of inhibition were selected for quantitative tests of protease and colonies of bacteria were shifted onto new substrate media plates by wire loop for further testing. Protease assay was performed on enzyme solution at pH 8. The spectral peaks were observed in the region of 1000-3500 cm-1 are 3227.03, 1636.55, 1445.50 and 1061.13 cm-1. The C-H group appeared in the region 3227.03 cm-1.

Conclusion: These proteases producing Bacillus species has positive impact in biotechnology and can be conveniently considered for further industrial applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigations into Antibacterial, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn.) Stem Bark Extracts

Oluwaseun Oyetunji Olasunkanmi, David Ayinde Akinpelu, Paul Opeyemi Adeniyi, Oludare Femi Ajayi, Joseph Omololu-Aso, Felix Oluwasola Olorunmola

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38749

This study investigated the antibacterial potentials and mechanisms of action of crude extract and fractions from stem bark of Vitellaria paradoxa on susceptible bacterial isolates. It also assessed the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of the plant. This was with a view to tackling problem of multidrug resistance development by microorganisms.

The stem bark of V. paradoxa was harvested from Ijagbo, Kwara State, Nigeria, in the month of April, 2016. The plant sample was oven dried at 40°C using hot-air oven and ground into fine powder. The powdered sample was cold extracted using methanol and sterile distilled water in ratio 3:2 (v/v). The mixture obtained was concentrated in vacuo using a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized. The crude extract collected was screened for antimicrobial, phytochemical and antioxidant properties. The crude extract was later partitioned into fractions using different organic solvents in the order of their polarity. The antimicrobial potentials of the various solvent fractions were determined using agar-well diffusion method. The active fractions were further partially purified by combination of thin layer and column chromatography. The rate of killing, protein, nucleotide and potassium ions leakages of the active fractions were determined using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as representatives of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria respectively. The most active partially purified fraction was analysed using GC-MS.

Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, reducing sugar and cardiac glycosides. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the crude extract ranged between 0.545 mg/mL and 2.187 mg/mL while those of aqueous, butanol and ethylacetate fractions ranged between 0.31 mg/mL and 5.00 mg/mL, 0.31 mg/mL and 2.50 mg/mL and 0.31 mg/mL and 2.50 mg/mL respectively. The time kill assay showed that the percentage of the cells killed increased with increasing concentrations of the fractions, as well as, contact time intervals. Leakages of protein, potassium ions and nucleotides followed the same trend observed for killing rate. Vitellaria paradoxa extract exhibited 50% inhibition of DPPH free radicals at 0.008777 mg/mL, whereas ascorbic acid used as standard had IC50 of 0.078777 mg/mL. The major active constituent of the purified sample was identified as 14-methylhexadecanoic acid.

The study concluded that V. paradoxa stem bark extract possessed antioxidant properties and exhibited appreciable antimicrobial activities against the test pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ciprofloxacin Antibiotics Removal from Effluent Using Heat-acid Activated Red Mud

Davoud Balarak, Ali Joghataei, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Edris Bazrafshan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38974

In this study, the adsorption of Ciprofloxacin (CIP) antibiotics from a synthetic solution containing CIP is investigated using Red Mud (RM) and Red Mud that is activated by HCL (ARM). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques are used to morphological characteristics of Red Mud and activated Red Mud. The optimum conditions for both absorbents obtained with the highest adsorption include contact time=90 min and adsorbent dosage= 4 g/L. The highest adsorption of CIP was 25.44 mg/g for Red Mud and for activated Red Mud was 41.5 mg/g. The negative value of the standard enthalpy change indicates that the adsorption is physical in nature involving weak forces of attraction and is also exothermic, thereby demonstrating that the process is stable energetically. The results of this study show that the activated Red Mud is a relatively effective adsorbent for the adsorption of cerium from aqueous solution.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Tablet Scoring: Background, History and Current Regulatory Considerations

Maitri R. Trivedi, Hardikkumar H. Patel, Rutesh H. Dave

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/39027

Tablet splitting or breaking of tablets into multiple strengths has been a common practice across the world. Splitting of tablet offers various advantages such as dose flexibility and ease of swallowing in different population including geriatric and pediatric patients (wide patient acceptance) and cost saving on medications (economic advantage) The tablet products that are meant to be split and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will have a scored line indicating the split location to ensure patient can adjust the dose by splitting and such splitting information will be included in the patient package insert. Having a consistent scored reduces difficulty in dose related problems especially when using products made by different manufacturers such as Generic compared to Reference Listed Drugs (RLD). Physical characteristics such as shape, size and tablet score may affect tablet splitability. Currently, various regulatory bodies (FDA, USP, and EP) provide consistent and useful information to the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, authors have compiled information from currently available resources on tablet scoring.